Archive for the ‘Interpersonal Relationship’ Category

What is a “Halala/Tahleel-marriage” in Islam?  

January 25, 2020

Image result for pic of a Muslim divorced couple?

Answered a question on Halala (briefly) on 01/15/2020 at Quora.com

Halala Also known as Tahleel Marriage” loosely means to “legitimize” something.

Most often, the concept of Halala” is misunderstood and misquoted by ignorant Muslims and Non-Muslims alike.

Halala is neither a convenience nor a short-cut to undo an irrevocable divorce; but a sort of punishment for the man, who has committed an abominable act without due diligence and deliberation. 

A woman will not become lawful for the first husband to marry again, had the second husband divorced her without consummating the marriage, even at his own free will.  Bukhaari (2639) and Muslim (1433) Narrated by Ayesha (r.a.a)

This matter ought to be looked at; bearing in mind; that the act of “Divorcing” though permissible, is considered the most despised act, by the Almighty!

Hadith. The Prophet (PBUH) said, “Among lawful things, divorce is most hated by Allah.” (Abu Dawud).

 These are the three most important verses in the Holy Qura’an; setting the principles and modalities of “Divorce” Tahleel-Marriage” and “Post-Tahleel-Behavior”, to be followed.

“And when you divorce women and they have [nearly] fulfilled their term, either retain them according to acceptable terms or release them according to acceptable terms, and do not keep them, intending harm, to transgress [against them]. And whoever does that has certainly wronged himself. And do not take the verses of Allah in jest. And remember the favor of Allah upon you and what has been revealed to you of the Book and wisdom by which He instructs you. And fear Allah and know that Allah is Knowing of all things” [Q, 2:231]

“And if he has divorced her [for the third time], then she is not lawful to him afterward until [after] she marries a husband other than him. And if the latter husband divorces her [or dies], there is no blame upon the woman and her former husband for returning to each other if they think that they can keep [within] the limits of Allah (SWT). These are the limits of Allah, which He makes clear to a people who know” [Q, 2:230]

“And when you divorce women and they have fulfilled their term, do not prevent them from remarrying their [former] husbands if they agree among themselves on an acceptable basis. That is instructed to whoever of you believes in Allah and the Last Day. That is better for you and purer, and Allah knows and you know not” [Q, 2:232]

It has been emphatically advised that the utterances of “Divorce” [talaq] should not be carried out in one go but in three stages, spanning through the duration of married life, known as (Talaq al-bayyina al-sughra) [agreed upon by the majority of scholars and schools]. Affording the couple at least two opportunities in their married life to reconsider their decision and re-unite (Raja’a), before it is too late, and the irrevocable divorce becomes established. (Talaq al-bayyina al-kubra)

Hadith. [Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) reported that the (pronouncement) of three divorces during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) and that of Abu Bakr and two years of the caliphate of Umar (R.A. A) was treated as one. But Umar bin. Khattab (R.A.A) said: Verily the people have begun to hasten in the matter in which they are required to observe respite. So, if we had imposed this upon them, and he imposed it upon them]. Book 9, Number 3491.

NOTE: – Here, if a couple, after the first divorce, hasn’t re-united within the idda period, an irrevocable divorce would become established. They may, nevertheless, re-marry, with a fresh nikah. So, would they be entitled to, after the second divorce as well—either to re-unite before the expiration of the idda period or re-marry afresh after the lapse of idda-period. {re-union without nikah is available before the expiration of the idda period after all three divorces. The convenience of re-marrying after the lapse of third idda-period, however, would come to an END, and the compulsion of Tahleel-marriage would kick in. 

 

Divorce is of four kinds:  Ahsan, most laudableHasan, laudable, In-correct/irregular Bida’a and under duress Mukrah.

Talaq Ahsan–most laudable divorce–is where the husband repudiates his wife by making one pronouncement within the period of Tahr (purity–when the woman is neither menstruating nor having post-natal bleeding) and husband has not had sexual intercourse, and (after the utterance of “Talaq”) she is left to observe her ‘Idda waiting-period:-

Iddah. “Women who are divorced shall wait, keeping themselves apart, three (monthly) courses. (Q, 2:228).  And as for pregnant women, their term shall end with delivery. (65:4).   And those among you who die and leave behind wives, (these wives) should keep themselves waiting for four months and ten days” (Q, 2:234).

Talaq Hasan–laudable divorce–is where a husband repudiates an enjoyed-wife (having had intercourse with) by three sentences of divorce, in three Tuhrs

Talaq Bida’a—irregular or In-correct divorce–is where a husband repudiates his wife by three utterances of “Divorce” (talaq) in one go. According to the majority of the jurists, the Divorce, though valid, is against the spirit of the Shari’ah, therefore, the man following this course would be a deviator in the eyes of Allah (SWT).

Talaq Mukrah–under duress.

“There are three things in which, not only the serious worlds but nonserious words would also count serious. 1) Nikah 2) Divorce 3) Emancipation of a slave. 4) Re-uniting (raja’a), by revoking the divorce. [Narrated by Abu Dawood and Tirmazi—category—good]

According to Imam Abu Hanifa, Nakhai, Qatadah,  Zuhri, and Al Sha’bi, the application of this hadith is restricted to the divorce under duress/compulsion. [discounting the consideration of the will and the intention]

Imam Shafai’i, Imam Ali Ibn Talib and Ibn Abbas, however, contended otherwise by citing another hadith;

“Removed are, from my Ummah, the consequences of acts done by mistake, in forgetfulness and under duress” [ Narrated by Tabarani and Thawhan—category—authentic]

Imam Abu Hanifa is of the view that the “exculpation” as per this hadith pertains to the hereafter, not this world.

Should this premise be admitted, then in my humble view, the consideration of the will and the intention will inevitably become pertinent and integral! Moreover, the intent/purport of the earlier narration seems to have a deterring-undertone (against a casual attitude in serious matters) rather than injunctive, which will satisfy the conciliatory-requisite for the accommodation of both the narrations.  Famous Hadith: “Actions are judged by the intentions” clearly support the argument. (Allah knows the best).

