Archive for the ‘Blogroll’ Category

Insatiably Expansionist India! 

August 7, 2019

Israel following its footsteps—making them HIV countries!                                    {Hindi, Hebrew—India, Israel—Violence in occupied territories}

Image result for Jammu and Kashmir map showing jammu, kashmir and ladakh?

We all know India with different references, such as; the biggest democracy, the most diverse country, culturally/historically richest country, the second most populated country, largest number of poverty-ridden people’s country (370 mil), world biggest slum country, biggest open latrine country, the rape capital of the world country, butcher of Gujrat country (Modi-P.M burnt Muslims alive), Hindu-extremism epitome country, Untouchables class of human country, etc. Very few people, however, know that it is the most vicious and voracious country when it comes to annexation or devouring of smaller neighbors. So far it has devoured 13 independent territories and has aggressed against 5 territories of (China, Mauritius, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Pakistan).

 Annexation of Kashmir 1947

Annexation of Manipur 1948

Annexation of Tripura   1949

Annexation of South-Tibet 1951

Annexation of Andaman Islands 1956

Annexation of Nicobar Islands 1956

and many others out of 1208 Islands.

Annexation of Goa 1961

Annexation of Kalapani, Nepal 1962

Annexation of Turtuk, Pakistan 1971

Annexation of Tin Bigha, Bangladesh 1972

Annexation of Sikkim, [whole country] 1975

Annexation of Duars, Bhutan 2006

Annexation of Moreh, Myanmar 2013

 

Aggression against China (defeated) 1962

Invasion of Mauritius (aborted) 1983

Attempted annexation of Bhutan (failed) 1990

Indian attack on East-Pakistan (separated to become Bangladesh) 1971

Tamil Tigers (Indian created ISIS) insurgency in Siri Lanka, 1983-2009 (defeated)

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2016/04/02/ugly-face-of-western-darling-india/

More than 100, 000 Kashmiris have lost their lives, tens of thousands of women, including underage girls, as old as 8 years, raped, thousands maimed and blinded by the pellet guns used by 600,000 strong Indian-army stationed in Kashmir!

A Great Threat to the People of the entire world, South Asia, Including the People of India.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/12/03/reposing-hindu-identity-in-requiem-mass/

In her latest attempt India has announced trifurcation [Jammu, Kashmir and Laddakh] of IOK (Indian Occupied Kashmir) formally annexing it to the already botched Indian Union, Under the umbrella-coverage of clause 371 of the Indian constitution, Kashmir was allowed to maintain its independent character—having its government, flag, constitution and autonomy [except defense and foreign policy]—so, the foreigners were not allowed to buy properties and thus change the demographics of the territory. Abrogation whereof, {through illegal presidential order}, would do away with the independent character of Kashmir, and allow the Indian government to settle Indians there and change the demographics to maneuver the plebiscite results; adopted under the resolution 47 by the U.N in April 21st, 1948

The relegation of autonomous state status to a union territory is unprecedented.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2017/09/25/balkanization-of-india/

India knows it well that, his lackeys have done the spadework rendering Pakistan at the verge of financial collapse, therefore, Pakistan would not be able to take any stringent action in the wake of the annexation of Kashmir. India has chosen the timing with due diligence and planning. Pakistan is not only facing dire financial straits but also under the sword of IMF and FATF. Pakistan doesn’t have the appetite to engage in a stern armed confrontation, for it would not be able to sustain, but for a brief period.

Had the Gen. Musharraf’s Siachen-glacier adventure not been thwarted by the Indian lackey PM of the Pakistan, Kashmir issue would have long been resolved!

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The singularity of the Grand Tahrir Square on the eventual-horizon! 

July 24, 2019

Image result for Pic of Mix protest by the Arabs and Europeans

Interestingly, events in the Muslims world seems to discreetly vanguard the world at large towards the singularity of a GRAND Tahrir Square. There seems to be, inter-alia, a Muslim awakening all around. Although the counter-revolutionary forces; in and out of Middle East and Africa; seem to have succeeded in derailing the Arab-Spring; installing a new military authoritarianism (an eclipsed military crescent), would eventually face the materialization of the Arab-spring on a much bigger scale, giving in to the aspirations of the masses (a huge bulge of tumultuous youngsters) in the end.

The remarkably positive outcome of this ratiocinative Ellan Vital would be the elimination of the danger of Clash-Of-Civilizations!

Counter-revolutionary forces are; The United States, Europe in general, Beduin-Pentagon {lead by Saudi Arabia}, Egypt, Israel and India.

Present West-centric world-order is bound to collapse; for the People NOW are able to quickly discern the reality of the issues even when shrouded in the thick of disinformation. The resourcefulness of dissemination (through mushrooming independent T.V channels and social media avenues) of the genuine/legitimate aspirations/concerns of a segment of society, for the others, to support and make it a popular/top trend, has become an unbridled anti-oppression, anti-tyranny tool.  The reason for my optimism is the Pakistani Army’s decade long; hands-off, behind the scene, through the civilian apparatus approach, to the country’s multitudinous affairs. Pakistani army; the strongest (after that of China and Russia) in the third world developing countries, has learned its lesson after several elongated stints with the governance; that it ought to stay away from its supra-constitutional role to let Pakistan develop into a modern, viable, civilian-ruled state. 

Note: {I have deliberately left the international, political/military/economic, polarization aside, for it is all too obvious}

In Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Sudan and elsewhere the military establishments have the unique opportunity to learn from Pakistani military’s experience, making the right choices: handing over the power to the civilian-representatives and prevent another Iraq, Syria or Yemen from happening. 

The resurgence (contagion effects) of “Awakened-Muslim-Youth” {AMY} would engulf, sooner than later, The Beduin Pentagon, other oppressive and corrupt Muslim dominated countries; non-Muslim Youth in Europe; Africa and Americas, steering the world towards the singularity of “GRAND TAHRIR SQUARE”.

US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, gave a speech in Cairo, on June 2005, in which she said: “For 60 years, my country, the United States, pursued stability at the expense of democracy in this region here in the Middle East – and we achieved neither. 

West, in my opinion, has been wrong on both the accounts; military-ruleauthoritarianism and democracy.

I will agree with Samuel Huntington, in an even broader context, that democracy is not only an alien concept (to Middle Eastern culture) but an anathema to the overall Muslim’s psychological constitution and dispensation.  

Consensually Nominated Caliphate, in my opinion, would, therefore, be the best model for Muslim dominated countries; synchronizing caliphal/sharia’a rules, as far as permissible, with the demands and compulsions of modern-times.

NOTE: For the sake of brevity I will discuss, but a few, hot spots around the world to build my premise.

Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika has been forced, by the Algerians, out of the electoral race seeking the fifth term after being 20 years in power. What is striking in the Algerian uprising is that the protesters are a mix of all walks of life and determinedly peaceful. They do not want to be associated with the hijacked and derailed Arab-Spring. They call out each other to go to “Selmiyya” (Peaceful-rally) rather than to “protest” to avoid any semblance with failed-Arab-Spring.

Abdelkader Ben salah, the interim president was supposed to hold fresh elections and step down on July the 4th but postponed the elections and suggested the dialogues to pave the way for elections, without involving military, instead.

