Why Muslim should not eat the meat prepared* by the People of Book (POB)? *

March 5, 2018


Image result for still pic of beautiful bull from Pakistan

*(Word “prepared” has been used instead of “slaughtered” to avoid any misunderstanding which might be created)

Sounds Strange? Yes, it does, until one reads it all before making up his mind.

First of all, let us understand what is“Halal” and what is “Dabiha”?

Halal:- is a generic term for permissible animals/things, which may be slaughtered/consumed by Muslims.

Dabiha:- on the other hand, is the meat of a permissible (halal) animal slaughtered by meeting 4 conditions, namely:- Severance (by a sharp object) of Jugular veins, Cutting of Esophagus, while invoking the name (chanting-takbeer) of Allah (SWT) and then letting the blood be drained.

Now, according to the (Q, 5:5) “Today, all the good things of life have been made lawful to you. And the food of those who have been vouchsafed revelation aforetime is lawful to you, 14  and your food is lawful to them. And [lawful to you are], in wedlock, women from among those who believe [in this divine writ], and, in wedlock, women from among those who have been vouchsafed revelation before your time – provided that you give them their dowers, taking them in honest wedlock, not in fornication, nor as secret love-companions. 15  But as for him who rejects belief [in God] – in vain will be all his works: for in the life to come he shall be among the lost. 16 

Here I would like to draw attention to a very subtle hint. Muslims, in this verse, have been allowed to marry the chaste women* of the People of Book (POB) by paying them dower.(ensuring the legitimate relationship) On the other hand, POB has not been allowed to marry Muslim women, regardless. Food of each other, on the contrary, however, has been allowed to be consumed (Unconditionally). It is an excellent display of Divine wisdom; by granting a concession at this juncture; because the women who have been made lawful for Muslims (despite being Chaste) grew up on the food; which might not have been prepared as per Islamic rules; and the same would most likely be offered to Muslim-Husbands, refusing to eat whereof would sound offensive and insulting. (Muslim may take their women but refuse to eat their food!). {Explanations # 14 & 15 by Asad, in his translation of 5:5, alluding to this subtlety}

*(Can one, in the given circumstances, find a chaste woman easily amongst the POB? Hence, one ought to see the overall-condition of POB also in the same-vein; necessitating the application of conditional clauses 1 &2, mentioned below)

Here is, however, what has been categorically ordained before/after the concession allowed by Allah (SWT) in (Q, 5:3 & 6:118)

The conditional clause # 1 of “إِلَّا مَا ذَكَّيْتُمْ (unless you have properly slaughtered)” should be closely observed as it is used in the Qura’an as a distinguishing factor for the permissibility of meat. Linguistically Dhakah means to complete or perfect something.

Legality operates until proved Otherwise.

A ruling deduced from (Q,10:30) has been specified by Al Jassas in his “Ahkam Al Qura’an” that all edibles are permissible and Halal(lawful) unless the unlawfulness or prohibition of something particular stands proved through an evidence of shria’a. (Consider the current religious practices of the people of the book in the light of clause #1 &2).  A pertinent Hadith reported by Sahih Muslim, on the authority of Abu Hurairah, where Prophet (PBUH) said “By the one in whose hands rests my life, any Jew or Christian (POB) who hears my call and still does not believe in the teachings I have brought, then he/she will be of the people of Hell (Jahannam)” (the language employed in this Hadith expresses the continuity of its application until the end of the time).

Accentuation of the point of eating properly slaughtered meat.

Eat of that (meat) over which the name of Allah (SWT) has been pronounced—The conditional clause #2 (while slaughtering that animal/bird) if you are believers in His revelations (6:118)

And why should you not eat of that (meat) on which Allah’s Name has not been pronounced (at the time of slaughter), while He has explained to you in detail what is forbidden to you, except under extreme necessity? And, surely many do lead (mankind) astray by their own desires through lack of knowledge. Certainly, your Lord knows best the Transgressor (6:119)

Eat not (O believers) of that meat on which Allah’s Name has not been pronounced (at the time of slaughtering) for sure it is disobedience of Allah (a sinful conduct). And certainly, the Shayaatin (devils) do inspire their friends (from mankind) to dispute with you, and if you obey them [making al-Maytatah legal to eat (Maytatah – a dead animal or animal/bird slaughtered without taking the name of Allah during slaughter)], then you would indeed be a polytheists (i.e. doing shirk, ascribing partners to Allah) (6:121)

And such animals (cattle) upon which they mention not the Name of Allah (during slaughter) only to fabricate a lie against Him (6:138)

So eat of the lawful (Dabiha) and good food (Pure wholesome, Halal cattle slaughtered according to Islamic method) which Allah has provided for you. And be grateful for the Graces of Allah, if it is He Whom you worship (16:114)

And say not concerning that which your tongue says falsely: “This is Halal and this is Haram,” so as to invent lies against Allah. Verily, those who invent lies against Allah will never prosper…A passing brief enjoyment (will be theirs), but they will have a painful torment (16:116-117)

For every nation, We have appointed religious ceremonies so that they may mention the Name of Allah (SWT) upon the animals that He has given them for food (22:34)

So mention the Name of Allah (SWT) upon them (sheep, goat, cows, oxen, camels etc) as they line up (for sacrifice) (22:36)

Relevant Ahadith

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah (R.A) reports that the Prophet (PBUH) said, “A time will come upon the people wherein a man will not bother what he intakes; whether from a Halal source or Haram.”  (Bukhari 2059)

The Prophet (PBUH) said, “Avoid whatever you have doubts about in favor of what is not (doubtful).” (Tirmidhi)


Hanbalite, Shafai’ite, Malikite and Hanafite school, all adhere to the above position.



One should not pick and choose a verse to present his/her own (favorite) point of view. Instead, a collective outcome, of all the verses on the topic, should be the one guiding and binding. (Q, 2: 85 & 4: 150)


Opposite Points of views

Despite all the above quotes and the position emphasized upon in this treatise several Imams, such as Imam Ibn Katheer (RA) writes in famous commentary, “Ibn Abbas and Abu Umaamah and Mujaahid and Sa‘eed ibn Jubair and ‘Ikrimah and ‘Ataa’ and al-Hasan and Makhool and al-Suddi and Muqaatil ibn Hayyaan said that it (the food of the people of the book) means “what they slaughter”; in fact this is a matter on which there is agreement among the scholars that is what they [the People of the Book] slaughter is lawful for the Muslims because they believe that it is unlawful to slaughter to other than Allah and they mention nothing other than the name of Allah over what they slaughter even though they believe things about Him, exalted is He, that he transcends.”


The Validity of opposing views


These Imams; based on their ijtihad (juridical-contemplative-deduction); uphold the injunctions given in (Q, 5:5) as self-contained/ freestanding. In Islamic parlance; where a difference of opinion like this ensues; neither of the points of views is considered invalid or wrong.


(H) “Difference of opinion of Muhammad (PBUH)’s companions is a mercy for Allah’s slaves” Every difference of opinion, in juridical (Fiqhi) issues, is based on a sincerely deduced unique perspective hence become a basis/source of mercy.


 The Basis of a difference of opinion


A difference of opinion among the Imams normally stems from the state/understanding of the Evidence such as-(text or hadith);

Un-availability, abrogation, considered weak, forgetfulness of it, the unreliability of its narrator, misconstruing its meaning or thinking that the one in hand is stronger than the new one.


Here is how one may decide which “way” to follow:-


Those who know of the evidence should follow it (Qura’anic text or hadith Sahih) even if it goes against some of the Imams (but not against the consensus–Ijma’a–of the ummah). Shaykh Uthaymeen (R.A)


Those who are not well versed in such a knowledge should resort to a reputed scholar, for Allah (SWT) says:- “So ask those who know the scripture, if you know not”(Q,16:43)

 (I seek refuge in Allah (SWT) for my shortcomings. May Allah (SWT) guide us all on the right path).




Scientific Elaboration of Surah At-Tin (Fig) 95, verse 4

February 3, 2018

“We have indeed created man in the best of the moulds”

Image result for pic of microtubules

Sometimes back, I came across a scientific research about the evidence of God through the existence of design in molecular cell’s formation and functioning. The link to which is available below. This research mainly deals with the human development and functioning based on molecular activities. This research explains the above verse with amazing comprehensiveness.

“It is widely known that the DNA is a sophisticated information storage device; encoding complex specified information to make proteins, and directing many highly complex processes in the cell. What is less known, is that there are several other code systems as well, namely the histone*1 binding code, transcription factor binding code, the splicing code, and the RNA secondary structure code. And there is yet another astonishing code system, called the tubuline*2 code, which is being unraveled in recent scientific research. It is known so far that amongst other things, it directs and signals Kinesin*3 and Myosin*4 motor proteins precisely where and when to disengage from nanomolecular*5 superhighways and deliver their cargo. 

 Here is the link to the site to read through.

Molecular biology of the cell



“We have indeed created man in the best of the moulds.”

The term “taqweem” means to form something into an appropriate shape and in a moderate regulation. The capaciousness of the meaning refers to the fact that Allah has created malt proportionately in all respects; from physical point of view; spiritual and rational point of view, because He has settled all faculties in him and prepared him appropriately to cover a great path towards a perfect development. Although man is a ‘microcosm’, He has set the ‘macrocosm’ in him and has promoted him to such a high position that it is said: “We have honored the sons of Adam…” (17:70)

This assertion has been aptly explained in another research paper which is as follows.

Dr. Francis Collins, director of the Human Genome Project (that mapped the human DNA structure) said that one can “think of DNA as an instructional script, a software program, sitting in the nucleus of the cell.”5

Perry Marshall, an information specialist, comments on the implications of this.

“There has never existed a computer program that wasn’t designed…[whether it is] a code, or a program, or a message given through a language, there is always an intelligent mind behind it.”6

Just as former atheist Dr. Antony Flew questioned, it is legitimate to ask oneself regarding this three billion letter code instructing the cell…who wrote this script? Who placed this working code, inside the cell?

It’s like walking along the beach and you see in the sand, “Mike loves Michelle.” You know the waves rolling up on the beach didn’t form that–a person wrote that. It is a precise message. It is clear communication. In the same way, the ing in our cells?

The reason why man is given such a coveted status and endowed with unparallel qualities is because the whole universe revolves around him. He is endowed with characteristics which are like that of the God Himself, such as knowledge, power, Hearing, sight, speaking, compassion and Wisdom. This has been elucidated in Surah Al Qiyamah,# 75, V-2 saying “Lo! We Created man from a drop of thickened fluid; so we made him hearing, and understanding” means endowed him with intellect and consciousness for the test. (The word “Taqweem” signifies setting something on the best of the foundations). Word “amshaj” (thickened fluid) in this verse expresses the combination of human cardinal humors/fluids, blood, phlegm, choler and melancholy, constituents of human semen (sperm).