 Divorce initiated by a Woman. (khula)

The right of a woman in demanding the dissolution of marriage is known as “Khula (meaning, the putting off or taking off of a thing). It is a kind of facility/right provided to the wife in securing “Divorce” Talaq from her husband by returning a part or full amount of the bridal gift.

Hadith. ‘A’isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported: When the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was commanded to give option to his wives, he started it from me saying: I am going to mention to you a matter which you should not (decide) in haste until you have consulted your parents. She said that he already knew that my parents would never allow me to seek separation from him She said: Then he said: Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, said: Prophet, say to thy wives: If you desire this world’s life and its adornment, then come, I will give you a provision and allow you to depart a goodly departing; and if you desire Allah and His Messenger and the abode of the Hereafter, then Allah has prepared for the doers of good among you a great reward She is reported to have said: About what should I consult my parents, for I desire Allah and His Messenger and the abode of the Hereafter? She (‘A’isha) said: Then all the wives of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) did as I had done. [Book 9, Number 3498]

 

A desire to re-uniteONLYafter the third and final Divorce (irrevocable—talaq bayyina al-kubra), would necessitate the process of “Halala” or “Tahleel-marriage”

 

One may contend why the woman has to suffer for the fault of the man?

The logical answer is that; a man being the head of the family, custodian of the honor and the dignity, of the family, clan, tribe, etc. would psychologically suffer the most. The woman on the other hand (depending on the ex-husband’s overall behavior/treatment), may or may not like the apparently grotesque process of reunification with her first-husband. However, in all fairness, the woman not only gets re-instated in her status, but she also gets an opportunity extended, to prudently compare and evaluate the present and the past situations. If she feels comfortable and content with the present situation, she may avail of this opportunity and stay put, for she, having been repudiated, was disrespected, dishonored and belittled by her former husband!

Had the man been subjected to go through the process instead, it would have been rather a boon to him; as he is already allowed to marry up to four women. Instead of deterring it would have, most likely, incentivized him for his callous behavior to repeat!

Allah (SWT), is best of the psychologists, therefore, He has ordained the redress jolting the psychological reflexes of the man to the core.

 

Moreover, the woman here neither has the control (over the divorce), nor the obligation to go back to her former husband!

The second husband is also under no moral or legal obligation to divorce. Anyone who does so deliberately; to facilitate the return of the woman to her first husband, has been “cursed” by the Prophet (PBUH)} [Tahleel-marriage in such a situation would become “haram” Invalid]

Women having been endowed with unique temperamental flexibility in terms of the marital relationship by Allah (SWT), therefore, may not take long to adjust in a new situation,

“And one of His signs is that He created mates for you from yourselves that you may find tranquility in them, and He put between you love and compassion; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect” [Q,30:21]

 

Divine injunctions, when analyzed from a secular or western frame of mind; often lacking the faith in the Divine will and wisdom, would neither make sense nor would lead to the right conclusion.

 

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Shakir2.wordpress.com

Is Wife a Sex- Slave?

August 29, 2019

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“A Muslim wife must not refuse to satisfy the sexual urges of her husband as and when demanded”

There seems to be some misunderstanding here; in justification whereof; often quoted verses, in addition to some ahadith, are; –

1 “Man is a degree above them (women) [in authority and responsibility] …women be devoutly obedient” (Q, 4:34)

2 “Your women are a tillage for you; so, come unto your tillage as you wish”.    (Q, 2:223)

This dissertation may be better understood by trifurcating into; Psychophysical, behavioral and spiritual segments, successively.

Authentic ahadith, in essence, make a woman obligated to fulfill her husband’s sexual desires as and when demanded and should not refuse. (unnecessarily)

Here are two things to be borne in mind that; keeping husband satisfied would endure and perpetuate the marital and family life. It is also in consonance with a woman’s exhortative libidinal wanderlust. It is hard to imagine that a woman; who is lured into sexual overture by a legitimate partner; would not be thrilled to jump on it unless inhibited by some stone-cold reason?

Women, especially of the feminist mindset, interpret these verses/ahadith; suggestive of women’s “obligation”, as if these have enforced some kind of bondage or sex slavery.

A general tendency, often exhibited, is that we take a verse/hadith in Isolation and interpret it in black and white!

Islam (through Qura’anAhadith and Sunnah) molds human behavior to employ rationality, reason, logic and somewhat common sense (to harness one’s understanding and interpretation) to achieve the ultimate goal; through habituated behavior of obedience/compliance, a successful end of the sojourn. {coerced compliance would make the whole edifice come to naught}

“Had your Lord willed, all the people on earth would have believed. So can you [Prophet] compel people to believe?”(Q,10:99)

There are many traditions emphasizing upon the importance of legitimate sexual satisfaction, of both the partners equally (including for pleasure). Legitimate sexual-activity attains the station of worship, sadaqah and sunnah.

I wonder if there is any hadith/sunnah whereby Prophet is known to have ever forced any of his wives for sex?

CARDINAL RULE

One ought to; take the cumulative-contextual-sense of all the verses on the topic/issue; take the common(contextual) theme of the authentic ahadith  {which must be in conformity with the Qura’anic dictum}; then get to the gist/essence of the injunction, reposing one’s trust in Allah (SWT) to guide him on the right course. (Q, 2: 85 & 4: 150) [Ijtihad/Personal Ijtihad–by employing the Uslub Tafsir Maudhu’i]

Note: – Every hadith; like Qura’anic verse; is necessitated by a context; which must be correctly established, for its correct understanding and application. 

In regard to the wife’s “obligation” to husband’s sexual satisfaction; one should keep the following things in mind; 

A wife’s sexual-satisfaction is similarly obligatory on the husband.

Compassionate, good treatment of women is commonplace in the Qura’anAhadith and Sunnah.

Moderation in behavior is the hallmark of Islamic teachings.

Ultimate pleasure sought/desired, through various acts/abstinences, is of Allah (SWT).