Algerians, sensing the delaying maneuvers, have repeatedly referred to Article 7 of the Constitution which stipulates that ultimately, sovereignty belongs to the people and their will is represented by civilian institutions. Algerians are demanding a genuine change in the system offering openness, transparency and opportunity.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2011/03/05/hawks-are-getting-itchy-to-commandeer-the-mid-east-revolution/

Algeria is Africa’s largest country, ninth biggest OPEC producer of crude oil and liquefied gas, having a population of around 41 million, 70 percent of which is below the age of 30 years, beset with huge unemployment and a stagnant economy. Yet not afraid of “Le Pouvoir the powerful ruling elites.  It is producing over a million barrels per day. Its 85 percent export consists of liquified gas and crude oil.

Protestors in the Middle East have learned crucial lessons since the Arab Spring—Peaceful-protest.

The success of popular action and civil disobedience in Sudan and Algeria have been treated skeptically by commentators. The pessimists might just be getting it wrong this time around, just as the optimists did eight years ago. Two very different political waves are sweeping through the Middle East and North Africa. Popular protests are overthrowing the leaders of military regimes for the first time since the failure of the Arab Spring. At the same time, dictators are seeking to further monopolize power by killing, jailing or intimidating opponents who want personal and national freedom.

In Egypt, Ex-Military General Fattah El Sissi is trying to maneuver a referendum for his lifelong presidency. I am of the opinion that his days are numbered. On June 14, Egypt’s president, Abdel Fatah al-Sissi, appointed a new minister of defense without seeking the approval of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF)— the institution that brought him to power. At the same time, he appointed a prime minister without the necessary parliamentary approval.

These might seem like minor political maneuvers, but they are highly revealing about the direction of Egypt’s politics. Since taking power in 2013 in a military coup against President Mohammed el-Morsi, Sissi is busy systematically removing obstacles to his power, as dictators do.

Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF). Created in 1954 by Jamal Abdel Nasser, provided the armed forces with an intermittent mechanism to influence government. SCAF reappeared during the demonstrations against Hosni Mubarak in early 2011 and took control of the government until Morsi’s election in 2012. The law implemented Article 234 of the 2014 constitution that, until 2020, appointing the minister of defense requires SCAF’s approval. SCAF had insisted on this provision even though it caused divisive political conflicts and sometimes street battles between 2011 and 2014.

Article 146 of the constitution gives the president the right to appoint a prime minister, but parliament must give the new government a vote of confidence. Prime Minister Mustafa Madbouli replaced Sobhi as minister of defense with Muhammad Ahmed Zaki. SCAF has not approved Zaki’s appointment, while parliament has yet to accept Madbouli’s government. These two presumably pro-Sissi institutions have not rubber-stamped his appointments because of Sissi’s 2016 decision to transfer the sovereignty of two small islands, in the Red Sea Tiran and Sanafir, to Saudi Arabia. Article 151 of the constitution forbids the cession of state territory.

The arrests of two former generals, the summary ouster of the defense minister without SCAF approval and the installation of a new ministry without parliamentary approval conclude the consolidation of Sissi’s control. In return, Sissi has ensured all kinds of benefits and complete immunity to SCAF officials from any future prosecution as a bribe. {Sissi is a favorite of the USA, Europe, Beduin-Pentagon and Israel}

Sinai, Bedouin lead, Insurgency is another tetra-pronged flashpoint; involving Egypt, Israel, Libya and Gazza-Palestine. In this insurgency, Salafi-Jihadist and Islamic State (ISIS) are also involved. {A sequel of Tahrir Square is on the eventual-horizon}

Jordon

The public unrest in Jordan is not dying down, and the frequent protests are threatening to destabilize the country. Not only are the kingdom’s dire economic straits – one of the factors driving the protests – not improving despite harsh austerity measures, but the situation is even worsening. Alongside the calls to address the economic problems, various political forces – including not only the traditional opposition but also tribal leaders, former regime officials and retired military officers – have been demanding political reforms and even calling to limit the powers of the King on the pattern of the U.K.

Tribal Forces Demand Regime Change, Ouster of the King

The climate of unrest has affected even the Jordanian tribes, which constitute the backbone of the regime. On March 1, a protest movement identified with Jordan’s large Bani Hassan tribe issued a statement of unusual harshness against the King, accusing King Abdullah II and Queen Rania al-’Abd Allah of behaving like “demigods” and demanding a change of regime. {May Allah have mercy on the king…a pauper would be more respectable than a Western stooge-Hashemite king} 

West installed “Sheikhs” & “General” are terrified of the contagion-effects of Iran’s revolution as well as that of the Arab-spring.

Libya. According to international officials and Libya experts; the UAE, an ally of the UK, US, and France, shipped weapons to Libyan warlord Khalifa Haftar even after the self-styled field marshal declared the head of the UN-backed authority in Tripoli, Fayez al-Sarraj, a “terrorist” and issued for his and other officials arrest warrants.

The vast oil-rich north African nation has been crippled by violent civil strife since the Gaddafi’s downfall in 2011. Two loose alliances dominate the country: a collection of eastern militias led by Khalifa Haftar under the umbrella of the Libyan National Army, and a UN-backed Government of National Accord, anchored in Tripoli.

The UN panel last year cited evidence, suggesting, both the UAE and Turkey, were providing weapons and military equipment to rival sides in Libya. Both Egypt, a security partner of the west despite human rights abuses, and the UAE, have been aggressively supporting Khalifa Haftar because they perceive the rival government in Tripoli as a front for the Muslim Brotherhood organization, which they have vowed to crush. {Elected president, late-Morsi, was removed by the counter-revolutionary forces for the same reason}.

Warlord Khalifa Haftar has been backed for years by the President Trump, (USA), UAE, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and France, which see in him a potential strongman to bring order to the country even after they have also publicly backed the UN peace process and other international initiatives to stitch the country back together.

ISIS fighters kill LNA troops outside the Libyan oilfield.

Unfortunately, if the situation continues like this, 95 percent of oil production will be lost,” Mustafa Sanalla told reporters in Jeddah ahead of a ministerial panel of top OPEC and non-OPEC producers recently gathered. The raid on Zillah is the third ISIS attack targeting Haftar’s forces in the recent past. According to the latest reports, the LNA (Haftar) forces seem to have bogged down in Capital’s outskirts.

An old hand, Saif-Al-Isalm-Gaddafi, the eldest son of late Muammar Gaddafi; who is aspiring to become president and lead the country, may prove to be a viable consensus candidate to unite the country.

Nigeria. {A 50/50-Muslim/Christian-country} Incumbent president Muhammadu Buhari won his reelection bid, defeating his closest rival Atiku Abubakar by over 3 million votes. He took an oath of office on 29 May 2019. Muhammadu Buhari, 76, (former military strongman) and Yemi Osinbajo, who will serve as vice president. Africa’s largest economy {OPEC’s sixth-biggest oil producer} is mired in its first recession for 25 years as low oil prices have hammered public finances and foreign reserves while driving up annual inflation to almost 20 percent.

Africa’s most populous nation has traditionally been marred by violence and rigging. Presidential and parliamentary elections taking place under the shadow of a devastating war against Islamist militants (Boko Haram) in the northeast, clashes between farmers and herders that have claimed thousands of lives, and a moribund economy.