Human beings rank higher than the Angels. A quote from my article “Mysteries of Creation” published on 02/04/2008. “There is very distinct and subtle difference between Human and Angels. The former bear the mysterious knowledge of the Creator and His Essence, along with the tendency to transgress. Whereas Angels have, only the knowledge of the entire spectrum of the creation with absolute servitude without any free will or desires” It is aptly summarized in Surah Bani-Israel 17, V-70 “And we bestowed dignity to the children of Adam (R.A)” “Dignity” in this verse implies the widest range of attributes and characteristics. Speech (with requisite eloquence for praising his lord) is one such attribute which distinguishes man from the rest of the creations. If a man knows God for thousands of years but does not confess would be virtually an infidel. (Not undertaking the pronouncement of the Article of faith). God has bidden all believers to give thanks and praise Him, rehearse His bounties, supplicate; He would answer the supplicants.

Yet another reason, which signifies man’s special position in the Universe, is his makeup:

Man is made of 10 constituents, 5 of which belongs to the Realm of the Divine-Ordinance (Aalame-Amar) and other 5 belongs to the Realm of Divine-Creation (Aalame Khalq).

These are Heart, Soul, Mystery, Secret, Secret of Secret—-&—–Dust, Water, Air, Fire and Self (Nafs).  This special formation of man endows him with the capacity to absorb the light of Divine Guidance; hence worthy of being vice regent of his Creator to whom angels were asked to prostrate in gratitude to their Lord, who created such a marvelous being.

It can be elaborated further by quoting parts of sufic interpretation of this verse.

“Mankind is the substance and the revolving (spheres are) his incidental (qualities).9

 “O you (man) (in regard to whom) reason, deliberations, and understanding (are) your slaves, why do you sell yourself (so) cheaply as this?1
“(Since) service toward you is an indispensable duty for all existence, how should a substance seek help from an incidental quality?” “You are the ocean of knowledge hidden in a dewdrop; you are the world hidden in a body three cubits long”

  1. “We have honored [the sons of Adam]’: Qur’an 17:70. Here, the One God speaks in the “royal plural” tense– a verse interpreted by the Sufis to mean honored above all creation, including the angels, who did not know the “names” [the Names of God, according to the Sufic interpretation], which Adam knew, but the angels did not (Qur’an 2: 31-33). 
  2. “Primary aim [`araz](beseeching)… incidental (qualities) [gharaz](need): Nicholson translated, “Man is the substance, and the celestial sphere is his accident.” He explained the “celestial sphere” means “the world” [Footnote]. These two terms, which rhyme, refer to the philosophical difference between the essential substance of something and its “accidental” or external aspects which happen to manifest. Here, it means that the saintly man or woman is the primary end of creation,
  3. and the planets, stars, and the rest of the creation are secondary aspects”. 
  4.  “Why do you sell yourself (so) cheaply as this: Nicholson referred to another verse of the

Mathnawi (which he translated), “Man has sold himself cheaply: he was satin, he has sewn himself on (become attached) to a tattered cloak.” (III: 1001) And he explained that “a tattered cloak means “the body and the carnal nature.”.

At another place in Qura’an, in Surah Abas (Frowning) 80, V 16, 19 God questions man “Of what material have you been made, A drop of semen?” It is reminder of his humble beginning; then He declares how he destined him with attributes, faculties, and limbs and then made his way easy from that stage till his death. It is said that during the pregnancy a child is pre-destined of 4 things, sustenance, age, life style (sinful or pious) and his state of leading a happy or sad life. (H) The word “Qaddarahu” means everything granted to him was well calculated, measured, balanced and made to suit the purpose of his existence. A child is conceived and developed under three layers of darkness:  the belly, the womb and amniotic membrane.(whole process of conception revealed has been verified by medical science). 

 One of the wonders of man’s birth is that a few moments before the time of nativity the child is so located in the mother’s womb that usually its head is right side up, its face is to the mother’s back and its feet are toward the down side of the womb; but when the time of birth comes, the child turns upside down so that its head is downwards, and this very position makes the birth (process) easier for both the child and its mother. There are, of course, exceptions where some children are born under various complications therefore, their mothers encounter many difficulties.

 After studying the research presented and the above passages there should remain no doubt in any rational being’s mind about the God’s existence, His omnipotence, and Human-being being the most high in the chain of creation; which He has described as His vice-regent on the earth. (For, Man is not what eats, drinks, and suffers decays but a Divine mystery, of which body is the vesture, situated in the interfusion of natural humors and in the union of body and spirit). 

*Definitions of scientific terms used in this piece.   

Histones:–are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.

Tubulinin molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily.

kinesinis a protein belonging to a class of motor proteins found in eukaryotic cells.

myosin. (mī’ə-sĭn) A protein found in muscle tissue as a thick filament made up of an aggregate of similar proteins.

nanomolecular(not comparable) Describing any nanoscale process that involves the manipulation of individual molecules.



January 17, 2018

Temporal Love

Love (Psycho-sophically speaking–Temporal)

It is twitching of the brain, impulsive vibrations translating into emotive feelings yearning for the satisfaction of lust or instinct. It has beginning and end, it is ephemeral. It may, however, be fractional constituent of the true whole, which we were inculcated with before being descended into temporality. Buried in sub-conscience, it is clamoring to reach its Zenith in perpetuity. True love with fellow human beings is improbable, but an instinctual bonding; which cannot be classed as love. Love could only exist between God and (Creation) human. This love, if true, would require human to lose his “self” or else it would simply be reverence. Temporally speaking, it is delusional attachment entailing unwholesomeness—self centeredness.

Image result for pic of the parts of the brain affected by spiritual experienceLOVE (Theosophically Speaking–Spiritual)

Most of us observe servitude, whereas love is a gift endowed only to far and few between like, Yazid Bastami and Rabia Basri. Even Prophets do not seem to be the recipient of the gift of love, since they are entrusted with the obligations and responsibilities of Prophet-hood. They cannot afford the ecstasy of endowment of love by neglecting their primal obligation towards their people/Ummah. They are however accorded with the highest echelon of spiritual rank, immunity from all evils, and guidance through direct and indirect means.



January 11, 2018


Image result for pic of woman in islam


Women’s position in Divine religions; is not as it is contemporaneously construed; on the basis of western social and cultural practices; rationalized in the hoopla of gender-equality, since it is based on Divine wisdom. It therefore, demands for an extensive contemplation to reach an understanding of the real role of a woman in Islam. It is somewhat supplementary and utilitarian graced with superlative* dignity and respect. (It may sound outlandish/non-apologetics but is the reality).

*(Islam stands out in conferring maximum rights, respect and dignity to women)


A Look at the Primal Divine Mode of creation of man and woman

In support of this, two postulates need to be pondered upon. 1)-The woman was created out of the rib cage of man (Adam-PBUH) who was created by God with His own hands (Created by His own hands here signifies the preeminence of Man) and that; 2) – woman was created for the service/comfort of “The Man”. She was created so, for she was to supplement, as a part and parcel of, man and NOT as his competitor or a distinct equal; which, is obviously counter intuitive, cause for acrimony and antagonism, defeating the very purpose of her creation. Your wives are as a tilth unto you; so approach your tilth when or how ye will; but do some good act for your souls beforehand; and fear Allah. And know that ye are to meet Him (in the Hereafter), and give (these) good tidings to those who believe” (Q, 2:223)

(She has never been endowed with the responsibility of Prophet-hood, leading the prayer, or divorcing but rather asking for it when necessary). 


“O humanity, fear your Lord who created you from one soul, and created from it its mate…”(Q,4:1) Many Scholars and exegetes understood this to mean that Allah Most High first created Adam (PBUH), and then from him, i.e., from his rib cage, our mother Hawwa {Eve-PBUH}


Both Jewish and Christian traditions also maintain that Eve was created from Adam’s rib, although in a literal translation of the Jewish tradition, rib is sometimes referred to as side.


Imam Razi and others mentioned that another interpretation is also possible, meaning; “Who created you from one soul” i.e., “starting from one soul” since “from” in Arabic could indicate the starting point of something [ibtida’ al-ghayab], and then “created from it its mate” i.e., “created from that same species, its mate.” [Mafatih al-Ghayb]


A scholar who pondered about this verse (4:1) states;“It is believed that there is no text, old or new, that deals with the humanity of women from all aspects with such an amazing brevity, eloquence, depth and originality as this divine decree”


Why man has a degree above woman?

We have created everything in pairs so that you may reflect (Q, 51:49) When observed carefully It is noticed that one of the pair is always given/created with an edge over the other to make them befitting the purpose. For example A lioness kills the pray but the lion devours the kill first–for he is the protector and head of the family. A hen, for the most part, sits on the eggs to hatch the chicks whereas cock, for the most part, is busy serenading other hens—to produce more eggs and chicks. This excellence (pre-eminence) of one over the other, as a norm in a couple; is always maintained. .“Because Allah has made one of them to excel the other” (Q, 4:34)

Human beings as the crown of the creation [most innovative, intelligent and beholden to the urges of free-will] may however, alternate this edge or dispense with it altogether, due to circumstantial compulsions; falling victim to botched notion of gender-equality, hence have been told specifically of their assigned places/roles in tandem with Adam and Eve (PBUT). Allah knows well what He has created; which we human cannot fathom, even at the prime of our intelligence. “The nature (framed) of Allah, in which He hath created man. There is no altering (the laws of) Allah’s creation. (Q, 30:30)


Spiritual Equivalence

Quran provides clear cut verdict that a woman in the sight of God is equal to a man as far as her rights and responsibilities entailing retribution are concerned. “Every soul will be (held) in pledge for its deeds” (Q, 74:3)

(Responsibilities/deeds include obedience/fidelity to Husband–Q, 2: 223 & Ahadith quoted in forthcoming paragraphs)


One may accept it as “Divine Wisdom” —OR— exploit it as “Denigration of Women” It, however, does not mean, in any sense, that she is made either worthless or insignificant or should be treated as such. Both, man and woman have been assigned a specific role.


Her personality and contour, by design, is made attractive to man. She has been endowed with femininity coupled with, an intense desire for a mate (man) to fulfill her role as an embodiment of procreation. All these factors result in complete harmony and synchronicity; between a man and a woman; (with the help of Allah, placing love and mercy between them-Q, 30; 21); providing a sound foundation, for an efficacious family unit.


Islam, to compensate for her; apparently—obsequious—but in reality; indispensably supportive role–accords her highly respectable status; with specific instructions to be treated with dignity and respect; even in worst of the situations, such as divorce.


Women not only used to help in wars and other matters but also were consulted by the Prophet (PBUH) in certain matters. Ayesha (Prophet’s wife) and Fatima, (Prophet’s daughter) are among the most revered women; describing and elaborating Prophet’s (PBUH) religious teachings, including those relating to women.


In Quran mother of the Jesus Christ Maryam (Marry) has been mentioned by name and characterized as the “MOST PIOUS, PURIFIED” woman. The wives of the Prophet (PBUH) have been venerated as the mothers of the believers; hence no other man; after the prophet (PBUH), may dare marry them. Daughters in Islam are considered a sign of blessing and mercy of God. Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) used to adore his daughters.


Prophet (PBUH) said that “paradise lies under the feet of the mother”. With these instruction/sayings, it became a religious responsibility, a praiseworthy act, to respect and honor women.