Therefore, the sexual satisfaction of the husband by his wife does not become mandatory/compulsory in all the circumstances but congruous, cogent and permissible ones, garnering the ultimate pleasure/blessings of Allah. Hence the verse is suggestive/advisory of the obligation; without making it mandatory in disregard of the behavioral or circumstantial swings; discounting the botched concept of bondage/slavery of a devoutly obedient wife. {Vindicated by the proscription of the sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman}It is a state of impurity; so, keep away from the women in the state of menstruation, and do not approach them until they are cleansed (Q, 2:222)

Marital rape/forced-sex

Women having been granted the highest status; such as; the mother of the Prophets; the mother of the faithful; cannot be imagined, to having been made slavishly subservient to the indecorous sexual urges of the husband.

Some scholars try to justify the sexual-satisfaction-right of the husband; even when secured through coercion, by using an apparently formidable but in reality, an untenable argument.  The justification generally presented; in denial/suppression of woman’s feelings, dignity and free-will; is the pleasure of Allah (SWT); which no Muslim would normally dare, differ with or challenge!

In my humble opinion; sexual satisfaction obtained by coercing one’s wife, as if she is a lump of dead meat; in the face of the man having multiple options/rights of divorcing, having more than one wife and marrying another woman, cannot be justified. On the other hand; the woman who is not inclined/agreeable to having sex with the husband must be having a sound reason(s) (psychological or physical incongruity) for it. Therefore, forcing her would not make her either in obedience/compliance of the desires of the husband or of the will of Allah (SWT). Neither will there be a sense of satisfaction/fulfillment on the part of the husband (normally derived from the mutuality/consensual participation of the two); but mere ejaculation, coupled, most likely, with remorse and guilt.

{The emphasis placed; on the compassion; hygienics; good smell and foreplay, therefore, tacitly predicates for a consensual/participatory sex} 

 

Further reading on the topic of women;

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/01/11/a-womans-place-in-islam/

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2015/06/22/muslim-women-marrying-non-muslim-men/

Comment/feedback/share/like/follow 

shakir2.wordpress.com

 

Pakistan’s Oil and Gas Exploration Torpedoed!

May 19, 2019

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Pakistan’s oil and gas exploration has been torpedoed by the alien interests for fear of uncontrollably boosting Pakistan’s strategic, economic military position on top of mega-project CPEC and giving a free pass to its obvious beneficiary China becoming secure and economically efficient with regards to its oil and gas needs; hence becoming more aggressive and pronounced, in its counter-weight super-power posturing.

IndiaBeduin Pentagon and some other countries would have lost a big chunk of their revenues and standing in international as well as regional affairs. Containment of China and clumsily botched regional—the super-power role of India would have been heavily marginalized.

Given the estimations of the discovery of huge quantities, it may, by default, be a boon to, under the heavy regimen of sanctions, Iran and Venezuela.

In its first assessment, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) estimated that Pakistan had massive deposits of 10,159 trillion cubic feet of shale gas and 2.3 trillion barrels of shale oil – figures that were several times higher than those released by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA).

PROLIFIC BLOCKS & GOOD DATA

Chairperson of P.M Imran Khan’s Task Force on energy reforms had rightly boastfully said the blocks for auction were “prolific and … (had) good data”, with interested companies including Saudi Arabia’s Aramco, Exxon Mobil and Russia’s Gazprom.

Only about 4 percent of Pakistan’s landmass has been explored, and the success rate, with one out of three wells making a find, is above the international average, he said. He also said at least three more offshore blocks have also been carved out near where Eni and Exxon are searching for gas.

“We will be auctioning those … probably next year.”

[Given the turn of events, it seems highly improbable that these blocks will be auctioned any time soon]

  • ExxonMobil, along with OGDC, PPL, and Italian energy firm Eni, each holds 25 percent interest in Block G located offshore Pakistan which is operated by Eni Pakistan Limited.
  • The block is located approximately 143 miles (230 kilometers) off the coast of Pakistan in a water depth of about 6,200 feet (1,900 meters).

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2019/01/24/4th-5the-generation-war-waged-against-pakistan/

Justice With Terror 

January 18, 2019

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An activist Chief-Justice of Pakistan Supreme Court–Mian Saqib Nisar–(above) retired yesterday with a panoply of feathers in his hat. History would remember him with both; admiration and scoffing. He sure won my kudos for much of what he did while, come on, give me a break! for bragging; sleeping for 3 hours only, bargaining for RS. 1000B of looted money with Malik Riaz to get him absolved of all crimes, Idolizing an aider/abettor of political-Dons’ lawyer; Aitazaz Ahsan. This was way out of the whack.  

He created a sense of terror; which is “inevitable” in countries like Pakistan, where the incumbent government is impotent and everyone else has been busy plundering, robbing and hurting it for 70+ years as a norm.   

Image result for pic of pak chief justices

New Chief-Justice–Asif Saeed Khosa (above)–took oath at the hands of an educated, professional and clean President. This sure is a sign of fortune for a country; with enormous potentials and strategically positioned, like Pakistan.  

Shakir2.wordpress.com

Existential Amiss

September 30, 2018

Common sense, Reason, Logic, Causality, Imagination, Morality & Ethics!

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I intended to write this piece in a secular fashion but the overwhelming relevance of the Divine wisdom kept piercing through my thought canvas, hence surrendered making it part of the discourse. Human discourse or argumentation, anyway, barely scratches the obvious externalities of the issues while the Divine wisdom put forth the internally woven realities in a succinct yet aptly simple manner. One may notice the examples of such Subtleties in the course of reading this treatise.

Had Common sense, reason and logic been potent enough to reach the absolute certainty of the conclusions drawn, there would have been no need for the Divine religions to barge in. All of these tools are perceptual or experiential outcomes of human endeavors which; given the deficient nature of human faculties; are incapable of coming even remotely close to the level of Divine Wisdom; Revelation, the only fait accompli. (A subtle hint/deduced from Q, 17; 37) Hence some of the precepts of the religion are above and beyond the realm of human commonsense, causality, reason and logic, exuding perfect certitude and submission. (A state of affairs enormously repugnant and conceptually unacceptable to the secularists, anti-religionists and non-believers)

Note:- similar debate has been going on for long. a brief excerpt is quoted here.