Boko Haram, founded by Mohammed Yusuf in 2002, the group has been led by Abubakar Shekau since 2009. When first formed, its actions were nonviolent. Its main goal was to “purify Islam in northern Nigeria.” From March 2015 to August 2016, the group was aligned with the ISIS Boko Haram promotes a version of Islam which makes it “haram”, or forbidden, for Muslims to take part in any political or social activity associated with Western society. This includes voting in elections, wearing shirts and trousers or receiving a secular education.

Boko Haram regards the Nigerian state as being run by non-believers, regardless of whether the president is Muslim or not – and it has extended its military campaign by targeting neighboring states.

A Simmering Potential Flash-Point.

The Zumratul Jamiu Muminu Society of Nigeria has asked the Federal Government to look for a new location for the proposed interchange at the Pakuro/Lotto area of the Lagos-Ibadan Expressway in the Obafemi-Owode Local Government Area of Ogun State. It has been reported that over 300 buildings are marked for demolition to pave the way for the interchange.

The Islamic organization said its schools and members’ buildings were among the structures marked for demolition, alleging that neighboring religious premises, including those of the Deeper Life Bible Church and the Redeemed Christian Church of God, were excluded from the planned demolition.  

{Christian missionaries proselytizing/exploiting destitute Muslims under the auspices of the USA and UN should be expelled from the entire African continent; for the sake of peace and religious harmony}

Pakistan

Pakistan—the only Muslim Nuclear-State— at the moment is trekking on a rocky path. its corrupt leaders are on the leash. Some are behind bars while others are waiting in the queue.  Its iconoclast leader; a cricket-famed celebrity; a playboy turned philanthropist and savior-politician, is struggling against his inexperience and entrenched tentacles of the old guards. Pakistan’s transformation into an emerging economy and developing country is dubious but most Pakistanis/Muslims around the world are harboring high hopes.

Readhttps://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/05/10/pakistans-exceptionalism/

Somalia

Somaliland, Puntland, Jubaland

Al Shabab, a splinter group of Islamic Courts Union (ICU), is fighting against the Transitional Federal Government (TFG), U.S sponsored Ethiopian forces and all other foreign forces, including African Union Peacekeeping forces, considering them as occupying foreign forces. Al Shabab considers TFG as a secular government. Al Shabab is labeled as a radical Islamism group for they want to implement Islamic Sharia’a.

Somaliland declared its independence from the failed state of Somalia in 1991, but the world … for the most part … has ignored the declaration. The similar names are rooted in colonial history: Somaliland became known as British Somaliland in the 19th century, while the southern region was Italian Somaliland. “We have a functioning democracyWe have our own army. We have our own police. We have our own coast guard. You know, we have our own border police. We have fulfilled all the conditions of a sovereign state,” Shire says as he ticks through why Somaliland is its own nation. And there’s more. Somaliland has its own currency. It regularly holds elections. Current President of Somaliland is Musa Bihi Abdi.  

Lawmakers in Somalia’s semi-autonomous Puntland region have elected former Somalia planning minister Saed Abdullahi Deni as president. The new president, 52, is widely known for his role in education in Puntland where he helped establish schools and universities.  In 2017 he mounted an unsuccessful run for president of Somalia. Deni campaigned on promoting economic growth and fighting corruption in the relatively peaceful Somali region.

“A new chapter has opened for this region, a chapter of unity and brotherly relations among Somalis,” the new president said. Puntland has largely escaped the worst of the country’s decades of lawlessness, but there are pockets where al-Shabab and Islamic State militants are present and periodically attack security forces.

The revival of the Jubaland administration

On 3 April 2011, it was announced that the new autonomous Jubaland administration would be referred to as Azania, and would be led by Mohammed Abdi Mohammed (Gandhi), the former national Minister of Defense, as president. According to President Gandhi, a trained anthropologist and historian,  Azania was selected as the name for the new administration because of its historical importance, as Azania was a name given to Somalia more than 2,500 years ago and it was given by Egyptian sailors who used to get a lot of food reserves from the Somali Coast[…] Its origin is [an] Arabic word meaning the land of plenty.

Somalia has become shorthand for how the lack of a strong central government makes states collapse into unlivable chaos. In part, that idea rests on popular conceptions of Somalia as the world’s most persistent failed state, a nation without basic security where the population struggles to get an education, food, and security.

The idea that Somalia is completely lacking in central government is false, but the federal government’s reach is indeed inconsistent. The central government is strongest around the capital, Mogadishu, but declines quickly outside of the immediate area. But that is not to say that no governing structures exist, even if they are not central. The regional government in Somalia operate with varying degrees of independence and effectiveness, ranging from the almost fully autonomous Somaliland region (which has sought recognition as an independent state), areas dominated by the militant organization Al-Shabab, and other states and regions that still struggle to establish political control.

SOMALI lawmakers elected a new president Wednesday, choosing a former prime minister who is a dual U.S.-Somali citizen. Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, better known as Farmajo,’ was declared the winner after two rounds of voting by the Somali parliament in Mogadishu. Farmajo won the largest share of votes in the second round, far outdistancing incumbent leader Hassan Sheikh Mohamud and former president Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed. Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed Farmajo, 54, who, has been living in Grand Island, N.Y., and holds degrees from the State University of New York-Buffalo. He worked as the Commissioner for Equal Employment at the New York State Department of Transportation in Buffalo. Farmajo had lived in the United States since 1985 when he was sent there with Somalia’s foreign affairs ministry. He was Somalia’s prime minister for eight months until leaving the post in 2011. [same is the case with Afghan President Ashraf Ghani; who holds trinal nationalities—Afghani, Lebanese & American]

The security situation in Somalia remains volatile, and Al-Shabaab remains the main threat to the country’s security. Al-Shabaab continues to maintain its operational strength and capability, despite ongoing and intensified ground and airstrikes across the country. Pro-ISIS elements have increased their activities in and around Mogadishu, although their operations remain limited to targeted killings. In Puntland, Al-Shabaab and pro-ISIS elements remain active.

In Sudan Hassan Al Bashir, who came to power in 1989 in an Islamists backed coup, has been forced out and now the caretaker military is also being compelled to hand over the power to the civilians. The ruling Transitional Military Council (TMC) says Islamic laws should remain the guiding principle of Sudan’s new laws. The council and protest leaders had reached an agreement on the other main aspects of the transition, including a three-year transition period and the creation of a 300-member parliament, with two-thirds of legislators to come from the protesters’ umbrella group.

The two sides launched what had been billed as a final round of talks on the transition late on Sunday [May 19th, 2019]. The TMC has faced pressure from Western governments and the African Union to agree to a civilian-led transition. {Western Government’s pressure would always be a tricky Quid-Pro-Quo}

The military junta is resisting the transition to the civilian-rule by killing protestors, who have launched peaceful civil disobedience. Ethiopian Premier—Abiy Ahmed’s mediation has also failed.

Christian South Sudanhaving sub-Saharan Africa’s third-biggest oil reserves– forced-created out of Muslim Sudan, is an example of West’s colossal failure. Its scission has cost more than 400K lives and is still in tatters. South Sudan’s war has brought underlying regional tensions to the fore. It is part of yet another chapter of the historic enmity between Uganda and Sudan, while the rivalry between Uganda and Ethiopia over their respective influence on regional security has colored the mediation process. Ethiopia, Kenya and Sudan have dedicated envoys mediating the process while Uganda is only involved at the IGAD heads of state (HoS) level.