Woman, according to Qura’an is not blamed for Adam’s first mistake (Original sin, in Christianity). Both were jointly held responsible for disobedience, both repented and both were forgiven.                           (Q, 2:36, 7:20-24)


In another verse, Adam alone was specifically held responsible.           (Q, 20:121). {An allusion to his {man’s} preeminence and leadership role}


Accolade lavished, by the prophet (PBUH), on those raising daughters.

“Whosoever has a daughter and does not bury her alive, does not insult her, and does not favor son over daughter. God will enter him into Paradise” {Ibn Hanbal # 1957}


“Whosoever supports two daughters till they mature, he and I (Prophet-PBUH) will come in the Day of Judgment as this” (Prophet joined two fingers together). (Muslim & Tirmidhee)


Tender touch of Islam for women                           (Exceptions granted in religious duties)


A woman is exempted from fasting; during pregnancy; or while nursing a baby, if there is some risk for her or her baby’s well being. She does not have to make up for the missed prayers in above cases. She is not obligated to go to mosque for congregational prayers. Her physiological and psychological changes associated with her natural functions are also taken into account.


The traditions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) relate that Eve was created while Adam was sleeping from his shortest left rib and that, after sometime, she was clothed with flesh.  He (Prophet Muhammad-PBUH) used the story of Eve’s creation from Adam’s rib as a basis for imploring people to be gentle and kind to women.  “O Muslims!  I advise you to be gentle with women, for they are created from a rib, and the most crooked portion of the rib is its upper part.  If you try to straighten it, it will break, and if you leave it, it will remain crooked; so I urge you to take care of the women.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari


Man on the other hand; right through the known history of mankind; has been beholden to the status of; the head of the family, rationality and reasoning

Quiwama—(Maintenance and Protection)

This alludes to the natural physical difference between the sexes which entitles the weaker/feminine sex to the protection (as a norm in a couple) of the stronger/masculine sex. Man’s leadership role in relation to his family does not mean husband’s dictatorship. (Islam quashes any such misunderstanding by clear cut advice issued by the prophet).

“The most perfect believers are the best in conduct and best of you are those who are the best to their wives” {Ibn Hanbal # 7396}

Here is how the scholars and renowned exegetes interpret the position of a woman in Islam.


“According to Qura’an women are created for men. Their existence is based on comfort for men”. “And of His signs is that He created for you from yourselves mates that you may find tranquility in them; and He placed between you affection and mercy Indeed, in that are signs for a people who give thought” (Q, 30:21) &

“He is the one who created you [man] from a single soul, and from him created his wife, so that he may find comfort in her. So when he covered her with himself, she carried a light burden and moved about with it, thereafter, when she grew heavy, they both prayed to their Lord, if you bless us with a perfect child, we shall be among the grateful”     (Q, 7:189)

The Creation of Hawa (Eve)

Adam knew the names of everything. Sometimes he talked to the angels, but they were preoccupied with worshipping Almighty Allah. Therefore Adam, felt lonely. One day he slept and when he awoke he found near his head, a woman gazing at his face with beautiful tender eyes. The angels asked him her name. He replied: “Eve (Hawa).” (Means living things).They asked: “Why did you call her Eve?” Adam said: “Because she was created of me and I am a living being.”

Ibn Abbas and a group of companions of the Prophet (PBUH) narrated that when Iblis (satan) was sent out of Paradise and Adam was accommodated therein, Adam was alone in Paradise and did not have a partner from whom he could get tranquility. He slept for some time and when he woke up, he saw a woman whom Allah had created from his ribs. So he asked her, “Who are you? She replied, “A woman” He asked: “Why have you been created?”She said;”So that you could find tranquility in me” The angels, trying to find out the extent of his knowledge, asked him: “What is her name O Adam?” He replied, “Eve” They asked “Why was she so named?” He replied, “Because she was created from something living” (Based on Q, 2; 33 & Hadith narration).



“Men are in charge of women by [right of] what Allah has given one over the other and what they spend [for maintenance] from their wealth. So righteous women are devoutly obedient, guarding in [the husband’s] absence what Allah would have them guard. But those [wives] from whom you fear arrogance – [first] advise them; [then if they persist], forsake them in bed; and [finally], strike them*3. But if they obey you [once more], seek no means against them. Indeed Allah is ever exalted and grand” (Nisa, 4:34)

*3 (with something like handkerchief or a bunch of shrub not leaving a mark on the skin).

Because Allah has made one of them to excel the other, for they spend (t support them) from their means” (other here is the man) [Al Nisa’ 4:34]




Al-Baydaawi said in his Tafseer (2/184): “Men are the protectors and maintainers of women’ means that they are in charge of them and responsible to take care of them. He gave two reasons for that, one that is inherent in them and one that is acquired subsequently, and said: ‘because Allah has made one of them to excel the other’, because Allah has favored men over women by making men more “Apt” in reasoning and running affairs, and has given them more (physical) strength (and endurance) with regard to work and acts of worship. Hence men are singled out when it comes to Prophet-hood, leadership, guardianship, establishing rituals, giving testimony in legal matters, the obligation to engage in jihad and praying Jumu’ah, and so on, and they are given a greater share of inheritance, and divorce is in the man’s hand. ‘and because they spend (to support them) from their means’ refers to what they spend with regard to marriage, such as the “mahr” (man’s obligatory due committed to the wife) and maintenance, etc.”

{Note:-Firstly, Maintenance here is not limited to monetary or material support, it encompasses every tangible and intangible aspect attached to this relationship. Secondly, In Islam this obligation is not reversible despite the fact that a wife may be a woman of means or a breadwinner of the family—for injunctions are ordained for commonplace situations not exceptions}


Mutuality of rights and obligations

“And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect) to what is reasonable, but men have a degree (of responsibility) over them. And Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise”

[Al-Baqarah 2:228]


Gender-equality in Islam exists insofar as all human beings are equal and that they shall be equally accountable for their good and bad deeds. There is nevertheless a marked divergence when it comes to the roles of the two; which is a schematic, innate and natural; evident from the episodic story of Adam and Eve, described in scriptures and Ahadith. Gender –equality in the western sense of the word is malevolent, contrary to the natural order of things. Its ill effects, unfortunately, are being portrayed as an epitome of women’s emancipation achieved by the western progress and liberalism. Woman has been brainwashed to give up her most coveted position to be exploited willingly as a cheap sex object. Most abused partner in sexual nomadism.


Woman in Ahadith

“If I were to command anyone to prostrate to anyone other than Allah, I would have commanded women to prostrate to their husbands. By the One in whose hand is the soul of Muhammad, no woman can fulfill her duty towards Allah until she fulfils her duty towards her husband. If he asks her (for intimacy) even if she is on her camel saddle, she should not refuse.”

Note:- (Similitude of prostration to husband emphasizes the pre-eminence of man and importance of woman (wife)’s obedience to her husband; providing him comfort, which is the very foundation of a happy and tranquil family)

Narrated by Ibn Maajah, 1853; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Ibn Maajah.


Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said in his Tafseer (1/363):  “The phrase ‘but men have a degree (of responsibility) over them’ means that they are superior in physical nature, attitude, status, obedience to the commands of Allah, spending, taking care of interests, and virtue, in this world and in the Hereafter, as Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): 


“Because, Allah has made one of them to excel the other’ means, because men are superior to women, and men are better (poised) than women. Hence Prophet-hood was given to men only, as is the highest position of authority (i.e., khilaafah or the position of caliph), because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “No people will ever succeed who appoint a woman as their ruler.” Narrated by Al-Bukhaari, from the hadeeth of ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Abi Bakr, from his father. “The same applies to the position of judge etc. ‘and because they spend (to support them) from their means’ means, because of the “mahr”, spending and maintenance that Allah has enjoined upon men with regard to women in His Book and in the Sunnah of His Prophet (PBUH). So men are better (poised) than women in and of themselves, and they have the responsibility to spend on them and maintain them, so it is appropriate that the man should be the protector and maintainer of the woman”


Al-Baghawi said in his Tafseer (2/206):  “because Allah has made one of them to excel the other means, men excel women because they have more powers (apt) of reason and religious commitment and they are in charge of affairs. And it was said that this refers to giving testimony, because Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): ‘And if there are not two men (available), then a man and two women’ [Al-Baqarah 2:282].  And it was said that it refers to jihad, to worship i.e., Jumu’ah and prayers in congregation, or that it refers to the fact that a man may marry four wives, (consent of the wife{ves} is not required) but a woman is not permitted to have more than one husband; or the fact that divorce is in the man’s hand; (though women may also resort to authorities, seeking the divorce from her husband, for legit reason) or with reference to inheritance, or Diyah (blood money), or to Prophet-hood.” 


Material Equivalence

One may appreciate that; where Allah (SWT); on the one hand; has created man with an edge; He on the other; has granted a favored status to woman according her some exceptions, thereby maintaining “material equivalence” in their rights and responsibilities.


Social and Political Rights

There are many recorded historical references that at the beginning of Islam, at the time of the Prophet (PBUH), Muslim men or women chose to join the Prophet’s army to fight against his enemies, and leading wars after his passing. There are also occasions recorded in the history of Islam where men and women, would equally, take bayat (pledge) with the Prophet, voting and choosing him as a political leader”

Such positions, rights and equality among all were the result of the support and the teachings of the Prophet (PBUH). Women could take part in social, political, and military affairs. The result of his teachings was not only promotion of human rights but also encouraging individuals to stand for their own rights.

Fatima, daughter of the Prophet (PBUH), was well learned and highly respected. It is reported that whenever Fatima entered the room, the Prophet would stand up and give his seat to her. Her sacrifices to protect and support human rights were among the most praiseworthy acts.

Property Rights conferred on women

Under the laws of Islam, women have obtained the right to sell and buy property, own business, take legal action, vote, and participate in political affairs. Inheritance law was/is also among the most important rights. According to Islam, a woman inherits half the share of her brother. At the same time a daughter, can chose but has no obligation to support her parents or children, while her brother does. This right undergoes no changes whether she is single or married. She retains her full rights to buy, sell, mortgage or lease any or all her properties. A man, a brother, has the obligation, by the rules of Islam, to support his mother, wife, children, sisters, and the children of his sisters if necessary. If a woman, a mother, a sister did not have the wealth or the desire to support her children it would become the duty of her brother to support them. The Prophet (PBUH) has introduced the rules and the laws for humanity, some honor the rules and some chose not to. Under Islamic law, women also have control not only over their property but also dowry claims. Once she is married, she may demand her dowry from her husband at any time, and in the case of divorce, she would receive her share of the property.


Woman in Politics & Public life

During the Caliphate of Umar Ibn Al Khattab, a woman argued with him in the mosque, proved her point and caused him to declare in the presence of people, “A woman is right and Umar is wrong”

Women role in the early period of Islam had been significantly visible but seems to have been curtailed in the later period*1. Women excelled in the field of war, literature, oratory, public administration, music, theology (Kalam), jurisprudence (Fiqh), Hadith Studies (I’lmul Hadith), mysticism (Tasawwuf), poetry etc. Fatima Binte Abbas and Sikha Sayeeda, the two Islamic scholars, used to come to the mosque regularly to deliver lectures on Islamic theology.  Ayesha (R.A) is recorded to have been chanting Adhan and saying Aqama. History records the name of many female warriors who fought against the enemies in the battle fields. Even Hazrat Ayesha (R.A) took active part in many battles. Umme Atyqah was a brave lady who accompanied the Prophet (PBUH) in seven battles. Wairyh, the sister of Muawia, led a contingent of women in the battle of Yarmuk.