[The innovative Jahmiyyah and Their Relatives from Ahl al-Kalaam Asharis and Maturidis fought the greatest battle and contention between the followers of the revealed Books and the sent Messengers and between the followers of the Hellenized Jews, Christians and Sabeans. Those who contradict the revealed texts with their reason (aql), and think the reason is definitive over the revealed texts].

Common sense is really not as common as perceived. Variegated sense perceptions render it somewhat-common, partially-common, quasi-common or purely individualistic rather than really-common in the true sense of the word.

  Reason and Logic are even more disparate; propitious-reason and logic; sometimes referred to as rationality; are used to justify a conclusion, one is at home with. (Rational bias) A slightest dissension or differentiation would entail disapproval or divergence. Therefore, all these tools may create some sort of near or quasi-convergence but not an absolute or conclusive one. Logic is derived from the Greek word “logos”. In Muslim Philosophy another Grecian alternative “monads”*1 is used instead, to justify a position/stance by distinguishing a good reason from the bad one. It is only the Divine revelation (wisdom, word) which is flawless, absolute and ultimate-truth; authoritative in its perception, understanding and validity…worthy of even blind-Faith.

Kurt Gödel puts it succinctly as follow:- 

The logical axioms that underlie everyday things like arithmetic depend on us accepting as reasonable the notion that infinity comes in several different sizes.

In Islamic parlance, however “pristine-reason” (Haq al Yaqeen); in the absence of a human messenger; is considered to be potent enough for a rational being to come; at least, to the cognition of the existence and oneness of God, hence obviating disbelief. “Pristine-reason” here, is “elevated to the status of a “non-human-messenger” of God, for reason gains an edge when the logic fails rational being. (Deduced from Q, 17: 15)

Contemplative tools; human faculties, given the amiss, may help us reach the level of most probable/likely certainty (in the temporal, ancillary and ritualistic matters) but not that of an absolute certitude (in the core matters of belief/faith); which is only possible by Divine consent/intervention through the heart (Q, 10:100), as in the above case of cognition of God’s Oneness. Here the externality of this intervention cloaked in the garb of; “pristine-human-reason”, is upgraded to the status of “non-human-messenger”

Non-believer’s obstinate rejection of the Divine, religious injunctions and that of hereafter; though based on (tenuous and vitiated) reason, logic and common sense, amply explains their state of affairs.           (Q, 10:100)

*1 Universal Spirit, the first cause, singularity, Divine, Intermediary agent etc.

Imam Ghazali;- “With regard to sense-perception says; it made him very hesitant to accept the infallibility of reason. He believed in the testimony of sense till it was contradicted by the verdict of reason. Well, perhaps there is above reason another judge who; if appeared, would convict reason of falsity and if such a third arbiter is not yet apparent it does not follow that he does not exist.”

When Imam Ghazali could not reconcile the philosophical dispensations with the Divine wisdom, (Obviously there is no comparison between the two; one represents the mundaneness, while the other, word of the Divine) he turned to Sufism.

In quantum physics (Double-Slit) experiment, our act of observing something seems to change what’s observed – we are ourselves part of the experiment. Is this the ultimate problem of self-reference, one that suggests a limit to how much we can ever reason about—our surroundings—the universe?

 Role of the religion, therefore, becomes inevitable; for it presents us with flawless and absolute truth; which is perceptually-authoritative and practically valid, engendering “Taqwa”. [Innate reverential-fear (Awe) of Allah (SWT). Distinct from the usual fear of other (agencies)]

An incisive consideration and pondering, on just two of the aspects of the divine religion: 1) Belief in the hereafter. 2) The contentment would vouch for and warrant religion’s inevitability.

Belief in the hereafter is often considered a conceptual absurdity and theological fallacy hence rejected by the non-believers. Belief in the hereafter, however, is the source of immitigable hope and equity, which no atheistic belief/doctrine/philosophy may even, conceives to offer. Unbelief in the hereafter renders one scuttled of many realities. Such as; ultimate-reality; ultimate-hope; ultimate-triumph, and ultimate-Justice. One, without the belief in the hereafter, is like, latching onto the event-horizon of a black hole of hopelessness and despair. The statistics, available on depression/hopelessness resulting in suicide and homicide, is a vindication of this fact. Conversely, in the overwhelmingly religious affluent Middle East, there are hardly any such issues, hence NO mental hospitals needed.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2015/08/22/scuttling-the-mental-capacity/

Contentment is a huge blessing for a rational being. When someone (even a non-believer) is suffering; no relief in sight; distressed/desperate, resorts back to God, is blessed with His mercy. (Q, 27:62) Overwhelmed with gratitude, he takes a sigh of relief and the most joyous sense of contentment sets in. (One’s resorting back to God while distressed, means un-recalcitrant-submission; invigorating the innate impulses; meeting the pre-requisites; of belief in Him, His injunctions, including the belief in the hereafter).

Is He [not best] who responds to the distressed/desperate one when he calls upon Him and removes evil and makes you inheritors of the earth?” (Q, 27:62)

“Deprived is the one who has been deprived of the reward of enduring distress”  (Khidr–a.s)                                                                                                                                          Fasting in the month of Ramadan from dawn to dusk is a fine practical example of it; whereby one is patiently content (nafs-al-mutmai’nna) all day long, hoping the accrual of the temporal and divinely rewards at the end of the day.

Faculties of thinking and the exercise of Free-will (choice) are also signs of deficiency on the part of the creation. Allah does not think but intends; for He is omnipotent; causer of both, the cause and the effect. Nothing wrong/bad may emanate from His essence (Q, 48:23); but from His schematic creational activities, such as the creation of rational beings inseminated with good and bad. Indeed, Our word to a thing when We intend it is but that We say to it, “Be,” and it is” (Q, 16:40)   On the other hand; when rational beings would exercise the option of intention; in the similar fashion; (without thinking and deliberations) it is bound to be fraught with pitfalls, for rational beings are created with an existential amiss.