France

Massive protests are happening in France, where people wearing “Yellow Jackets” demanding the resignation of Emmanuel Macron, seeking multifaceted reforms as in Muslim dominated countries.

Germany

Thousands of people joined climate change protests near one of Germany’s biggest lignite coal mines on Saturday, two days after European Union leaders failed to agree on a plan to make the bloc’s economy carbon neutral by 2050. Protests are also being held against the Article 13 (internet freedom of expression), Islamization of Europe (hate speech) and Immigration policies of the Angela Merkel (accepting refugees).

Serbia, Montenegro & Albania

Anti-government protests in Serbia that have brought tens of thousands of people into the streets, decrying what they see as increasingly authoritarian rule, are entering their third month. But there seems to be little sign that the demonstrators’ demands will be fruitful.

On Feb. 25, a European Union spokeswoman, Maja Kocijancic, told protestors that there would be no “Balkan spring,” referring to widening protests in Serbia, Montenegro and Albania—all countries that are hoping to join the EU. The statement, which riled protesters in all three countries, seemed to confirm for them what has been increasingly evident in recent years: The EU prefers to stick with the devil it knows in the Balkans, backing autocratically minded governments—similarly as they do in the middle east and Africa—that have failed to root out corruption and crime—the very benchmarks to join the EU—in order to preserve what it considers regional stability in the face of geopolitical rivalry.

The protests snowballed and have brought together an unlikely range of groups, including several parties from Serbia’s hugely fragmented opposition, trade unions and professional associations that might not normally be associated with rocking the boat. The protesters claim that Aleksandar Vucic (Serbian Politician) has overseen an unprecedented erosion of democracy, media freedoms and institutional independence. [These things were never let taken roots by design in the Middle East and Africa]

Democracy in Western Balkans is backsliding. Civil society, international organizations and independent experts have been reporting on unfair election practices, rising corruption, lack of accountability and lack of media freedoms for some time now. In its 2019 report, Freedom House ranked all six countries of the region as “partially free”, with Serbia’s status being downgraded for the first time after the fall of Milošević. Paradigm shift, towards equilibrium with the Middle East and Africa.

Nevertheless, the European Union has not signaled any significant change in its policy towards the region, which has been criticized by many as support of stabilocracy: mild treatment of the strongmen in the Western Balkans in exchange for political stability. It would be safe to say that, in general, E.U and the U.S.A have, hand in glove, with respect to the rest of the world.

Given that the huge protest waves of 1968, the early 1980s and 1989-1990 can now be regarded as past history in European democracy, the question now is whether a new protest culture is emerging in Western Europe. New protest lists, some evidence of ‘citizens in anger’. (like that in the Muslim-world). The new face of protest today is influenced by political agendas in reaction to recent parliamentary and governmental actions. The confidence in legislatures and governments is decreasing as there is also growing general distrust of coherent polities within European national systems. European representative democracies may come under intense-civic pressure in the future.

In Europe, people most often take to the streets to protest against austerity measures and controversial projects. This trend implies that dissent arises after decisions have been made by governments on different levels and through democratic bodies such as parliaments. It may, nevertheless, be safely asserted, that the discontentment and distrust with the ruling elites is a common denominator, albeit with some differences in their intensity and expression, given the level of development and education in various regions and countries.

People tend to be more skeptical than in earlier times about democratic decision-making processes. Indeed, being skeptical could be regarded as better than being apathetic, which unfortunately is a persistent theme in European politics, as evidenced by low voter participation. But protests today are influenced by political agendas reacting to recent parliamentary and governmental actions. After the Bologna Process, students began striking in France, the United Kingdom and Germany. In December 2010, Italian and English students smashed windows and clashed with police. Can anyone deny that it is not the ballooning of the contagion effect of the failed Arab-spring?

After strict but necessary austerity decisions were made in Greece in order to avoid a severe crisis, violent demonstrations broke out. On 29 September 2010, the so-called European Day of Action, thousands of people across Europe rushed onto the streets to protest similar austerity measures in their countries, blocking European capitals with swarms of demonstrators. The scenes were similar to those of Arab-spring from Madrid to Brussels to Athens. In France, citizens demonstrated against plans to revise the deficit-plagued pension scheme by increasing the retirement age.

United States

“Though final count is still being tabulated, researchers Erica Chenoweth and Jeremy Pressman of the Crowd Counting Consortium estimate that over 1.25 million people across the United States participated in “Saturday’s March for Our Lives” protest, making it one of the largest youth-led protests in American history, at least since the Vietnam War. These numbers aren’t an accident. A combustible array of variables, including the rise in the authoritarianism and anti-authoritarianism worldwide and technology that makes it easier to organize sibling marches, have contributed to historic turnouts. 

Overall, it is estimated that between 5.9 million and 9 million people protested in the US in 2017 alone.

The counts are already huge. Now get ready for them to explode.

Social media contributed to the exponential growth in protest size, including an increasing reliance on Facebook, Twitter, and other social media tools that make mass organizing both desirable and easily replicable.

Worldwide trend {A convergence on a grand Tahrir Square}

The feeling isn’t just mutual. It’s global. As Chenoweth notes, both authoritarianism and anti-authoritarian protests have been on the rise in recent years. Researchers have noted a substantive global increase in authoritarian populist candidates in the West in the past two decades. Citizens in 94 countries now live in non-democratic regimes, including 53 percent of the world’s people, according to the Human Rights Foundation. Authoritarianism has arrived in Turkey as well as Venezuela, (Egypt, Israel) and it continued its slow, not-quite-unprecedented crawl in the States”. BY Heather Dockray MAR 27, 2018. MASHABLE.

Conclusion

So far, protest mobilizations ‘have played only a marginal role in the master narrative of Europe. In Western Europe, countries such as France and Germany still have their own protest culture despite common projects such as the counter-globalization movement ATTAC. A new protest culture has emerged on the pattern of protests in the Muslim world, which appeals to citizens’ resentment towards government elites and decision-makers at all levels. Transnational movements; especially the contagion effects of Arab-Spring have played an important role in shaping student and austerity-related protests and the anti-globalization movement that has targeted G-8 summits. Dieter Rucht, self-deceptively concludes, the ‘Europeanisation of protest is still a myth because only a small number of protests of this type have taken place. The existing anti-elitist aspect, however, does have a direct connection to the European Union and the Muslim world’s oppressive governments; where decisions used to gain ex post facto legitimization/acceptance. Future politics in all spheres and at all levels should take this “protestation-shift” into account, otherwise, a new, fully-fledged protest culture; as a consequence of equilibrium-deterioration setting in the world at large, is bound to converge on the Singularity of a Grand Tahrir Square on the eventual Horizon.

Other potential hot-spots; are:

Afghanistan, Argentina, Albania, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bissau, Bolivia, Brazil, Baltic states (several), Cameroon, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, D.R.C (Congo), Ecuador, Guinea, Guyana, Hungary, India, Jordon,  Kashmir,   Kosovo, Latvia, Liberia, Macedonia, Mali, Moldova, Montenegro, Myanmar, Paraguay, Panama, Palestine, Peru, Philippine, Poland, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Slovenia, South  Africa, Sri- Lanka, Suriname,  Trinidad and Tobago,  Ukraine. Togo, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yemen, and Zimbabwe.