*1 (Most logical reason seems to be the rationalization of the division of labor in the aftermath of increased numerical strength of Muslims).

Woman as a Head of State

There is no verse in the Quran regarding the permission or prohibition of a woman being head of the state/ruler. The Quran is silent on this point but according to one Hadith Prophet (PBUH) rendered woman ineligible (not incapable) for the position of “Head of the State” in these words;”A people will not prosper if they let a woman be their leader”.*2 this limitation has nothing to do with the dignity of the woman, or with her rights. It is rather, related to the natural differences in the biological, physiological and psychological make-up of men and women.

*2–The reporter of this Hadith Abu Bakra; according to some sources, lacks the credibility.


Though majority of Islamic scholars do not support the leadership role of a woman or woman as a head of the state, but there are some eminent scholars who support it.


Apologetes for woman’s position.

Allama Syed Sulaiman Nadavi (R.A), in his book Seerat-i-Ayesha (R.A) recognized the practical considerations in this context:

This is correct that the natural tendencies of the women make her unfit for discharging the duties of Imamate (government or chieftainship) and it is not possible for the fair sex (Woman) to comply with the conditions which Islam has imposed for the governmental role. For this reason, the women are exempted from assumption of the authority of the head of the state. But from this it cannot be concluded that it is not lawful for a woman to ever lead the public politically or to assume the leadership of the army. (Hossain 1987:217).


Mohammad Elius, Lecturer, Department of World Religions, university of Dhaka published in The Arts Faculty Journal, July 2010-June 2011

If we make a thorough examination and critical appreciation of the arguments advanced by both parties, we come to notice that none of these two parties has been able to carry their points. Arguments given in favor of the proposition and arguments given against the proposition are by and large indirect. There is no verse in the Quran which directly either permits the rule of women or prohibits it. The traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), mentioned in this article, against women as the head of the state are believed to be unreliable and unauthentic due to many reasons. As a result, we can say without contradiction that the Quran and Sunnah. Rather the silence of the Quran and the Hadith on this very important and vital issue is not without wisdom and sagacity.

(The author of this opinion is assuming the silence of Ahadith, against women being Head of State, due to their reported weaknesses)

Imam Malik (R.A) is reported to have opined that a woman can become head of the state in all its affairs.

Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A) would have given opinion in favor of their appointment as judges.


A rational, logical and cogent explanation

(It would make sense only, when looked at objectively, with an open mind and without being emotionally charged—especially by the women).


According to Islam, a head of the state is not mere figurehead. He leads people in the prayers and festivities, decision making in times of war and peace, leading in Jihad as commander-in-chief. This demanding position or any other of similar nature is generally inconsistent with the biological, psychological and physiological make-up of a woman. For example during their menstruation, pregnancy, child birth, rearing and weaning of children such demanding positions; which require maximum strength, rationality, composure and emotional stability, may put excessive strain/stress, thereby impairing their decision making capability thereby distracting them form fulfilling their leadership role.

Such a demanding position therefore, is logically and rationally, inconsistent with the natural disposition/make-up of a woman.


 The Last word

Islam is a religion in which a Muslim’s temple is not limited to a building; instead it is the whole wide world; whereas the guidance always descends on his heart; a Muslim’s preacher/trainer is neither a priest nor a liberal teacher, but the intellect (Wisdom) descending on his unblemished heart (Fuwad–enlightened by Allah’s mercy through Qura’an, and the Prophet) by Allah (SWT). It’s a religion of preemption to stem the miscarriage of justice and obligation; and if one’s religion is founded upon mere (thoughtless) imitation, he enjoins blasphemy. In Islam, ignorance is an unforgivable sin; so is one’s evasion of responsibility, towards oneself as well as all the sentient beings.

(May Allah forgive and guide us all on the right path with true understanding)


Scientific rationalism, reason vs. Religious Faith

January 6, 2018

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These are two different fields of knowledge and inquiry. It would be naïve to compare them on any logical basis, for they are not compatible and human logic and reasons, including scientific knowledge; restricted to tangibility, empiricism, and repeatability, cannot transcend into the realm of spirituality.

Such questions are generally raised by those who are staunch believers in material/tangible world only. They fail to even imagine or entertain the idea that; there could exist another realm beyond their area of comprehension; despite the fact that they invariably acknowledge the limitation and fallibility of human knowledge, reason, and logic, including taken for guaranteed scientific knowledge. They also talk about many dimensions of the Universe but exclude the spiritual one due to ingrained anti-faith arrogance and rigidity.

Most often a misunderstanding of the earlier religious figures or even nonreligious figures; who laid some kind of claims in the name of religion; which turned out to be false are being exploited to justify the incorrigibility of reason, logic and scientific knowledge, which in itself is deceit and treachery. There are, on the other hand, numerous claims made by scientist community; being transient and tentative — as per the Pierce Doctrine of “Fallibilism”–turned out to be false, should they not then be used similarly to validate the religion/faith?

The good news, however, is that there is a growing breed of people; who have the capacity and will to traverse both the realms with equal ease and certainty. This approach is the only approach which will augment and extend, the understanding and the ensuing benefits of both the realms, to the human race.

Needless to stress the reality, that the Creator of the science is also the Creator of all the universe (s) dimensions including spiritual one. We cannot go too far by just acknowledging and depending only on one of the dimensions of—materiality, tangibility, empiricism and repeatability. We ought to learn to transcend and traverse both (and all) the realms to better understand and benefit fully.


For further reading:- May GOD be dispensed with?



January 6, 2018


Image result for pictures of nebula

Reality is subjective and perceptive in a spatial-temporal world. It has as many shades as seekers. it entails priori (analytical) and posteriori (synthetic) justification resting on innate ideas. It transforms into a new dimension when experienced through spiritual wisdom–beyond the realm of space-time. It remains available to the one witnessing it from priori and posteriori justification standpoint and also to believer, follower, adherent out of sheer devotion and reverence through posteriori knowledge only. The first one could be Gnostic, saint, Sufi, Mystic and the later one, a follower, devotee, faithful. believer, or a seeker of reality and truth. It is not however yet a destination but a state/stage/rank in the Quest for Ultimate reality!


Is the United States of America better served by immigrant assimilation and the melting pot model or the mosaic approach of multiculturalism?

December 30, 2017



Image result for pic of diverse group of people

Not based on any research but my personal observations, the melting pot model of the USA is on the decline to a great extent. It is mostly being replaced by multiculturalism, as most of the new genre of immigrants have centuries-old religiously followed values and do not like to give them up by assimilating into an alien culture.

Melting pot assimilation model continued when the immigration was mainly from the western or quasi-western countries in which case the assimilation into almost similar culture was but a natural phenomenon. Melting post-assimilation has lost its efficacy and practicality due to the paucity of assimilable immigrants. Fusion results in the heavy and unstable nucleus with a violent burst of energy.

Multiculturalism is a trendy mosaic of the time and would continue as long as, the economic disparity exists between the East and the West.

It is, in my opinion, Multicultural mosaic is more beneficial than the melting post-assimilation model for the West in general and the USA in particular; for it would rearrange the cultural, ethical and social values; weeding out the aggression and indifference to vices out of the western societies, making them more humane and civilized.

The mosaic approach of multiculturalism entails a rearrangement of living constituents in a natural and organic way.

People from S.E Asia, South Asia, South America and even contiguous Mexico do not have an interest or inclination, despite becoming American citizens, to lose their distinct identities. The same goes for Muslims and to a lesser degree for Jews and some other religious groups.

Surprisingly, Indians are the only group of immigrants who show an uncharacteristic of South Asians eagerness to assimilate, even by pretending to act, talk and live like Americans. They would sacrifice their centuries-old traditions, social, cultural and moral values in a heartbeat. They would also give up their Indian Nationality for India does not allow dual Nationality. Seemingly it is the inferiority complex which is causing this weird behavior. Unfortunately, however, despite all this, they miserably fail in their endeavor owing to their ingrained traits and culturally regressive habits.


Islamic State, An Enemy!

December 26, 2017

National Interest, Domineering or Just Hypocrisy?

 Raqqa: Islamic State’s Capital falls to US-backed Syrian forces—BBC News. (20th Sept 2017) Reuter reported it on 17th of Oct, 2017

There was important but least reported news about letting the Syrian local insurgents out of RAQQA. Ex-President of Afghanistan, Hamid Karzai revealed that IS fighters are present in Afghanistan and being supplied ammunition by the Coalition’s unmarked Helicopters. It, however, fell on deaf ears for people were at a loss to connect the two stories.

The US army transfer ISIS terrorists to Nangarhar of Afghanistan

Senior MP: US helicopters transfer tens of ISIS terrorists to Afghanistan


(Ahlul-Bayt News Agency) – A senior Afghan legislator revealed that the US helicopters have transferred a large number of ISIS terrorists to the province of Nangarhar in the Eastern parts of the country.

Last week, the US military helicopters transferred over 50 ISIS fighters to Barabad region of the town of Behsoud in Nangarhar province, Zahir Qadir said. He also disclosed that a container full of military equipment was also delivered to the ISIS terrorists in Nari Obeh region of Nangarhar province.

Syrian authorities have caught US military aircraft secretly transporting ISIS terrorists out of Syria to unknown destinations. 

US military caught transporting ISIS militants out of Syria

According to senior Syrian legislator Ammar al-Assad, the United States is helping ISIS to escape Raqqa, where Russian and Syrian forces are successfully defeating the terrorist organization.

Farsnews.com reports: Assad said that the US is now transferring the ISIL terrorists from Syria, especially Raqqa province, to unknown places.

 Raqqa was turned into rubble due to constant bombing by the Syrian, Russian and coalition forces and almost all of the three hundred thousand residents were forced to move out. The only ones left were well dug in Islamic State fighters.

Although IS presence in Raqqa was beneficial to almost all the parties to the conflict, but their presence by the Coalition forces was needed elsewhere; where the leader of the Western Pack (USA) is facing an uphill task; even after a decade of fighting (using technologically most advanced war toys) and spending over a Trillion Dollars—Afghanistan (known bastion of a ragtag army—TALIBAN and a GRAVEYARD of EMPIRES). Here it shall serve many purposes. Fight Taliban, Destabilize Pakistan; Pose an imminent threat to Iran, a proxy militia to West’s new Darling India–to help prop up the Indian role of a policeman in the area. India has supplied IS with atomic waste to be used in making of dirty bombs.  https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2016/04/02/ugly-face-of-western-darling-india/

Islamic State’s presence was beneficial to Basher Al Assad for decimating any of his opponents labeling them as IS fighters. It was pivotal for the Russian involvement in support of Syria. West’s involvement in the Middle East was also legitimized by the presence of IS. Moreover, it was fighting the Syrian army and Hezbollah fighters, the main targets of the Western forces.