Imagination is of non-local (metaphysical/spiritual) origin; for it traverses both, the local and non-local domain. Therefore, those who accuse believers of worshipping an “imaginary God” are, unwittingly, admitting this reality. God inculcated, in the constitution of the rational beings, two-pronged sense of imagination (topical and non-topical); a schematic molding, hence the relevance and necessity of Divine and Divine religion becomes inevitable. God does not think but “Wills” whereas man’s will (choice) subsists in God’s will whereby He equilibrates it with the elements of hope and fear, (existential amiss) rendering it rationally operative. (Q, 17:57)

People need religion because it is the blueprint for the functioning of the “Soul” in the temporal realm. Voltaire, an archpriest of rationalism, alludes to this inevitability in a mundanely best possible way: “Man would have to invent God, even if He does not exist”

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/?s=inevitable+God

Religious Truth is multifaceted. It is comprised of science, logic, philosophy, history, ethics, and experience all mixed together. It is, in a sense, a different kind of knowing, not ignorant of the other kinds of truths (known and yet to be known), asserting the inevitability of the religion.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/02/03/scientific-elaboration-of-surah-at-tin-fig-95-verse-4/

 (Hadith) Every child is born on Nature— (his natural disposition/course. Resorting back to/linking with the Creator)

“It is asserted here that fitrah is the essential condition and state of existence in which God fashioned mankind; with innate impulses/urges including the sense of good and bad; fear and safety; pain and relief; cognition of God; submission, transgression and arrogance etc. (existential amiss–Imperfection, tendency/choice to swerve). It is present in the very essence of the creation and is inextricably kneaded into the very substance of the “rational beings” (Q) which is acutely elicited in the following verse.

 

إِنَّا عَرَضْنَا الاٌّمَانَةَ عَلَى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَالْجِبَالِ فَأبَيْنَ أَن يَحْمِلْنَهَا وَأَشْفَقْنَ مِنْهَا وَحَمَلَهَا الإِنْسَـنُ إِنَّهُ كَانَ
نَظَلُوماً جَهُولاً –

 “We did indeed offer the Trust to the Heavens and the Earth and the Mountains; but they refused to undertake it, being afraid thereof: but man undertook it;- He was indeed ignorant  and foolish” (Q, 33:72)

 

Ordinary beings, given their basic knowledge of the religious fundamentals, are tested for their weaknesses (existential amiss). The window of forgiveness is wide open for them; even if they have a mountain of mistakes/sins on their back; as long as they keep seeking forgiveness with utmost sincerity and a commitment not to repeat the same. (There is no numerical or time limitation)  This is an esoteric expression of the unbounded mercy of the Creator; for the people of knowledge and intellect who understand.

Men of knowledge (Aalim/Scholar), given the higher degree of knowledge, are tested for the equitable dissemination of the knowledge while acting upon it themselves as is due. Their test becomes harder and their failure attracts equally harsher punishment, for they are given the knowledge as the inheritors of the Prophet (PBUH).

Prophets; given the highest degree of knowledge and the duty of disseminating the message entrusted to them, often face the hardest of the tests for their perseverance, firmness, devotion and endurance instead. They are immunized of the mundanity (existential amiss) to a large extent due to their highest station/status. (Protected from major sins—Asmah/Masoom); which keeps them even from minor sins but some rare slips. (Q, 4:31)

“If you avoid the major sins which you are forbidden, We will remove from you your lesser sins and admit you to a noble entrance [into Paradise]” [Q, 4:31]

Hadith: when a companion asked the Prophet, despite being a Prophet of Allah why do you always keep asking for His forgiveness? He replied; “for any moment passed without His remembrance” This emphasizes the point that one, regardless of his station, should never be oblivious of the innate existential amiss and always keep asking for His forgiveness.

“Cause and effect” is a phenomenon of the sequential morphing of things/ideas in the space-time spectrum. It, however, can’t continue ad-infinitum. It also cannot fully transcend back into the metaphysical/spiritual realm. Therefore, becomes unhitched, regressive, and even ineffective. ‘Ex Nahilo’ is an outright negation of temporal phenomenon of “causality”. God (SWT); the very first (primal) cause, therefore, is the sole cause/causer of the Universe. (Creational activity in the space-time realm is known as “Khulq/Takhleeq” )

“When He decrees a matter, He only says to it, “Be,” and it is” (Q, 2:117)

In the absence of space-time spectrum, there is but an intention/will (ordinance {Amar}), of the primal cause, for the matter/idea to come into being. In the metaphysical/spiritual realm, contrary to the physical realm, no material/tangible cause has to exist to produce a material/tangible effect. Divine causality, therefore, is inimitable by the rational beings in the space-time spectrum. (Creational activity in the absence of space-time spectrum is known as “Takween”)

Takween is derived from the word “KUN” fayakun. It is beyond and above the physical laws of the universe and does not need the matter, time or space for a thing to come into existence. (Ex Nihilo=Out of Nothing). Bypassing the temporal physical laws or the temporal causality is also called Takween. {creation of Adam and Jesus Christ—PBUT}

 Temporal causality vs. Divine causality

Here are vivid differences.

In temporal causality, a causer may activate the cause but may not have the capability to determine the effect. He would also not have the capability to alter the effect (outcome) of a cause. A rational being may be dealing with a clear cause or INUS (insufficient but non-redundant parts of conditions; which in itself unnecessary, but sufficient for the occurrence of the effects). This distinction would not exist in the Divine causality.

In Divine causality, The Causer of the cause and effect is the same. The Causer is omnipotent to alter/determine the effect(s) as He wills. The Causer is also competent to produce an effect without cause (Ex-Nahilo). The Causer may pre-determine effects or causes in multiple, and then afford the medium (sentient beings) the application of Free-will (Choice) to commensurate effect(s).