For further discussion on international affairs/relations, read: https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/06/19/re-alignments-in-the-middle-east-in-the-wake-of-receding-west/

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If everything is determined in our fate, why did Allah send us down to earth for testing? {Predestination VS Free-Will}

June 19, 2019
The question is very logical but unfortunately based on the misconception. It is a commonplace misconception that everything is pre-determined. Had that been the case there would have been no need for creation’s subjection to retribution. God sure does know everything but has not pre-destined as perceived. There is a difference in His knowing everything and having pre-determined everything. He, being the Creator does know how a person would lead his life, what choices would he make, etc. He, nevertheless, has endowed man with free-will to exercise his right of choice from the options available. {an elbow room} It, therefore, can not be imagined/construed that He (God forbid) is going against his own words/promise. 

The man operates under two different kinds of creational realms. 1) Takweeni—-where there is no choice. which applies to things such as death, age, etc. 2) Tashri’i—- One would be a believer or nonbeliever, would be selfless or selfish, etc. In-animated bodies such as trees, mountains, celestial objects, etc normally operate under the first rule of creation.

Similarly, there are two kinds of order/decree issued by God. 1) final decree—which does not admit of any change. Like death, height, color, race, place of birth, etc. 2) decree—which may or do admit of a change—such as an affliction may be changed to health due to the prayers, or the intervention of the angels; appointed for the protection of human beings.

This is confirmed in Qura’an in Surah Al Nahal 16, V 36. “And among them were those whom Allah guided, and among them were those upon whom error was [deservedly] decreed” & also V 37 “[Even] if you should strive for their guidance, [O Muhammad], indeed, Allah does not guide those He sends astray, and they will have no helpers” 

Hopefully, this explanation would suffice for the correct understanding of the topic of Free-will vs Predestination. 

Also read: https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2016/03/21/the-anthropocentric-character-of-the-universe-special-status-of-man-and-yet-his-denial-of-god/

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Who are Yazidi’s?

June 12, 2019

IRAQ-YAZIDI-RAPE-CONGO : News Photo

Yazidis: the Iraqi ethnic and religious minority descends from some of the region’s most ancient roots and face executions for a reputation as ‘devil worshippers’ Yazidis are predominantly ethnically Kurdish, and have kept alive their syncretic [more appropriately hodge-podge] religion for centuries, despite many years of oppression and threatened extermination. Yazidi people are a mostly Kurmanji–speaking ethnoreligious group, or an ethnic Kurdish minority indigenous to Iraq, Syria and Turkey who are strictly endogamous. Their so-called Syncretic-religious construction is influenced by pre-Islamic Assyrian traditions, Sufi and Shiite Islam, Nestorian Christianity, and Zoroastrianism. Their rich oral traditions [no written scripture] is their primary way of passing on their beliefs, which makes it complicated for scholars and historians to pin down the nuances of their religion. 

Yazidis believe that the world was created by God {Yazdanprobable source of the name “Yazidi’}, who entrusted it to seven angels led by one known as the Peacock Angel, also called Melek Taus. Melek Taus is the primary figure in the Yazidi belief system. Their religion is monotheistic and non-dualistic, and they do not believe in the concept of Hell. They believe in internal purification through metempsychosis, a term referring to the transmigration of souls. Yazidis believe that they are descended directly from Adam alone, while the rest of humanity comes from the lineage of both Adam and Eve. 

Though their belief system is rooted in the pre-Islamic tradition; the figure rumored as the founder of the Yazidi faith is an ‘Umayyad’ Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir; a Sufi preacher who died in 1162, considered to be an incarnation of Melek Taus. Sheikh Musafir’s tomb near Mosul, Iraq, is the Yazidi’s most important pilgrimage site.  [A highly improbable concoction; for, in that case, they would have been Muslim or at least a Sect within Islam, like many others!]  

The assemblage of Yazidi’s faith is derived from Zoroastrianism (an ancient Persian faith founded by a philosopher), Christianity and Islam. The religion has taken elements from each, ranging from baptism (Christianity) to circumcision (Islam) to reverence of fire as a manifestation from God (derived from Zoroastrianism) and yet remains distinctly non-Abrahamic. This derivative quality has often led the Yazidis to be referred to as a heretical-cult. 

At the core of the Yazidis’ marginalization is their worship of a fallen angel, Melek Tawwusor Peacock Angel, one of the seven angels that take primacy in their beliefs. Unlike the fall from grace of Satan, in the Judeo-Christian tradition, Melek Tawwus was forgiven and returned to heaven by God. {According to Islamic literature, he is not an angel but a “Gene—Jinn—made out of the smokeless flame of fire. (Q: 55:15) still lurking around in this world, misguiding people until the end to the time. He, due to his piety and worship before refusing to prostrate to Adam (PBUH), was titled as the “peacock of the Angels”} The importance of Melek Tawwus to the Yazidis has given them a reputation for being devil-[SATAN] worshippers – notoriety that, in the climate of extremism gripping Iraq, has turned life-threatening. 

 Yazidis pray facing the sun at sunrise, noon, and sunset. {Conversely Muslims are strictly forbidden to pray at these times} Wednesday is their holy day, and Saturday is their day of rest. 

An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (1137/1138–1193) born in Tikrit (Now in Iraq, the home-town of Saddam Hussain) known as Sultan Salahud-Din-Ayyubi (The Conqueror, in most of the Muslim world) or Saladin (in the west)the first sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen and the Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty. He Conquered Jerusalem on 2nd October 1187. He was A Sunni Muslim of Kurdish ethnicity [Not Yazidi] 

Shakir2.wordpress.com 

Are Qiyam-ul-Lail and Taraweeh the same? Is it allowed to pray both Taraweeh with Vitr and Qiyam-ul-Lail at the last ten days of Ramadan? 

June 1, 2019

Image result for pic of Qiyam-ul-Layl congregation?

Originally Answered on Quora.com on Jun 10th, 2018 

Qayam-ul-Lail—-could be established any night. Not only in the month of Ramadan. Qiyam-ul-Lail, in the mosques, normally starts around 2.30 A.M or so. [For, Allah (SWT) advised in Qura’an for the latter part of the night] (One may, however, continue praying/worshiping/doing Zikr, etc, after the Taraweeh to get the reward of both). 

SUNNAH: Aisha (R.A) reported: With the start of the last ten days of Ramadan, The Prophet used to tighten his waist belt (for the night prayers) and used to pray the whole night, and used to keep his family members also awake busy praying. [BUKHARI]

Tahjjud: [Another name for Qayam-ul-Lail] may also be offered following the same “Vitar” rule mentioned hereinbelow.

Vitr however, either should not be offered after Taraweeh and offered at the end of the Qayam-ul-Lail. If offered after Taraweeh then should not be repeated after the Qayam-ul-Lail. {Vitr, per hadith, ought not to be repeated but offered only once in a night}.

AHADITH “Make the last of your prayer at night Vitr.” Narrated by al-Bukhari, 998; Muslim, 749. “There should not be two Vitr in one night.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 470; al-Nasaa’i, 1679; Abu Dawood, 1439. Classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’, 7567.

Taraweeh is a recommended congregational Prayer specific to the month of Ramadan only. 