IS fighters as per the agreement reached were transported out of their stronghold Raqqa for three days and nights; on private buses and trucks, for ultimate destination Afghanistan.

Basher Al Assad; an underdog, now the winner, holds 50 % or more of the Syrian land—12 out of 14 Governorates– as compared to 19 % before. He is acquiesced to continue as president of Syria and his removal has been shelved for good. Russia perpetuated her role in the Middle East in particular and the world in general.  President Donald Trump, during his recent trip, concurred with President Putin on a negotiated settlement of Syrian conflict, rather than the Military solution. What a capitulation to the Russian maneuvering!

Unfortunately, however, it is the Syrian civilians who got trampled in this fight of the elephants.

 End Result.

In 2016, from an estimated pre-war population of 22 million, the United Nations (UN) identified 13.5 million Syrians requiring humanitarian assistance, of which more than 6 million are internally displaced within Syria, and around 5 million are refugees outside of Syria. They were forced to abandon their homes and take refuge in neighboring countries, Europe and Turkey.

 More than five hundred thousands innocent civilians got killed.

(American Trade Tower attack (9/11), 3000-innocent killed, was avenged by destroying two un-related countries. 500k innocent killed then, by this very yardstick, would need 166.6 countries to avenge!).


Declare–Rakhine–an Independent Rohingya Muslims State.

September 11, 2017


Rohingyas are living in Myanmar since 8th Century. A most persecuted Muslim minority since 2013 UN.The Rohingya faced Military crackdown in 1978,1991,1992, 2012, 2015 and NOW in 2016–2017. UN officials and HRW have described Myanmar’s persecution of the Rohingya as ethnic cleansing, while there have been warnings of an unfolding genocide.


Accession into Pakistan.

During the Pakistan Movement in the 1940s, Rohingya Muslims in western Burma organized a separatist movement to merge the region into East Pakistan. Before the Independence of Burma in January 1948, Muslim leaders from Arakan addressed themselves to Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, and asked his assistance in incorporating the Mayu region to Pakistan considering their religious affinity and geographical proximity with East Pakistan. The North Arakan Muslim League was founded in Akyab (modern Sittwe) two months later. The proposal never materialized since it was reportedly turned down by Jinnah, saying that he was not in a position to interfere into Burmese matters. After Jinnah’s refusal to accept northern Arakan into the Dominion of Pakistan, some Rohingya elders who supported a Jihad movement founded the Mujahid party in northern Arakan in 1947. The aim of the Mujahid party was to create an autonomous Muslim state in Arakan.

There are 1.3 million in and around Myanmar and about 1.5 million spread in other countries.

Yanghee Lee, the UN special investigator on Myanmar, believes the country wants to expel its entire Rohingya population.

 If UN can declare—East Taimour—& —South Sudan— for Christians, why not –Rakhine— for Rohingya Muslims?

Which Morality—Modern or Virtuous–is Right?

September 1, 2017
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (by Shakir Mumtaz January 2017)

(Morality based on common sense! Can common sense be trusted? Ethical Egoism says that “One person’s common sense may be another person’s naïve platitude” It is also called “revisionist theory” for it declares that “our common sense moral views may be mistaken, therefore, need to be changed”)

Morality predicates every facet of human life. It has always been, fervently, debated by the scholars and thinkers of almost all the societies, as to what constitutes morality, what should be its source and how its parameters should be determined and so on. I have therefore embarked on this interesting but multifarious topic to explore; by consulting various perspectives and sources, and present a cogent picture for the readers; to make up their own mind, after weighing for and against reasons and arguments.

Modern morality (or moral philosophy) has a rich and fascinating history. A great many thinkers have approached the subject from a wide variety of perspectives and have produced theories that both attract and repel the thoughtful people. Almost all the classical theories developed by philosophers of undoubted genius are, however, vulnerable to crippling objections. Hence, one is left wondering what to believe?

Derek Parfit, “Reasons and Persons” 1984 put it very aptly as “Non-religious ethics (Morality) is the youngest and least advanced” Thomas Hobbs, foremost British philosopher of 17th Century tried (unsuccessfully) to provide an alternative to Divine Philosophy*1 by arguing as follow. “Suppose we take away all the props for morality. We assume, first, that there is no God to issue commands and reward virtues; and second, that there are no moral facts built into the nature of things. Moreover, we deny that there is any sort of universal altruism built into human nature—we see people as essentially motivated to pursue their own interests. If we cannot appeal to God, moral facts or natural altruism, is there anything left on which morality might be found? After all this, he suggests an alternate, in the form of “Social contract” and commonly accepted mechanism (Govt.), to enforce the terms of the contract. Then he conjectures an untenable “state of nature”, insinuating absolute chaos, to support his hypothesis. “State of nature”*2 is governed by “the Laws of Nature” and Laws of Nature not only describes “how things are” but also “how things ought to be” as well. Things are always as they “ought to be” solemnly serving their natural purposes (Theory of the law of nature). He replaced God with altruism and moral facts and His command and control by an indispensable Government. Mundane and temporal end-result suggested was— “the gain of the benefits of social living”. This outrageous endeavor could simply be classed as a “Blatant Hobbesian Intellectual Egoism”{Dishonesty/Arrogance). After close scrutiny of this hypothesis, Thomas Hobbs is also found to be guilty of defying “the minimum conception of morality”. (By the way, Islamic theology makes use of “minimum conception” with respect to the performance of basic obligatory rituals, ensuring the salvation of the believers in the hereafter).

It might be of interest for the readers to know, that morality is not an issue as such in most parts; especially in predominantly monotheistic and polytheistic societies, of the world at all. Centuries-old religious ethos shaped their cultural traditions and social practices in consonance and the life goes on smoothly. The issue of morality, for the most part, arises when an equitable and just resolution is sought in the face of conflicting interests. It is generally thought that formulation of morality started from the Greeks. This treatise, therefore, would start from there; foregoing the issue of the actual origin of morality, which according to some sources goes back to Prophet Adam. Greek philosophers such as Pluto, Aristotle and Socrates and some other eminent scholars resorted to reason in formulating the moral laws of their time; while counting on the character to establish the virtuous traits of a man. Questions were framed as “What is the good of man?”, “What traits of character make one a good man?” This was happening 400 years before the time of Jesus Christ. With the spread of Christianity however, a new idea of “Law Giver” and “Obedience to His commands” was introduced. St Augustine, the most influential and prominent thinker of 4th Century, however, “distrusted the reason” and taught that virtuous life rests in the unwavering subordination to the commandments. From here on when the Christian Scholars, philosophers discussed the issue of virtues; it was within the context of “Divine Law”, and theological virtues including “Obedience” occupying the central place. On the contrary, Greeks gave “reason” the center stage. They viewed the “reason” the source of practical wisdom. Virtuous life for them was inseparable from the life of reason.

After renaissance, however, morality took another turn and Philosophers stopped turning to the Greek way of reasoning or Christian way of obedience to “Divine Law” but to its secular equivalent called “Moral Law”. “Divine Fiat” was replaced by “Human reason” and by following its directive would decide which actions are right? The question was changed from “what traits of character make a good person” to “what is the right thing to do?” “Virtue” was replaced by secular ‘rightness of actions” & “obligations” thereby promoting the element of individualism and self-interest (selfishness). Human reason gave rise to the conception of Hubristic “ought” as a standard for most advantageous actions; petrifying the Human-reason with inconsistency; hence similar reasoning was acceptable in one situation, but not in the other. Later moral theories from the seventeenth century onward; such as “Ethical egoism”, “Utilitarianism”, “Social Contract Theory”, all were developed and promoted in the same vein of individualism and self-centeredness.

Utilitarianism, in particular, proved to be the harbinger of Religion divested morality. A theory presented by David Hume (1711-1776) formalized by Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), vehemently advocated by John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) and his son James Mill. After the 18th and 19th century’s series of upheavals, America was a newly developing country and traditional morality was up in the air. Bentham’s conception of Religion divested morality; in conscious opposition to Christianity; especially for those escaping the Church of England’s persecution, proved to be a boon. He argued “Morality is not a matter of pleasing God, nor is it a matter of faithfulness to abstract rules. Morality is nothing more than the attempt to bring about as much happiness as possible in this world” Bentham was also given the assignment of reforming the laws and constitution of England along utilitarian lines. Needless to say that despite huge influence utilitarianism had severe flaws. One of its more developed forms, Act-Utilitarianism, recognized it to be a “radical doctrine” “that implied that many of our moral feelings may be mistaken” Ethical Egoism, as a “revisionist theory”, also asserted the same theme.

An Australian philosopher J.J.C Smart (1961) published a monograph, challenging the common sense (morality) as it cannot be trusted. His assertion challenges us to rethink matters that we have taken for granted. To accentuate the point further, here is the opinion of a Swedish Sociologist Gunner Myrdal which he gave after his classic study—American dilemma in 1944 ”There must be still other countless errors of the same sort that no living man can yet detect, because of the fog within which our type of Western cultures envelops us…”

Bentham and Mill were leading a revolution as radical as Marx and Darwin of 19th Century. To understand the radicalness of their theory an excerpt is quoted as “Gone are all references to God or to abstract moral rules written in the heavens. Morality is no longer to be understood as faithfulness to some divinely given code or to some set of inflexible rules” The concept of individualistic worldly happiness—known as “Hedonism”– was promoted. Mills introduction of the notion “Individual is sovereign” pushed it even further.

Kantian morality although, hovers around religious lines but; he seems to have circumvented God and religion; probably to prove that besides; all- encompassing God’s commands notion; there are rational and logical grounds on which Divine Morality could be asserted with the same potency. Kant however, abjured the serpent-windings of the Utilitarian theory because, he said, the theory is incompatible with human dignity. (God confers “dignity” to human—Qua’an 17:70). His formulation of “hypothetical Imperatives” VS “Categorical Imperatives” exposes the vainness of Modern Morality. It can, therefore, safely be deduced that most of these Religion-Divested Moral theories provide only plausible answers to the difficult questions, but lack the potency and conviction of Divine Morality– providing definitive solutions built in the rigor of observance of its rules and rituals. (All classic theorists, needless to say, hold not only opposing but critical views about Divine Morality).

Recent thinking on morality is ready to take yet another turn. Philosophers are debunking the ”Moral Law” theory as bankrupt and advocating radical idea to go back to virtue based Aristotelian Morality to salvage the subject. This idea was first floated by a British Philosopher G.E.M Anscombe in 1958; suggesting that modern moral philosophy is misguided because it rests on an incoherent notion of “law” without a “Law Giver” She further elaborated that the very concepts of obligation, duty, and rightness, on which the modern philosophers have concentrated their attention, are inextricably linked to this nonsensical idea. Therefore, she argued, we should return to Aristotelian approach, and virtue should once again take the center stage.

Philosophers in this camp share the opinion, that virtue-based morality is 
superior to the other kind of (Religion divested) morality because of the 
following reasons. 