“And when We would intend to destroy a township We had sent a commandment (warning) to its people of authority leading easy lives; who yet disobeyed and transgressed; so as a result of our Judgment passed, We annihilated it with complete annihilation” (Q, 17:16)

Note:- (Ghazali’s views on causality, read: http://www.ghazali.org/articles/gz-aylon2.pdf)

Morality, mortified by the psychology of innate fear, sprouts from the Divine religious injunctions. Although it lays the ground-rules for this word, the effects also transcend to the next.

Morality, based on reward and punishment, (retribution) works wonderfully due to the psychology of “innate-fear” of being monitored unimpeded and continuously by the “Invisible”. Religion (Islam) “submission” was enacted simultaneous to the Creation (forbidding Adam and Eve from eating the fruit) and the punishment for its violation was established by the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Heavens. Satan (Lucifer) was also expelled for his disobedience due to his avarice and pride. They were not simply expelled but with specifically (and schematically) mandated rights, roles, and responsibilities; which, in specifically Islamic parlance could be called “Sharia’a” and in everyday parlance “Morality”.

Ethicality is developed by the rational beings, in the light of their past collective experiences. It regulates the immediate, contemporary cultural, societal or communal behavior. It is limited to temporality in scope, optional in its practicality; often floutingly by-passed without compunction. Needless to say that, the resourcefulness of Morality is unsurpassable by the man-made ethicality.

Ethics (Laws) are devised by the people for a community, society or culture; monitoring whereof is also done by people (an agency) employed for the purpose. The compliance would simply depend on either one’s call of the conscience or the fear of being caught by the monitoring agent. The physical absence of the monitoring agency would offer all kind of inducements to flout, as it cannot be established and no penalty would ensue.  This is the weakest aspect of the man-made ethicality.

A distinct difference between Divine law and the man-made law is that Divine Law compassionately seeks avenues to forgive while the man-made law is hell-bent on seeking evidence to punish.

Those who envisage morality, without religion, in fact, misconstrue ethics as morality.

After all, man is created with an existential amiss.

 Innate Fear, Psychology of fear is employed by the Divine to elicit the compliance of the religious injunctions without the presence of a physical watchdog.

  • An infant, when made to hold a bar, would continue clinging to it due to the innate fear of fall and hurt until made to feel safe to let it go.
  • In a situation of distress, “heightened state of fear/anxiety” (even in the case of a non-believer) all boundaries and impediments are dismantled; a connection between the Lord and the distressed-servant is immediately activated, and the call of the distressed is heard by the Almighty. (Q, 27:62)

Innate-fear, therefore, is not just a predicate of punishment, as often complained, but also that of an “SOS” signal, in the situation of distress.   

shakir2.wordpress.com

Topics covered:- Logic, reason, pristine reason, common sense, causality, Temporal/Divine causality, revelation, Divine wisdom, Inevitability of religion, Non Human Messenger, Gazali’s falsity of reason, imagination, Imaginary God, belief in the hereafter, Contentment, Voltaire’s rationalism, Fitrah, khulq/takween, Ordinary,/ scholar/ prophet, Psychology of Innate fear, Morality, Ethics and  The-Distressed.

Re-alignments in the Middle East, In the wake of, Receding West.

June 19, 2018

 

 

Image result for Receding shores ?

The Arab–Israeli conflict was primarily seen, for many decades, as a conflict between Arab-states and Israel, rather than between Muslims and Israel. Periphery doctrine; an Israeli foreign-policy strategy; was used by P.M Ben Gurion to develop close alliances with Non-Arab Muslim states in the Middle East, to counter the united opposition of Arab states to the illegitimate existence of the state of Israel.

 Contemporary politicking is characterized by uncertainties, low probabilities for good and high consequences in terms of deceit, destruction, and miseries.

 Strategic-interests of the Israeli government converged with those of the Turkish and Iranian governments of the time. Turkey’s (Military lead government) sought integration with the free-market economies and democracies of Europe, a member of NATO and the EU. The Shah of Iran, being a major ally of the United States, facilitated the dialogue between Israel, Iran and Turkey.

In 1950, both Turkey and Iran became the first, and for a long time, the only Muslim states to have diplomatic relations with Israel. Both Turkey and Iran developed extensive military cooperation.  During the 1967 Six-Day War, Iran supplied Israel with essential oil and petroleum. Israel helped in the industrial and military development in Turkey and Iran.

With the rise of Arab nationalism under Nasser in the sixties the relationship between Iran and the Arab world started deteriorating (The Persian Gulf was dubbed as “Arabian” Gulf).  This further strengthened the relationship between Israel and Iran.

The overthrow of the Shah of Iran in 1979 was a major setback to Periphery Doctrine. The Islamic regime of Ruhollah Khomeini severed relations with Israel. Ironically, however, throughout the 1980s no one in Israel said anything about or considered Iran a threat—the word wasn’t even uttered.

During the peak of the Persian Empire, Jews are thought to have comprised as much as 20% of the population. Jews trace their heritage in Iran to the Babylonian Exile of the 6th century BC and have retained their ethnic, linguistic, and religious identity. Now their number, however, has dwindled to mere 9000.

Zionist Organization was first established in Persia by the Jewish elders and Rabbis. The Jews of Persia understood that “Zion” is the biblical name of Jerusalem and Zionism demonstrates the end of exile and the beginning of redemption.

Rumors, during the time of Hitler, cropped up in Iran that Hitler has secretly converted to Islam and has taken the name Heydar (the title of Imam Ali). What made, European and Jews, panic was that Hitler is planning to reveal his true religion after defeating the deceitful British, the godless Russians and the Jews.

Unfortunately, the Bible has a little good to say about Gentiles (and barely any about Jews) with the exception of Cyrus the Great; who was the first Zionist, yet exalted in the Bible. Persians and Medes, according to Old Testament, are the only people who hadn’t oppressed Jews or committed atrocities against them. There was Jewish royalty in Iran, including Queen Esther, buried there (as are Daniel and Mordecai). Iran, thus, logically, becomes the second holiest land in Judaism.  Israel, nevertheless, is Iran’s arch-enemy always conspiring to destroy or at least weaken it.