Read:-Taraweeh 

What is I’tikaf in Islam? What does one have to do during an I’tikaf? 

What is I’tikaf in Islam? What does one have to do during an I’tikaf?

May 27, 2019
It is the name of “spiritual retreat”. Seclusion for a certain number of days in the mosque, giving up/curtailing worldly affairs while keeping busy in the worship of Allah (SWT).

“Shara’i I’tikaf must be in the mosques because Allah says:: “… while you are in I’tikaf (i.e. confining oneself in a mosque for prayers and invocations leaving the worldly activities) in the mosques” [al-Baqarah 2:187]. “Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen in Fataawa Noor ‘ala al-Darb (8/176)”

“Undoubtedly I’tikaf in the mosque is an act of worship, and (observing it) in Ramadan is better than at other times. It is prescribed in Ramadan and at other times. [Fiqh al-I’tikaf by Dr. Khaalid al-Mushayqih, p. 41 – Shaykh Ibn Baaz said in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (15/437)]

One may get out of A’atikaf only for necessities/emergencies. Both men and women may perform I’tikaf in the mosques. It is not limited to the month of Ramadan only. It is sunnah. Its duration may be from the shortest to the longest time. Normally, however, it is for the last 10 nights of the Ramadan.

Al-Shaafa’i and his companions said: Whoever would like to follow the example of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in observing I’tikaf during the last ten nights of Ramadan should enter the mosque before the sun sets on the night of the twenty-first, so that he will not miss any of it, and he should come out after the sun sets on the night of Eid, whether the month is twenty-nine days or thirty.

Reed: https://shakir2.wordpress.com/tag/taraweeeh/

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2019/06/01/are-qiyam-ul-lail-and-taraweeh-the-same-is-it-allowed-to-pray-both-taraweeh-with-vitr-and-qiyam-ul-lail-at-the-last-ten-days-of-ramadan/

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Pakistan’s Oil and Gas Exploration Torpedoed!

May 19, 2019

Image result for pic of Pakistan oil and gas exploration?

Pakistan’s oil and gas exploration has been torpedoed by the alien interests for fear of uncontrollably boosting Pakistan’s strategic, economic military position on top of mega-project CPEC and giving a free pass to its obvious beneficiary China becoming secure and economically efficient with regards to its oil and gas needs; hence becoming more aggressive and pronounced, in its counter-weight super-power posturing.

IndiaBeduin Pentagon and some other countries would have lost a big chunk of their revenues and standing in international as well as regional affairs. Containment of China and clumsily botched regional—the super-power role of India would have been heavily marginalized.

Given the estimations of the discovery of huge quantities, it may, by default, be a boon to, under the heavy regimen of sanctions, Iran and Venezuela.

In its first assessment, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) estimated that Pakistan had massive deposits of 10,159 trillion cubic feet of shale gas and 2.3 trillion barrels of shale oil – figures that were several times higher than those released by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA).

PROLIFIC BLOCKS & GOOD DATA

Chairperson of P.M Imran Khan’s Task Force on energy reforms had rightly boastfully said the blocks for auction were “prolific and … (had) good data”, with interested companies including Saudi Arabia’s Aramco, Exxon Mobil and Russia’s Gazprom.

Only about 4 percent of Pakistan’s landmass has been explored, and the success rate, with one out of three wells making a find, is above the international average, he said. He also said at least three more offshore blocks have also been carved out near where Eni and Exxon are searching for gas.

“We will be auctioning those … probably next year.”

[Given the turn of events, it seems highly improbable that these blocks will be auctioned any time soon]

  • ExxonMobil, along with OGDC, PPL, and Italian energy firm Eni, each holds 25 percent interest in Block G located offshore Pakistan which is operated by Eni Pakistan Limited.
  • The block is located approximately 143 miles (230 kilometers) off the coast of Pakistan in a water depth of about 6,200 feet (1,900 meters).

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2019/01/24/4th-5the-generation-war-waged-against-pakistan/

Terrorism in Sri Lanka!

April 21, 2019

 

Sri Lankan police officers clear the road as an ambulance drives through carrying people injured in the blasts in Colombo. [Eranga Jayawardena/AP Photo]

This blog-site and its author condemn the series of attacks on innocent civilians in Sri Lanka in the strongest terms and sympathize with the victims and their families. Given the past history of terrorism in Sri Lanka, however, there is no doubt, that this is the work of Modi’s RSS/BJP. Hindu terrorists.

Terrorist India, as planned; but timely uncovered by Pakistan; couldn’t attack Pakistan; because India has been badly humiliated by Pakistan in recent air-space violations due to its preparedness and military superiority. India, therefore, picked up the soft target, Sri Lank, instead, to help Modi in ongoing elections.

There is hardly any neighbor of India, safe from its influence peddling and terrorism. All the countries, in the region, should get united and form a formidable defense against Indian terrorism within and without India. (Original publishing on April 2nd, 2019).

Caution. 04/25/2019 [ADDENDUM]

Investigations in Sri Lanka seems to be deliberately steered in the wrong direction. A defunct insignificantly small organization “National Tawheed Jamath, suspected of having links with ISIS or Al Qaeda, is being touted at the helm of the carnage.

Contrarily, an Indian man arrested in India, who claimed having trained the perpetrator, is being ignored/overlooked.

Investigators should not overlook the Indian links with the ISIS in Afghanistan; where INDIA is suspected of supplying nuclear material to ISIS, for manufacturing the dirty bombs.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2016/04/02/ugly-face-of-western-darling-india/

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Sharia’a Punishments of Islam 

April 3, 2019

The central principle/theme in the application of the hudood punishments is maximizing mercy. This was formulated clearly in a hadith of the Prophet ﷺ that was echoed by the prominent Companions, such as, his wife Aisha and the Caliphs Umar and Ali. The best-attested version states, “Ward off the hudud from the Muslims as much as you all can, and if you find a way out for the person, then let them go. For it is better for the authority to err in mercy than to err in punishment.” Within a century of the Prophet’s death, Muslim scholars had digested this hadith into the crucial legal principle of Ward off the hudud by ambiguities/doubts (shubuhāt)”

In Qura’an there are only four {Hudood} punishments prescribed/enforced by Allah Himself, whereas the rest are left to man (Qazi/Judge) to administer and apply. [penal laws]

1) Theft.

2) False accusation against a chaste woman.

3) Drinking alcohol.

4) Adultery. {Q, 24:2}

NOW AS FOR the man who steals and the woman who steals, cut off the hand of either of them in requital for what they have wrought, as a deterrent ordained by God: 48  for God is almighty, wise. (Q, 5:38)

And to those who accuse chaste women [of adultery], 6  and then are unable to produce four witnesses [in support for their accusation], flog them with eighty stripes; 7  and ever after refuse to accept from them any testimony since it is, they who are truly depraved”- (Q, 24:4)

O You who have attained to faith! Intoxicants, and games of chance, and idolatrous practices, and the divining of the future are but a loathsome evil of Satan’s doing: 105  shun it, then, so that you might attain in a happy state! (Q, 5:90)

Shurb al-Khamr: Though the Qur’an prohibits drinking wine (khamr) and intoxication, the punishment for drinking comes from the Sunna. The most reliable hadiths state that the Prophet ﷺ would have a person lashed 40 times for intoxication, but the caliphs Umar and Ali subsequently increased this to 80 after consultation with other Companions.