1) Moral Motivation. Virtuous Morality is appealing because it provides a natural and attractive account of moral motivation while the other kind of morality falters on this account. It can be explained in terms of an example quoted, in Journal of philosophy in 1976, where the value of merit of morality was juxtaposed duty. In this case, a patient was visited by some friend; that made patient delighted but: when he found out that the visitor was just doing his duty and did not really come for him, the visit turned cold and bereft of moral value. The desire to do the right thing for the right reason and doing it out of an abstract sense of duty is not the same. 2) Ideals of Impartiality. Virtuous morality can accommodate partialities very well since it recognizes that some virtues are partial and some are not. It also recognizes that love of family and friends is an inescapable feature of the morally good life. Ideals of Impartiality in modern moral philosophy, however, do not add up. John Stewart Mill put the point very succinctly when writing about Utilitarianism that “Utilitarianism requires (the moral Agent) to be as strictly impartial as a benevolent and disinterested spectator”. A mother loves her children and cares for them in a way that she does not care for other children. “She is partial to them through and through”. Same is the case with friends and family members.

3) Divine Morality provides a pleasing practical “fit” between; – a) Impartiality of reason. b) Adherence to set rules for life, serving everyone’s interest. c) Fulfillment of our natural inclination and moral duty to care about others. Making morally behaving a natural dispensation. 4) An Anthropocentric view of Aristotle (and of many philosophers of ancient); which modern philosophers and scientists vehemently refute, has been categorically asserted in Qura’an. This assertion, in the same vein, also refutes the accusation of the human being as “vein-species”. https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2016/03/21/the-anthropocentric-character-of-the-universe-special-status-of-man-and-yet-his-denial-of-god/ Conclusion A trajectory of traits of both the schools of Philosophy has been presented above, making it easy for the readers, to weigh and decide for themselves.

  • 1Divine Philosophy—means virtue/religion based philosophy.
  • 2Always serving their purpose regardless of our favorable or unfavorable understanding of their operations.
  • 3 Moral philosophy and Modern Morality are interchangeably used.

Why Islam, cannot be Liberalized?

September 1, 2017
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Why Islam, cannot be Liberalized?

From the earliest time of Islam; even during the period of the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH); attempts had started being made, by various groups such as Jews, Christians, and Pagans, to change/reshape Islam. God, therefore, guided Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) to guard against t he temptations of such offers. Saying: “They wish that you would soften [in your position], so they would soften [in return, their position toward you], and do not obey every worthless habitual swearer, [And] scorner, going about with malicious gossip – A preventer of good, transgressing and sinful, Cruel, and an illegitimate pretender” (Surah Al Qalam 68, V 9-13) God also guided the prophet (PBUH) saying: “O Prophet, strive against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and be harsh upon them. And their refuge is Hell, and wretched is the destination” (Qura’an 66:98)

“Many of the People of the Scripture (including liberals and reformists) wish they could turn you back to disbelief after you have believed, out of envy on their own account [even] after the truth has become clear to them. So pardon and overlook until Allah delivers His command. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent” (Qura’an 2:109). On the other hand, God took upon Himself to protect the main source of injunctions—The Holy Qura’an— declaring–”Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qura’n and indeed, We will be its guardian” (Qura’an, 15:9). And warned (interpolator, reformists) saying: God revealed the book (Qura’an) with the truth, and those who disagree about the book (its essence or injunctions) are far out in the schism. (Qura’an 2:176) Consequently, every single word, every single consonant, every single vowel has remained intact till this day and will remain so until the end of the world. Currently, there are lots of so-called– reformists, Muslim and Non-Muslim alike, keen to reform Islam to suit their Westaphalic whims and liberal values. They perhaps liken its intended reformation to the reformation movement in Christianity. Such reformers normally are bereft of the knowledge of Islam and even if they have some, it is scanty and facile. They, however, sure have the fervor and zealotry of an extremist— defined by a great American Political theorist–Michael Walzer.

An interesting characteristic of these so-called reformers is that they want to swim along the—propaganda inflicted– liberal-mindset, by distorting Islam to conform to its modern liberal values. In Qura’an, it is stated that when it is said to them (reformers)“Do not cause corruption on the earth,” they say, “We are but (Musleh) reformers”, “Unquestionably, it is they who are the corrupters, but they perceive [it] not” (2:11-12)

This genre of reformist may also be traced in the cross-pollination of Martin Luther King and Rousseau.

God issued an absolute command not to accept the offer of the Jews and Christians (with their corrupted/abrogated ideas–which, by implication, also applies to so-called reformers, liberals, and modernists) in the following words. “Never will the Jews or the Christians be satisfied with you unless you follow their form of religion. Say:–Guidance of Allah is the only guidance. Were you to follow their desires after the knowledge which has reached you, then would you find neither protector nor helper against Allah” (Qura’an, 2:120). Here is yet another verse in Qura’an which forbids Muslims from wavering or taking an impermissible liberty in any field of life.”Those who believe, enter Islam completely, do not tow the lines of the Satan, who is your clear enemy” (Q 2:208) Supplemented by– “Life of this world is attractive (enticing) to nonbelievers; who ridicule those who believe—but—those who fear God(following all commands without deviation, distortion)will be successful (above disbelievers) in the hereafter” (Q 2:212)

After these absolute ordinances, no God fearing, sensible Muslim would dare accept their attenuating ideas. Recent chronology of the efforts to liberalize Islam Since the middle of the 19th century; due to the Protestant theological proliferation; a host of self-styled modernist, reformist, revivalist et al have sprouted in almost all Muslim-majority countries and in the western countries; with some concentration of Muslims. They pretend to have understood “The Real Islam” for the first time; adopting either an extremist or a liberal position, although both are untenable and in contravention of Islamic teachings of moderation. Sometimes they employ alien terms, to sound elitist and convincing, such as “religion is a matter of heart”, emotions or, a borrowed term from William James “religious experience” These pretenders, sometimes go as far as divesting Islam of its ritualistic performances; either absolutely or to a relegated level; consigning them to social exigencies or personal preferences, described as—a personal matter between man and God—-giving this deviation a flavor of Hobbesian individualism.

It is heart-wrenching to know that, Islam is being misconstrued and misrepresented in the West for a very long time, even by a leading publication such as Economist (London). “In persuading the Muslim majority countries to look upon themselves as the Eastern most part of the West, Economist argues, that Islam also implies one to one relationship between believer and the God he believes in, a direct contact without an intermediary and in this relationship, in which a single God speaks directly to the core of a single man, is the basis of individualism. The Protestant ethic is grounded on precisely the same concept” (Economist-Published on May 17-23, 1975 pg 80 Special Survey).

Tertiary guidance system in Islam The very concept of direct guidance (without an intermediary) in Islam is limited only to the first degree of guidance. (It is for every creature regardless of faith or level of comprehension) It is, however, not available, in the case of the second degree; where the intermediation of a prophet and scripture in inevitable, for it is specific to the believers to be imbued with the religious knowledge. Here is a Qura’anic verse which categorically excludes the nonbelievers (including doubters/agnostics) from the guidance of second degree; specific to Islam and a Muslims, for earlier Divine religions stand abrogated. “Whosoever believes in God, He guides his heart” (Q 64:11) also (Q47:11) & (Q 29:69) Third degree is reserved for the chosen ones such as:-“To whom God has blessed, namely, the prophets, the truthful, the martyrs and the righteous” (Q 4:69) further accentuated by “not the way of those who have earned your (God’s) wrath, nor of those who have gone astray” (Q 1:6 ){nonbelievers or apostates} (Note: – In the case of a gradual progress of some from 2nd to 3rd grade, an intermediation of 2nd level may, however, be involved. Very select few, such as the prophets and the men of God, would become entitled to special guidance absolutely directly—Example being the Prophet Muhammad, PBUH). For those, interested in further details on the subject of guidance, here is the link:- https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2016/10/03/psychological-dimension-of-quraan/

In Qura’an an emphasis is placed on the word “Musleh” which the reformers use to disguise their activities by, using colorful phrases—as mentioned above— and the ideas of social amelioration. Allah sternly warned such people by declaring: “And Allah knows the one who makes mischief distinct from him who promotes good” & “Do you think you will be left alone, as it is? God knows what you do (Q 2:220) & (9:16) Diehard reformist; who persist in their reformation agenda; mostly to appease their western impulse of modernity or to emulate western liberal values; while still claiming to their nostrum Islamic Identity, are in fact discreetly challenging the will of God as was done by the people of the old. “Evil is that for which they have sold out their selves: that they should deny what Allah has revealed, so they came out wrath upon wrath” Q 2:90 (Jews held a grudge against God as to why an Arab, (Muhammad-PBUH), instead of a Jew was awarded prophethood—for they wanted God to have acceded to their wish/desire).

This kind of strain of thought is often exhibited in complaints, atheist hurl at God’s retributive system.

Islam, in the Qura’an, Has been specifically designated as a moderate religion. In verse 143 of Surah Baqara, it is said: “We made you a moderate Ummah” (nation/community). Here is the exegetical account of this verse. God has bestowed upon the Islamic Ummah an unparalleled distinction of being moderate, balance, central and just. Exegetists also used a synonym “Mu’tadil” to fully explain the veracity of the word “Wast” (middle, central), which means moderate, temperate just, equal. For, it is of utmost importance for the health and vibrancy of any community/body to maintain its equilibrium and temperateness, else a deterioration or illness would ensue. This concept/doctrine of Moderation has been further elaborated in another verse (Q 57: 25) by pointing towards its objective, saying: “We sent Book and the Balance, so that men might uphold justice & We sent the iron in which there is great strength—it is of many uses for men” Book here signifies the source of guidance and Balance denotes justice, equilibrium, moderation and temperateness in man’s behavior with firmness and strength of the iron. The characteristics of the “TRUTH” & “JUSTICE” are further stressed in the verse (Q 7:181) “ We have created an Ummah (Of Muslims) which guides by the truth and by doing justice with it”(dispenses the justice guided by the truth).

EXCEPTIONALISM OF ISLAM Let us be clear about Islam that; it is distinctive in its relationship to politics and public life. Islam is different from any other Divine or even Major religions. It, therefore, entails profound ramifications for the world, we all live in. We may like it or not. We may accept it or not. Despite extreme Anti-Islam, Anti-Muslim sentiments, it is an enduring reality. The world has to understand it, respect it and live with its EXCEPTIONALISM.

Another fact to be borne in mind is that; Islam’s political dimension is also distinct from the West’s politico-religious experience of Protestant Reformation; followed by Enlightenment, culminated at modern-liberalism. That was in response to the Catholic Church’s Clerical stranglehold over the Christian doctrine and practices. Islamic doctrine and Practices, fortunately, face no such stranglehold, mainly due to its exceptionalism. Islam could not and would not be pushed into the private realm as was Christianity. This fact should be imprinted upon the minds of so–called Liberals and Reformists. Islamists from 1928 to date, despite their arduous gradualistic/continual approach, are reeling from their failures. Reformists, Liberals, therefore have no choice but to come to terms with Islam’s Exceptionalism. In mainstream Islam, clerics (unlike Catholic Clerics or Shia’a Clerics in Iran) do not wield power as such but rather provide a crucial check on the ruling class against excesses.Western cultural-essentialism however, prevents these liberals, reformists, from appreciating the role Islam is playing in the Muslim world and beyond.