Is there any possibility of a raproshma between the two?

It seems too late. The chances, by far, are getting slimmer by every passing day; for the World’s naiveté, despite all the neo-conic, fascist and populist strategies employed by the retreating west, is eroding. Iran, despite being a pariah ( Shia’a state), is increasingly gaining acceptance in the comity of nations as a Muslim-dominated, relation-worthy sovereign state. Bedouin Pentagon, on the other hand, is losing its Shia’a-Sunni (sectarian) tug of war.

It would have been most probable if the Palestinian state was created and the West’s fosterage of Israel forsaken; to let it exist and grow on its own; cultivating relationships on mutuality, rather than arms twisting by its sugar daddy—the USA.

On the other hand, ironically, in the vein of strange realism, Western Intelligentsia and the Academia have already started contemplating and discussing the Post-Israel-Middle East.

After the Iranian revolution in 1979, the country set out to export its brand of revolutionary Islam. As Iran became an Islamic republic, Sunni Islamists were not only jealous of the triumph of the Shia’a Imamate (State) but became even more determined to establish their version of the Islamic state.

The relationship between Saudi Arabia and Iran has oscillated between indifference, hostility, rapprochement and tension over the decades. Prince MBS appears determined to intensify the rivalry with Iran as he continues to raise Riyadh’s concerns over Iranian expansion in the Arab world and beyond.

Saudi Arabia exported Wahhabi Islam, to counter Iranian revolutionary Islam, across Africa, Asia and even Europe. Saudis are notorious for stoking sectarianism. The two countries entered a fierce battle over the souls of Muslims with Saudi clerics augmenting their anti-Shiite rhetoric and the Iranian counterparts playing down their Shiism to appeal to Pan-Islamic, anti-imperial and anti-Western sentiments among Muslims. Saudi Arabia, despite President Obama’s realistic understanding of the Middle Eastern issues, continued pressing the USA to bomb Iran.

The Saudis see the resurgence of the Iranian influence as a revival of the Old Persian nationalism. Blowing-up the Iranian threat magnifies MBS’s role as the savior of Bedouin-Pentagon from Persianization and Shiification.

Saudis see the brutal war in Yemen, where the Shia’a-Houthis are supported by Iran, as a battle for survival for the Saudi nation and the hegemony of Arabness over Persianization. Prince MBS’s Vision 2030 for the Kingdom excludes Iran from the greater regional integration with the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Egypt and Israel.

Muta’a Doctrine (marriage of convenience) in Politics

During the Cold War, Saudi Arabia and Iran worked together with the United States against the Soviet Union. They accepted a division of labor: Iran provided military capabilities; Saudi Arabia provided theological ammunition and funding against the Soviet Union. Now Iran is replaced as a new enemy for the Soviet Union and Israel as a friend for Iran. A toxic nexus has emerged between the US, Saudi Arabia and Zionist Israel in the rapidly changing situation in the Muslim East. Saudis maintained discreet relations with the Zionist-Israel, hiding this illicit relationship from the Muslim World. Now, however, they arrogantly flaunt it as a badge of honor due to the changed political compulsions.

As is already well-known; the Saudi and Israeli common cause against perceived Iranian influence and expansion; in places like Syria, Lebanon and Iraq of late has forced the historic bitter enemies down a path of cooperation as both seem to have placed the breakup of the so-called “Shia’a crescent” as their primary policy goal in the region at any cost. For Israel, Hezbollah, seen as an Iranian proxy contingent, has long been its greatest foe, present right up against the Jewish state’s northern border.

This new arrangement, on the one hand, mitigates the Kingdom’s fear of losing its role as the “loyal regional villain”, while, strengthening the “Triangle of Hate” on the other. Saudis have presented the Islamic awakening, sweeping the Muslim East, an Iranian inspired plot.

Saudi Arabia, despite the huge reduction in its oil revenues, is trying to maintain its role as a “cash cow” and the “lynchpin of America’s Muslim East policy”. Saudi Arabia’s worst nightmare is the fear of American abandonment for a new regional partner. This will bring Saudi Arabia’s relevance, regionally and globally, to naught.

 

The rise of the  Justice Development Party of Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan in the 2000s led to a steady deterioration in Israel–Turkey relations. Unlike, previous Turkish governments, Erdogan’s government openly condemned Israel’s policies towards Palestine and blamed it for the conflict. Relations between Sunni-Turkey and Shia’a-Iran are on the rise.

shakir2.wordpress.com

 

 

 

 

The Great Migration (1915-1960)

June 4, 2018

 

Image result for Black's migration pic

Back and forth serial migration caused a permanent scar on the psyche of the Blacks. They, obviously, would have felt like an undesirable, unwanted heard of aliens. Permeating the reactionary attitude towards; in particular the whites, and the society in general. It is harming them (the blacks) the most rather than the intended whites or the society. Had they been systematically relocated according to the opportunities, skill level etc; throughout the country; mixing up with the whites and other communities; they would have lifted themselves up; owing to natural compulsions of their surroundings, assimilating and growing at the pace of the national development.

America, most likely, would have nurtured them (the blacks) into the most productive, intelligent and socially cohesive part of the multicultural mosaic.

Unfortunately, they are still being treated as pet-scavengers for political exigencies; by exploiting their naiveté and ingrained reactionary attitude, in return for Food-stamps, WIC-vouchers, and other handouts. They are being kept on the dole-out to be used as and when needed by the old masters donned with a new garb of Politicians.

It is a historical fact that most of the African Slaves brought to West were Muslim or those forcibly converted to Christianity before shipping, by the Dutch, British and French colonial masters. 