“The woman and the man guilty of adultery or fornication flog each of them both with 100 stripes; let not the compassion move you in their case in a matter prescribed by Allah If you believe in Allah and the Last Day; and let a party of believers witnesses their punishment”         (Q, 24:2)

Muslim schools of law have disagreed on whether three other crimes should be included in hudood category as well: public apostasy (ridda), sodomy (liwāṭ) and assassination/premeditated murder for purposes of robbery (ghīla). 

Ḥirāba(Fisad fil Ard—corruption in the land) This crime is understood to be set out in Qura’an for the condemnation of “those who make war on God and His Messenger and seek to spread harm and corruption in the land.” Qura’an declares the harshest punishment–for those who cause chaos/corruption in the land–: crucifixion or amputation of one hand and one opposite foot; of all involved in the group, regardless of the level of participation. (Qur’an 5:33).

It is but a just recompense of those who make war on God and His apostle, 43 and endeavor to spread corruption on earth, that they are being slain in great numbers, or crucified in great numbers, or have, in result of their perverseness, their hands and feet cut off in great numbers, 44  or are being [entirely] banished from [the face of] the earth: such is their ignominy in this world. 45  But in the life to come [yet more] gruesome suffering awaits them.

First three hudood acts; though willfully committed; may partially be influenced by some circumstantial compulsions; beyond one’s control, such as poverty, suspicion, or depression, etc., adultery is sure an outcome of one’s continual and deliberate flouting of the continence and precepts of morality. Hence, the punishment for it is also the harshest. For those who are unmarried, it is 100 lashes and banishment from society {of the male only} for one year. (hadith) For those who are married,  Rajm– stoning till death. [incontrovertible evidence, proof, such as pregnancy, or confession is pre-requisite].

Punishment has to be meted out without any compassion/leniency towards the culprits and in public for its optimal deterrent effect.

The punishment for adultery was revealed piecemeal; initially, a softer one; wherein repentance was permissible (Q, 4: 15-16).  Adulterous woman was to be confined within the house, deprived of husband’s company in the bed, a necessity of four trustworthy witnesses of the crime and resultant hurt (a light infliction of harm) OR until Allah prescribe a way for them. (Q, 4:15)

Then Surah Al-Noor 24:2 was revealed.

Finally; the 100 lashed and banishment of the unmarried and stoning (Rajm) of the married (Through the Hadith & Sunnah of the Prophet).

NoteIn the beginning; the quantity and type of harm to be inflicted etc. was left to the discretion of the judge.

What is in common about the hudood crimes is that; their punishments have been specified in the Qur’an or Sunna, they are considered to be violations of the rights of God and that; no one—even the king or the ruler– has the right to alter, abate or abolish them.

Note: In Qura’an, adultery is the only crime where a woman has been mentioned before man. In Qura’an, a masculine gender is the main addressee whereas feminine gender is considered included by implication.

A logical reason for mentioning women here first is that; women are overly compassionate and impressionable toward their physique. The evil of adultery is so impudent that; initiation from a woman would be the result of an extremely brazen behavior, for she is endowed with instinctive shyness and protection of her chastity. 

It is worth noticing here that; where the punishment is severe, the conditions about the proof are also tough and the slightest doubt would remit the punishment out of Hudood ambit. A judge then would have the jurisdiction to decide the case under (tazir) penal laws prescribed in Sharia’a/Fiqh.

A false accuser or witness whose evidence has been rejected is liable for punishment of 80 lashes. (#2 above).

NOTE: If there are four HONEST, EQUITABLE and JUST witnesses not available but less than four, or not willing to testify, the crime can still be reported by the witness (s) to be dealt with by the Judge under penal law; awarding the punishment based on circumstantial imperatives, as he deems fit, in the light of sharia’a/fiqha.

The punishment for false accusation does not fall in the category of “Hadd” as this is the right of the falsely accused. It shall be awarded [80 stripes] only if the accused demands its enforcement. She/He may forgive the accuser or not demand its implementation at all, thereby giving up her/his right.

The accusation of adultery, between Husband and wife, although falling under the doctrine of “Hudood”, has been SPECIFICALLY dealt with under a sub-doctrine of “LIA’AN—CURSE of ALLAH” {where either one of them is unable to neither produce 4 witnesses nor keep quiet}.[Q, 24:6]

The spirit and intent of the Islamic laws are, the compassion and mercy, therefore the benefit of the slightest doubt would go to the accused.

Islamic injunctions are based on pre-emption; therefore, it promulgates the laws to (nip the crime in the bud) stem the crimes before they take place. Women, therefore, are required to cover themselves appropriately, not be ostentatious and thumping while walking. Men are also required to keep their gaze down and not cast an eye on women. Proscription for a man and a woman to be together in the absence of a third person/guardian. One should not enter a house without permission.

Apart from Hudood, there are two more categories under which punishments may be administered in Islam.

Tazir (or ta’zir, Arabic) Penal-Law refers to punishment, usually corporal, that can be administered at the discretion of the judge or the ruler of an Islamic State.

Qisas (equal retaliation) — an alternate of which is “Diya” (Arabic: دية‎; plural diyāt, Arabic: ديات‎), often called blood-money–in Islamic law, is the financial compensation paid to the victim or the heirs of a victim in the cases of murder, bodily harm or property damage.

O you who believe! retaliation is prescribed for you in the matter of the slain; the free for the free, and the slave for the slave, and the female for the female; but if any remission is made to anyone by his (aggrieved) brother (relatives), then (the demand for the bloodwit) should be made according to usage, and payment should be made to him in a good man­ner; this is an alleviation from your Lord and a mercy; so whoever exceeds the limit after this, he shall have a painful chastisement” (Q,2:178).

“And there is life for you in the retali­ation, O men of understanding, that you may guard your-selves (against evil)” (Q, 2:179).

LIFE FOR LIFE/QISAS

Murder is not a crime that takes place at the hands of sound individuals; surely the murderer suffers from some psychological disorder (sickness/disease). We witness and understand that for the purpose of protecting a body, the diseased part of that body is amputated. Therefore, eliminating such blood-shedding individuals from society is akin to severing a harmful limb to safeguard the life and the society at large.

NOTE:

Western canon law was influenced/shaped a great deal by Islamic law (sharia’a), just as the Western philosophy and science were profoundly shaped by Muslim scholars from the tenth to the thirteenth centuries.

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Lying and deception in Islam. 

February 27, 2019

Image result for Pinterest. Image of a tree bRANCHES showing several faces?

Lying is one of the greatest sins in Islam. Text and the corpus juris are quite explicit about this. Evils of lying are more dreadful than the evils of adultery. In one of the Ahadith lying is equated with committing adultery with one’s own mother. 

“Only they forge the lie who do not believe in Allah’s communications, and these are the liars.” (Q,16:105) 

“Surely Allah does not guide him aright who is a liar, ungrateful.” (Q, 39:3) 

A liar also invokes the curse of Allah (SWT) 

“… and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars.” (Q,  3:61) 

“… the curse of Allah be on him if he is one of the liars.” (Q, 24:8) 

Hadith: “When a believer speaks a lie, he becomes prone to committing every other sin; and when this happens, he commits kufr (disbelief) which then makes him liable to enter Hell.” 