These so-called reformists not only advocate a “progressive” (actually confuted) interpretation of the Islamic Laws but also its basic irrelevance to the public life—on the pattern of separation of religion from the politics in the west—the foundation of a pluralistic post-enlightenment, modern liberal society. Given the Islamic historical imperatives, it is not only difficult but almost impossible. Here is an interesting and enlightening quote, from late Harvard Scholar (a reformist) Shahab Ahmed: “of the capaciousness, complexity, and often outright contradiction contained within the historical phenomenon* of what we call Islam”. He further says: “But each faith tradition is also defined by boundaries expectations, and the accumulated weight of history. What religious scholars and lay believers alike have committed themselves to for centuries” –in the case of Islam, since its very founding— its (reformation) is irrelevant, for the simple reason that if something has never been done before, then it is least likely that it will start being done all of a sudden, fourteen centuries later.

It is continuously propagandized by the antagonists of Islam that it is a retrograde, medieval, backward, fundamentalist and anti-modernity religion of antiquity. Whereas Islam is the most modern, most sophisticated religion of any major religions. This presents us with a paradox: It is precisely the Islam and Islamic Law’s modern bent that makes Islam all the more relevant and resonant in today’s politics. Within Islam’s vast legal traditions, there are a number of ideas and precedents that lend themselves to modern notions of social justice, rule of law, egalitarianism, guaranteed women’s rights to own property, make their own living, compulsory redistribution of the wealth (Zakat—a mandatory year-end deduction/payment from the wealth held by a Muslim) and social security (Baitul-Mal—a state-managed public trust-fund) for older or handicapped people.

Freedom of Choice and rule of law Lacking, church-like (or Vatican like) dominant an institution, a Pope like head-clergy, availability of several schools of thought and the instrument of Ijtihad: there is ample scope of choice and adaptability. In Islam, due to its overarching corpus juris (Shari’a), both the caliph (head of state) and the subjects are treated equally. A caliph cannot claim unlimited or absolute (king-like) authority because the sovereignty belongs to God. All these instrumentalities ensure the freedom of choice and rule of law. (under the Islamic{ shaia’a}law, as the law of the land). In nutshell, there is no logical reason for Muslims to choose either Modernity or Liberal ReformationL over already most modern Islam. One could be fully modern and yet a fully-fledged good Muslim. Muslims, therefore, had never been in need of choosing between, their own traditions and those of others. Shura (Consultation) and Ijma’a (Consensus); the precursors of modern Democracy; are in fact, updated and repackaged products, borrowed from the Islamic heritage.

Failures of liberalization experiments At the time of religious and cultural encroachment through colonial rule, the assertion of Islam became distinctly political rather than just, or primarily, theological. Given its uniqueness, those (colonial) forces could not strip Islam of its better status, vibrancy and exceptionality: reducing it to just another religion. (Like Christianity) To the extreme surprise of many, Islam happened to be the most modern of Abrahamic religions. Islamic Corpus Juris (Sharia’a) proved to be more secular than the Christian conceptions of Law and Politics. It is a kind of the point of departure, since it is, kind of, the secularity of Sharia’a, which makes it more relevant and resonant in present political landscape. Islam already embraces the concepts of pluralism, politics, consultative and consensual processes (precursors of democracy) whereas, Christianity came into conflict and lost.

Egypt, Turkey, and Tunisia have a long history of reformation/liberalization of Islam as well as the Forced secularization (Westernization) experiments and their eventual failures. This trend, in the modern times, started in the 19th Century by Heavyweights such as Sayyed Qutub, Mohd Abduh, Jamal-Ud-din Afghani, Rashid Rida and Hassan Al Banna etc. This effort, despite miserable failures, is still underway owing to the current Islamists/reformers such as Ikhwan ul Muslemeen (Egypt), Erdogan (AKP), and Rached Ghannouchi (Ennahda). Ghannouchi of Tunisia tried to change Islamism and perhaps even Islam, assuming that the two are interrelated. He thought that the ideological divides somehow could be transcended by neutralizing them. The greatest failure of such Islamists/reformers is owed to their politicizing Islam; Polarization is inevitable when Islam seizes to be, as it once was, (unadulterated) the source of unity, solidarity, and consensus. The underlying reason for any such attempt’s failure is that Muslims by definition; as per the revised assessment of an Islamist Abdul Moneim Abul Futou; are Salafi, in the sense that they emulate the most pious earlier Aslaf (Prophet-PBUH, Companions, and two succeeding generations) and support the Sharia’a. Surprisingly, in most of the Muslim-majority countries and across the board, Muslims, despite all these reformation efforts, are becoming more devoutly observant.

He also confessed that the titles of liberal or Islamist/reformist are just for political exigency.
CONCLUSION Liberalism (a precursor of Atheism) and Islam cannot go together as the former fails to provide much except general disdain of religion and letting the men loose; to choose their own way of life (doing away even with the distinction between virtuousness and sinfulness); whereas later provides an affirmative vision for leading a benevolent and virtuous life in this world, as well as a blissful life in the next. (For a Muslim, it is the very foundation of his creed and purpose of being).

This is the main reason why liberals, reformists fall back on virulent anti-Islam attacks.

Islam for various cultural, historical and theological reasons is distinctive in how it relates to politics. Often recurring themes in the west such as “Islam is the Problem” and “Islam needs a reformation” are the result of liberals/reformists unwillingness and inability to understand, as to how and why Islam, in its original form, matters to so many all around the world? It is simply a modus Vivendi and raison d’etre for a Muslim.

Nation state & Islam Wael Hallaq, an Islamic Law scholar, charges Islamists being obsessed with the Modern-State. US foreign policy stalwarts such as Henry Kissinger and Dennis Ross charge them for being incompatible with the Westphalian order. It simply exposes the inherent weakness of the skewed thinking of Islamists/reformist. Nation state and Islam, despite their tenuousness, co-exist anyway!

Caliphate The concept of Caliphate, after the demise of Ottoman Empire in 1924, never died but rendered near-impossible. The emergence of Islamic State, despite its unwarranted violent behavior, colossal failures and possible annihilation, has nevertheless, resuscitated and strengthened the potential for a Pan-Islamic Caliphate on the Salafi Model (opposite to Islamic-State’s extremist model). For the West, The only long term solution (keeping up with its centuries-old traditions of inclusiveness and tolerance) is to let the Islam find its place in the western societies on the model of consensual democracy in the Western Europe. Islam for Muslims is as –non-negotiable—as the human rights are in the American Constitution and in those of many other countries. The operation of (Shari’a) courts should be allowed on the pattern of Canon Law Courts and Jewish Law Courts. West has to work around the ideological and foundational divides; which, most likely, will remain constant.

Statistical facts, validating the inexorability of Islam According to “The Almanac Book of Facts”, the population increased 137% within the past decade and the Christianity increased 46%, while Islam increased 235%. 100,000 people per year converting to Islam, only in America. For every 1 male convert to Islam 4 females convert to Islam.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/ https://www.facebook.com/shakir.mumtaz https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Shakirmwp https://shakir2.wordpress.com/20…/…/10/disjunctive-sequel-2/

Source Material: Various Books, Qura’an, Tafseer and Shadi Hamid’s Islamic Exceptionalism.

*Much of the early Islamic history (not the religion) available today is based on the Ahadith and is challenged for lack of basis in primary source material and contradictions based on secondary material available. (History should not be confused with the actual Islam—primary source for which is, the Holy Qura’an and only authentic Ahadith as the secondary source). Italic text

Interpersonal relationship between Muslim and Non-Muslim

August 31, 2017

“Let not the believers take those who deny the truth for their allies in preference to the believers since he who does this cuts himself off from God in everything – unless it is to protect one against them in this way. But God warns you to beware of Him: for with God is all journeys’ end.” (Q, 3:28) 


Muslim seem oblivious to or Ignorant of this important aspect of Islamic teachings. Befriending Non-Muslim has become cursorial; Muslim are dealing and even living with them (in a relationship) like with their fellow Muslim. {Muslim women marrying Non-Muslim men is strictly forbidden and Haram) Read: – https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2015/06/22/muslim-women-marrying-non-muslim-men/


Although, it can be easily understood from the Qura’anic text that dealing with the Non-Muslims, despite the requisite cordiality, compassion and empathy, ought to be within defined limitations. Non-Muslim should be helped and dealt with on purely humanitarian/empathetic grounds, but without, any emotional attachment. Such attachment is permissible only with fellow Muslim. The obviating reason is that they do not subscribe to Islamic faith/religion and are rather against it. Disbelievers (in Islam) are described in Qura’an as the enemies of Allah (SWT)(Q, 8: 59,60) {Despite the fact that, they may express nothing of the sort, or may even offer a favorable opinion—which would tantamount to a lip service in the face of their disbelief}.

Note:- From the Psychological point of view, such contents of words may be fallacious, due to their (Non-Muslim) long ingrained and sustained experiences otherwise, for their body language would be sending a (true but) contrary messages.  

A formal friendship at the level of mutual dealing is, no doubt, permissible; but, that too is not favored if Unnecessary.

In Qura’an it has been declared repeatedly that– they would like to see you adopting their faith and way of life. (Psychological truth)  From everyday experiences; it is clearly evident that most often; Muslims who befriend with Non-Muslims; imitate and emulate them, compromising their distinct identity and religion. So called liberal/secularist/modernist Muslim even talk in their language, temerariously criticizing Islam, Qura’an and the Prophet (PBUH). It has therefore been sternly warned that such people cut off any bond with Allah (SWT), for they become one of them (disbelievers)          (Q, 3:28).

Allah (SWT) in Qura’an, used the word “Zalimun” instead of “Kafiroon”; Likely widening the scope, to include such people.  Allah therefore clearly forbids a true Muslim from keeping the company of not only the Non-Muslims but also of those, acting like them. It has been said in (Q, 6:70) that “unbelievers; are the people, who have been detained in the punishment of their evil deeds”. Which is further articulated in verse (Q, 47:15) by declaring that “their entrails will be shattered apart” (due to drinking boiling water as the punishment for their denial and disbelief). This verse also informs that their disbelief is harmful to those who like to sit in their company hence would be caught up in the same punishment as the disbelievers. (Ma’araful Qura’an Pg. 393, vol 3). As the wrong environment affects its surrounding so does the bad company by pushing human beings into the abyss of sinfulness. “This is how Allah (SWT) brings disgrace, damnation upon those who do not believe, for their hearts are not open for the truth but dash for the evil”. (Q, 6:125).



Several verses, with varying shades of meanings, against the FRIENDSHIP WITH NON-MUSLIMS are presented in the Holy Qura’an. Some of which are:-


 One should not pick and choose a verse to present his/her own (skewed) point of view instead a collective outcome, of all the verses on the topic, should be the one guiding and binding. (Q, 2: 85 & 4: 150)


Allah’s enemy is your enemy.

“O those who believe do not take my enemy and your enemy as friends having love for them and whosoever from among you do that have gone astray” (Q, 60:1)

 A friend with them is one of them.