Ironically, now a class of well-groomed middle-men (Black’s representatives/activists/clergies etc) has emerged, to muster them and make them available, whenever wherever needed.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2015/06/18/human-skin-color-in-quraan/

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2017/02/08/color-coding-worship/

The face is the index of the mind

May 21, 2018

(First published on 9th Feb 2015 on FB)

Though it is a famous quote may warrant some explication. In general, good features of a person are presumed to be a sign of his or her being witty. It may be true in some cases but is not a rule of thumb. The probable reason for that is that such a person was lucky enough to have lived a comfortable and affluent life. (This might have contributed in sharpening his/her mental faculties).

A poor person, on the contrary, would normally be scathed by the bad times. Only Saints and Sufis would be able to endure such a torment without a scathe on their personality. An ordinary person often is affected so immensely that his whole personality would be disfigured reflecting itself in his every movement, let along his thinking. It would continue reflecting in his coming generations through mutilation of his genetic make-up. A redress would require several generations to pass enjoying comfort and affluence. Affluence is not the only but major factor. Freedom of thoughts and movements would rank 2nd in restoration.

It, however, does not mean that an ugly person cannot be witty. Such a person would normally develop some supplementary traits; exuding wit and garnering respectability, hence becoming likable. Some cosmetic changes in his/her overall demeanor might be helpful in amending the state of affairs. It could mean that such a person is on the accelerated track of recovery.

shakir2.wordpress.com

Cocoon dwellers

May 10, 2018

 

 Image result for Sea creature using cocoon

I have been fascinated by the variations in human and animal behavior from a very early age, keenly observing and pondering on their behavioral activities. This piece, however, would be devoted to human behavior; especially of those, who either behave naturally or pretentiously. The caption of this piece (addition of new terminology in behavioral psychology) is an outcome of sustained objective observations of several “subjects”, by the writer.

The terms introversion and extraversion were popularized through the work of Carl Jung and later became central parts of other prominent theories including the Big 5 Theory of personality.

Introverted-people tend to be inward turning, or focused more on internal thoughts, feelings and moods rather than seeking out external stimulation. …Introverts tend to be more quiet, reserved, and introspective. Everyone has some degree of both introversion and extraversion. However, people often tend to lean one way or the other.

Introverts are laced with the following sub-traits, which are somewhat different than those of the cocoon dwellers.

  • Very self-aware
  • Thoughtful
  • Enjoy understanding details
  • Interested in self-knowledge and self-understanding
  • Tend  to keep emotions private
  • Quiet and reserved in large groups or around unfamiliar people
  • More sociable and gregarious around people they know well
  • Learn well through observation.
  • Tend to be around people to whom they are close.

Cheek, a psychology professor at Wellesley College argues that there are four shades of introversion; social, thinking, anxious, and restrained. And many introverts are a mix of all four types, rather than demonstrating one type over the others.

SocialSocial introversion closely matches the commonly held beliefs about introversion, in that it’s a preference for socializing with small groups instead of large ones or with no groups at all— solitude is preferred by those who score high in social introversion. They prefer to stay home busy doing something of interest or stick to a small group of close friends.

Thinking: People with high levels of thinking introversion are not averse to social events. Instead, they’re introspective, thoughtful, and self-reflective. Not in a neurotic way, but in an imaginative and creative way.

Restrained/Reserved: Such introverts seem to operate at a slightly slower pace, preferring to think before they speak or act. Haruki Murakami; in his–What I Talk About When I Talk About Running–which contains a passage, that neatly illustrates the concept of a restrained/reserved introversion. In it, he discusses how it takes his muscles a while to warm up when he starts to run. “When I put on my jogging shoes in the morning and set out, my feet are so heavy it feels like I’ll never get them moving”.

Anxious: Unlike social introverts, anxious introverts generally seek out solitude for they are overly self-conscious and feel awkward around other people. Their anxiety, however, doesn’t fade when they’re all alone. They’re usually not very confident in their own social skills. Such people might be suffering from a tendency to ruminate.

Cocoon dwellers: Insecure and overly self-conscious. Defensive: due to a lack of self-esteem. Think they know and fully understand everything, including themselves. Pretend to be very social even with unfamiliar people when accompanied by a friend (s), often opinionated, critical and negative about others. Try to control the behavior of close –friends through vague-suggestions or couched instructions. Some are routine “Janus-faced”, one for the public other for themselves.

Note:- Cocoon dwellers, most often, are suffering from psychological issues hence may not be clubbed with the above four classes of introverts.                                                        An Anxious Introvert, however, seems to be, on his way to being a Cocoon dweller.

Self-styled introverts – are generally more empathic, interpersonally connected than his/her outgoing counterparts. They are normally self-controlled and rationally balanced. They could also be classed as Inverted-extroverts; who can change sides as and when needed.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2019/11/18/camouflaged-narcissist-in-our-ranks/

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Love!

January 17, 2018
love

Temporal Love

Love (Psychosophically speaking–Temporal)

It is twitching of the brain, impulsive vibrations translating into emotive feelings yearning for the satisfaction of lust or instinct. It has beginning and end, it is ephemeral. It may, however, be a fractional constituent of the true whole, which we were inculcated with before being descended into temporality. Buried in sub-conscience, it is clamoring to reach its Zenith in perpetuity. True love with fellow human beings is improbable, but an instinctual bonding; which cannot be classed as love. Love could only exist between God and (Creation) human. This love, if true, would require human to lose his “self” or else it would simply be reverence. Temporally speaking, it is delusional attachment entailing unwholesomeness—self-centeredness. [Allah/God, nowhere in the entire Qura’an, used the word “Love” for His creation]

Image result for pic of the parts of the brain affected by spiritual experienceLOVE (Theosophically Speaking–Spiritual)

Most of us observe servitude, whereas love is a gift endowed only to far and few between like, Yazid Bastami and Rabia Basri. (frenzied) Even Prophets do not seem to be the recipient of the gift of love since they are entrusted with the obligations and responsibilities of Prophet-hood. They cannot afford the ecstasy of an endowment of love by neglecting their primal obligation towards their people/Ummah. They are however accorded with the highest echelon of spiritual rank, immunity from all evils, and guidance through direct and indirect means.

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