Toriyyah (dissimulation) 

It means to say something, which could be interpreted in more than one way. One of the meanings should be the truth while the other ambiguous 

Example:  If a tyrant comes to one’s place seeking him out but he wants to remain in the safety of his home; a person from his family may answer the door and say, ‘He is not here’; with the intention that ‘He’ is not at the door’. 

Toriyyah (dissimulation) It is a dissimulation which is permissible and legitimate; when spoken in defense of oneself from cruelty or persecution, would not fall within the definition of a lie. Same would justify the three dissimulations uttered by Prophet Abraham (PBUH). 

1) Declaring that he is not feeling well/or is indisposed. 

2) Not acknowledging the Amputation of the arm of the big idol in Ka’aba and pointing instead to the big idol. 

3) Declaring his wife as his sister to protect against the evil intention of the king. 

                                                                  Also 

A statement in the nature of an assumption and a supposition which is contrary to facts is not a lie. It is a metaphoric attribution/assumption which does not belie an established fact. Example: [prophet saying] “If the Rahman (GOD) has a son I would be the first one to serve him” (Q, 43:81) 

 

Hila (Hiyal) [pl] is the avoidance of observing the Islamic law in (extremely) difficult situations while still obeying the letter of the law. 

Note: in Sunni schools it is still controversial while in Shia’a school by 15th century it was fully acceptable; by the force of fatawa issued by Ibn Hajar Al Asqalanibanning its criticism. Hanafites accepted it, Malikites still consider it illegal. There is however a growing debate about the purpose of Sharia’a; its increased interpretational flexibility; in view of the problems/issues faced, due to “Modernity” and “concrete-thinking”, hence revival/increased-employment of Hila as a legitimate tool. Sharia’a based Islamic finance industry is making greater use of it in developing “Riba-(interest)-free” products.  

Imam Bukhari (following the transmission-based juris) differed with Hanafites on the use of legal device “Hila” with vehemence. He condemned the use of Hiyal on the basis of hadith “All deeds are judged by their intentions” in tandem with Imam Hanbal and Iban Al Mubarak, who also vehemently rejected the use of Hiyal 

He also disagreed with Hanafite’s well-known laxity in defining; by employing the device of “hila”—an intoxicant—wine, as grape juice.  

Allah’s planning: (use of Hila) “when we revealed to your mother what was to be revealed” (Q20:38) [ Pharaoh having been told that; someone born in Bani Israel would ruin/kill you, ordered the killing of all male children]. Allah told the mother of Moses to put Moses in a basket and cast him into the river and not to entertain any apprehension about his safety. He will be picked up by the one who is his and My enemy. Your sister working for pharaoh’s family would guide him to you (Moses’s mother) as a sulking nurse, whereby she (Moses’s mother) will not be grieved. [Q, 20:38-39]. 

 Tentative Conclusion of Hiyal Doctrine 

Ḥiyal (sg. ḥīla) are “legal devices” or tools used in achieving certain objectives, lawful or not, through lawful means. Although it is generally agreed that ḥiyal are not a subterfuge for the “evasion of the law,” their exact nature and place within Islamic jurisprudence, however, remains an open question. To date, there have been only a few studies devoted to this doctrine and these have focused almost exclusively upon the Ḥanafītes, who developed ḥiyal into a special branch of the law, called makhārij, i.e. “exits” 

Examined here is the doctrine of the Ḥanafīte together with that of the Mālikīte/Medinaite jurists; who were early witnesses for and against ḥiyalas conceived by the Ḥanafītes. On the basis of their understanding of the law in terms of utility, Ḥanafītes employed makhārij (exits) to provide remedies for those who sought them. As a particular transmission of Ḥanafīte doctrine, the genre of makhārij sought to confirm the standard doctrine by discovering “exits” suggested therein. Ḥanafīte’s concern for the subject was shared by the Mālikītesalbeit from a different point of viewMālikītes discussed ḥiyal as jurisprudential materials; that convey the validity of their doctrine, prescribing appropriate solutions. Thus, it is concluded that both the Ḥanafītes and Mālikītes regarded ḥiyal as solutions drawn from the materials of jurisprudence in accordance with the spirit of the law as interpreted by the jurists of their respective schools. 

Taqiyyah(dissembling) It is termed as an outright lie in the Sunni school of thought. In Shia’a School, however, it is considered (based on the word [ittiqa]prudence, precaution or fear”. {A precautionary denial of the faith or its practices in the face of persecution. Kitman (covering)—by silence or omission}. Among the “Twelver-Shia’as it is politically legitimized to maintain unity among the Muslims in general and fraternity among the shia’a clerics in particular. 

Taqqiyah was developed by Imam Jafar Al Sadiq to protect against the oppression of Abbasid Caliph—Al Mansur—who was a Sunni Muslim.  Also, that esoterically, the Ilm–knowledge” given to Shia’a Imam has to be hidden from the uninitiated and adversaries until the descending of their “Twelfth-Imam”[Taqqiyah—This term is often used against Islam and Muslims indiscriminately by the Islamophobes and Anti-Islam polemicists]. 

Its authority is said to have been derived from the Qura’anic verse 3:28 although, there is not the slightest indication of permission for lying or deceivingexcept for exoteric stop-gap accommodation of the nonbelievers–in the face of extreme adversity. 

“Believers should not take disbelievers {where the interest of the deniers of the truth clashes with that of the believers} as guardians instead of the believers; and whosoever does so will have nothing to hope for from Allah (SWT), unless it is a precaution against their tyranny. {where there is a reason to fear from them something; which ought to be guarded against, for they are more powerful than the Muslims} And Allah warns you about Himself. And to Allah is the final return” (Q, 3:28) 

Scientific dimension of Divine injunction with respect to Lying, deception, and planning,  

Surah Al-Alaq # 96 verse, 15 & 16 exhibits; how scientifically structured are Islamic injunctions; as shown here, with respect to lying, deceiving and planning. 

No! If he does not desist, We will surely smite his forehead – (96:15) 

A lying sinning forehead (96:16) 

“And shun the false speech” (Q, 22:30) 

 Lying and deception are generated in the frontal lobe/cortex of the forehead, also known as the “The voice of reason” 

 (we will certainly smite his forehead),  ناصيته NAASIYAH is the forehead. 

Image result for pic of the brain frontal cortex
 Obvious questions would beWhy did the Quran describe the front of the head as being lying and sinful?  Why didn’t the Quran say that the person was lying and sinful?  What is the relationship between the front of the head and lying and sinfulness?  

 If we look into the skull at the front of the head, we will find that the prefrontal area of the cerebrum (left side of the figure) is what does the physiology tells us about the function of this area?  

 A book entitled Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology explains about this area that; “the motivation and the foresight to plan and initiate movements” occur in the anterior portion of the frontal lobes, the prefrontal area. This is a region of association cortex…” The book also explains, “In relation to its involvement in motivation, the prefrontal area is also thought to be the functional center for aggression 

So, this area of the cerebrum is responsible for planning, motivating, and initiating good and sinful behavior and is responsible for the telling of lies and the speaking of truth.  Thus, it is befittingly described in the Holy Qura’an; that it is the front of the head lying and sinful when someone lies or commits a sin. “...A lying, sinful naseyyah (front of the head)!” 

 

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