“O those who believe do not take Jews or Christian as friends, for they are friends among themselves. And whosoever has friendship with them is one of them” (Q, 5:51)

 Believers shouldn’t befriend with unbelievers, even if kinfolk.

“You shall not find those who believe in Allah and in the hereafter having friendship with those who have enmity with Allah and His Messenger, even though they may be their fathers or sons or brothers or members of their tribes” (Q, 58:22)


Feeling honored/proud by having Non-believers as friend

Those, who take disbelievers as their allies instead of the believers, Do they seek with them honor {through power}? But indeed, honor belongs to Allah (SWT) entirely. (Q, 4:139)


Sitting in the company of Non-believers

And it has already come down to you in the Book that when you hear the verses of Allah (SWT) (recited), they are denied (by them) and ridiculed; so do not sit with them until they enter into another conversation. Indeed you would then be like them. Indeed Allah (SWT) will gather the hypocrites and disbelievers in Hell all together, (Q, 4:140)


The only friends

Your friends can only be Allah (SWT), His Prophet (PBUH) and those who believe” (Q, 5:55)


Social interaction with Non-Muslims, for clear understanding and exercising due restraint, has been described, under four (4) categories.

Mawalat. (Affairs of the Heart) –For Allah knows what is in your hearts–(3:29) (Relations involving Love or Emotional attachment).

This is specifically What all these verses vehemently prevent a Muslim from.


Psychological reasoning

 Need to belong

According to the hierarchy of needs, humans need to feel love (sexual/non-sexual) and acceptance from others. In fact, the need to belong is so innately ingrained that it may be strong enough to overcome physiological, safety needs, as well as religious restraints, such as children’s attachment to abusive parents or staying in abusive romantic relationships or a Muslim woman marrying a Non-Muslim man. Such examples illustrate the extent to which the psychobiological drive to belong is entrenched hence harmful (one may, therefore, appreciate the rationale and vehemence with which Islam prohibits such a bond between the two with clashing/contradicting religious beliefs.


 Attachment Theory

Social acts that reinforce feelings of attachment also stimulate the release of neurotransmitters such as oxytocin and endorphin, which alleviate stress and create feelings of contentment. Such contentment, however, may prove to be fleeting due to ingrained religious disparity and even if it is fictitiously presumed to be there, in the beginning, may evade soon.


Prophetic injunctions

Apart from the above cited psychological reasons, there is a logically reasoned Injunction issued by the Prophet (PBUH) which lays the ground rules for an association (particularly the marriage as any other type of association is out of the question in Islam).


In Islam, there is a concept of “Kuf” which means —equal, alike or matching. Under this Principal, there are two sub clauses which need to be considered when accepting/rejecting the marriage proposals. (or contemplating an association for that matter).


These are “Lineal Homogeneity” & “Familial Homogeneity” Prophet has instructed that girls should be married in their”Kuf” which means—equality(compatibility)—rather than equalness. The likeness of spouses in their religion is incumbent and necessary for the validity of the marriage. The marriage of a Muslim girl with a disbeliever is not valid; even if the girl agrees to it. (So is not the interpersonal relationship). (religio-legal verdict—hukme-tashriee).

 The rationale here is that it is not simply the matter of “right of woman”; which may be dropped at her pleasure, Instead, it is the “right of God” –a Divine- injunction, under the clause of Familial Homogeneity. 

 A question or doubt may be raised about the whole religio-legal-verdict stated above. The validity of it has very eloquently and in unequivocal terms been stated in Qur’an as– “Prophet has more right to men and women of his (Ummah) community than their own selves” and also that “And it becomes not a believing man or woman, when Allah and His prophet have decided an affair (for them) that they should claim any “say” in that matter”      Surah Al Ahzab 33, V 6 & 36

 Finally, Allah forbade such relationship in categorical terms in Surah “Mumtahinah”–(She who is examined) #60, V – 10–in the following words “Neither these (Muslim women) are lawful for them, Nor are those (unbelievers) lawful for these (believing) women” All such relationships which existed at the time of revelation of this verse were ipso-facto severed.

 Muwasat. (Concern)

Non-Muslims ought to be dealt with favor, generosity, compassion, sympathy, and concern. It also includes charitable help and support, condolence, consolation or any other well-intentioned attitude of wishing them well.  Confirmed in the following verse:

“Allah does not forbid you from treating those, who have not fought with you because of your faith, nor have they driven you out of your homes, with benevolence and equity” (Q, 60:8)

 Mudarat. (Cordiality)

This category of dealings involves customary cordiality, adequacy in courtesy, pleasant and mannerly politeness.

Muamalat. (Dealings)

This category involves things such as employment, wages, industry, technology, business dealings, benevolence, and human-interests.  

Note: Most of the permissible interactions, however, would become impermissible if it becomes harmful to the interest of the general body of Muslims such as arms sales to a group fighting against Muslims.(war situation exemptions to older folks, Non belligerent folks, children, religious folks(priests/monks etc), places of worship, livestock and crops/orchards etc nevertheless, would apply).


An exception; under the category of MAWALAT; where there is a severe threat to one’ life or overarching-interest, is allowed. “Unless you guard yourselves against an apprehension from them” in such a case an (outwardly) expression of affection and love is permissible (Q, 3:28). This position is also supported by the Hadith, “Allah (SWT) has forgiven my people from, mistakes, forgetfulness, and acts done under compulsion/duress” (*1)

 Concealment of feelings of affection and love for Non-believers                           (Do not incline towards unjust, lest Hell fire catches you) (Q, 11:113)

At times it happens that people emotionally attached to Non-Muslims verbally deny it in the presence of fellow Muslims. Such people have been warned by Allah in the following words, “whether you conceal what is in your heart or disclose it, Allah knows it” (Q, 3:29)

 A superficial look at the inhibitive verses might generate an intolerant view of Islam which is dispelled in various verses of the Holy Qura’an, Ahadith, Sunnah and the dealings of the revered Companions.

 How Prophet (PBUH), Sahabah & Khulafa’a dealt with Non-Muslims?


Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), at the time of famine in Mecca, personally went out to help his enemies who drove him out of Mecca earlier.

Then after the conquest of Mecca, he gave general amnesty to all those who fought against him.

Caliph Umer Farooq allowed stipends and allowance to needy Non-Muslims living under his rule.

 An Obvious question, however, may arise here, why Allah (SWT) has warned against the friendship with Non-Muslims so sternly?

The answer is given through a Qura’anic verse and a Hadith (Bukhari and Muslim).  “My Prayer, my sacrifice, my life, my death all are for Allah, the Lord of the worlds” (Q. 6:162) Prophet (PBUH) has been reported to have said “Whoever loves for the sake of Allah (SWT) and whoever hates for the sake of Allah (SWT), has perfected his faith”(*2) It means that Iman/Faith remains incomplete unless a Muslim’s love, friendship, hate and enmity all are subordinated to Allah Almighty. That is why at the end of verse 3:28, for the ones who defy this injunction, it is said that “you are one of them”.

The premise on which the edifice of—“No-intimate relationship with Non-Believers”— is based is the primal purport of the temporal life of a Muslim.

The primal-purport of a Muslim’s life is to remember and serve Allah (SWT). Everything else including all affairs of life, politics, business, Government and social relationships ought to be subservient to this primal purport.


(Allah (SWT) therefore has strongly forbidden an intimate friendship/relationship with any Nonbelievers under any circumstances).

*1–An-Nawawi’s Hadith No.39 (On the authority of Ibn Abbas). A  Hasan (fair)  Hadith related by Ibn Majah, Al-Baihaqi and others.

*2–Sunan Abu Dawud 4681, Grade: Sahih (authentic) according to Al-Albani.



It is hoped that this treatise would help men and women of understanding in tackling the endemic of the entrenched interpersonal relationship between Muslims and Non-Muslims with Divine guidance; provided through Qura’an and Hadith, while applying human logic and reasoning as well rather than succumbing to the reflexes of sentimentality.

Note:        An abridged form of this topic.



Why should Muslim not eat the meat prepared* by the People of Book (POB)? *

March 5, 2018

Food for Thoughts

Image result for still pic of beautiful bull from Pakistan

*(Word “prepared” has been used instead of “slaughtered” to avoid any misunderstanding which might be created)

Sounds Strange? Yes, it does, until one reads it all before making up his mind.

First of all, let us understand what is“Halal” and what is “Dabiha”?

Halal:- is a generic term for permissible animals/things, which may be slaughtered/consumed by Muslims.

Dabiha:- on the other hand, is the meat of a permissible (halal) animal slaughtered by meeting 4 conditions, namely:- Severance (by a sharp object) of Jugular veins, Cutting of Esophagus, while invoking the name (chanting-takbeer) of Allah (SWT) and then letting the blood be drained.

Now, according to the (Q, 5:5) “Today, all the good things of life have been made lawful to you. And the food of those who have been vouchsafed revelation aforetime is lawful to you, 14  and your food is lawful to them…

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Hope and Prayer

February 19, 2018

Image may contain: bird and outdoorHope is an instinctive impulse of a rational being. Prayer is an actualization thereof by ardently imploring (hoping from) the Supreme Being (God). Both, in tandem, are activated by human free-will*1. A prayer, even by a Non-Believer, (Q, 10:11)*2 is not a futile but fruitful activity. Hope and Prayer are mutually inclusive hence cannot be counterproductive.

*1According to St. Plotinus sin is a consequence of free-will. In Islamic parlance; good choice is reward-worthy while bad choice is blame-worthy; for it becomes a tool or source of evil (Satan).

*2It may however be dashed due to one’s disbelief(Q, 4:104) Yet a prayer made in distress would be heard.



December 30, 2017

«Dios, inspirador y autor de ambos Testamentos, dispuso las cosas tan sabiamente que el Nuevo Testamento está latente en el Antiguo y el Antiguo está patente en el Nuevo

Qaroon (Korah), possibly the cousin of Prophet Musa (Moses) and Haroon (Aaron) Was so rich that even the keys of the safes were heavy for a group of very strong people.
This buried wealth he found, probably was that of Prophet Yousuf (Joseph).
Qaroon got proud of it and started harassing his people. His people warned him of his misbehavior.

He said, “I have this wealth because of my KNOWLEDGE”
People envious and desirous of worldly comforts acclaimed “Ah! Wish we could get wealthy like him. He sure is a lucky man” Qaroon (Korah) was swallowed by earth because he became ingrate.
People of KNOWLEDGE affirmed, Allah’s REWARD is much superior to worldly riches and is given to—true-believers, righteous and those who exercise RESTRAINT.

Now here are few lessons to be learned.
KNOWLEDGE is not a reason/basis for sustenance or wealth, but for steadfastness/perseverance.
RESTRAINT from indulging in forbidden things as— Wine, Women (except wives) reason for ZUHD. Allah’s REWARD for, who observe piety, good deeds, true belief, righteousness & RESTRAINT.
FURQAN (capacity to distinguish between good and bad) could be yet another SPECIAL FAVOR.
Qura’an (Surah Al Qasas V 76-80)

Originally published… 02/12/2015


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