Archive for the ‘Islamic perspective’ Category

Reminiscing the Past, Aspiring the Future, Neglecting the Present.

June 12, 2018

Image may contain: tree, flower, plant, outdoor and nature

Reminiscing and relishing the past has always been at the heart of all the present generations. This seems to be an intuitive, ongoing thought-process; overcasting the present, morphing into platitudinous future. It is, but, the way of the vulgar; who overlook the present thence, ruin the future. Past, despite its lingering reminiscence, is nothing but inaccessible permafrost of memories/history. Selects ones live in the present only, their acute attention to the demands of the present endows them with a blissful future. God Almighty, always in the present, is watching the traversing Creation from the present to the illusory future while by-producing an inaccessible past. It ought to infuse a contemplative mind to ponder on the imperfection and insignificance of the “Best of the Creations” who is but a quarreling-arrogant. A Man, in reality, has access only to the present. “Man is but ungrateful”(Q,100:6) Vulgar whine when inflicted with hardship, ignoring the bestowal of good. Select, on the other hand, knowing fear and hope; relish the present oblivious of its ostensibility, earn deliverance. Vulgar ought to remain ungrateful regardless.

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Why should you have Dates?

May 24, 2018

Palm Tree with date fruits

Dates often termed as the “fruit of paradise”, are considered as one of the most nutritious and delicious fruit. Mentioned in the Holy Quran 20 times, this fruit is of great importance for Muslims. During the holy month of Ramadan, Muslims around the world break their fasts with dates. Our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) used to break his fast with dates.

Muslims across the globe make sure that their kitchen cabinets are stocked with this wonderful fruit in Ramadan. Ever wondered why? Because, apart from being a powerhouse of various minerals and vitamins, dates have tremendous health benefits as well.

Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Prophet (PBUH) said:

“Indeed in dates, there is a cure.” Muslim (14/3)

Here are some nutritional and health values that this fruit has.

Improves Digestive Health

Dates are an excellent remedy for digestive problems. They contain soluble fibers, amino acids, and enzymes which are a must for good digestive health and also have a rich source of potassium which is known to treat diarrhea. So, if you are having any digestive problems, soak some dates overnight and have them in the morning, this will strengthen good bacteria in your stomach and relieve you from the discomfort in no time.

Good for Heart

Dates have an impressive amount of potassium and fiber that reduces the levels of LDL cholesterol in the body, preventing heart-related diseases. It’s suggested to have dates twice a week for a strong and healthy heart.

Strengthens the Nervous System

Dates will give you nerves of steel. Literally! They are known to have 3 times the amount of potassium found in bananas. Potassium does wonders for our body by keeping all cardiac problems in check. The vitamin B found in dates is vital for mood balancing effects and proper nerve function.

Improves Bone Health

Osteoporosis is a disease we all have heard of since it’s very common among women. This is due to the weakening of bones with age. Dates contain the perfect amount of magnesium, manganese, and selenium to strengthen our bones and make them healthy.

Treats and Prevents Anemia

Anemia is caused due to the lack of iron which reduces the red blood cells in a person’s body, making them look all pale with additional dark circles. Dates not only boost up the iron level in your body but also increases strength and vitality.

Acts as a Natural Energy Booster

We all know how there comes a time of the day when we feel our sugar level drop and crave for something sweet. Dates are the natural and healthful energy boosters everyone needs to include in their daily diet as they contain just the right amount of glucose and fructose to get you going without providing the additional calories. Adios energy drinks!

Helps in Maintaining a Healthy Weight

Good things come in small packages. These tiny miracle workers can balance the sugar levels in your body and make you feel fuller than any junk food you’d cheat with on your diet. Dates are also a healthy supplement for someone who wants to gain weight or does not want to lose it too fast. For those folks who want to maintain a balanced weight, having cucumbers with dates would do wonders.

Relieves Allergies

Dates are the miracle food that can help reduce the awful symptoms of seasonal allergies. With high levels of organic sulfur present in it, they sure act as a tonic for allergic reactions.

Helps in Maintaining Healthy Skin and Hair

Consuming dates regularly gives a boost of Vitamin B5, C, and D which helps in repairing damaged skin cells and nourishes hair and its root. So, make sure to add dates to your diet for baby smooth skin and the shiny, strong hair you’ve always dreamed of.

Such a delicious food with tremendous nutritional values should not only be consumed during Ramadan but should also be included in the daily routine. This Ramadan, go easy on the sweets and reach for a date. In addition to satisfying your craving, you will get some health benefits as well! Have a healthy and happy Ramadan!

Sana Kamran (The author) For Islamicfinder.org

republished by…..shakir2.wordpress.com

Partial Belief in Islam

May 21, 2018

 

Image result for Pic of most unique mosque

Islam is not a “Belief by Implication”, but by absolute and total submission and certitude coupled with an oral attestation by uttering the “article of faith”—-”There is God but no god….”

One is either in it or out of it——there is no continuum of agnosticism in Islam.

Secondary, ancillary sources/matters (Ahadith & Sunan), may, however, be differed, debated or contemplated. (Though no outright denial or rejection is permitted)

“Those who wish to discriminate and say, we believe in some and disbelieve in others, and wish to adopt a way in between -Those are the disbelievers, truly. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment” (Q, 4:150-152)

SMOKING IS HARAM (UNLAWFUL) IN ISLAM

April 9, 2018

 

By Ibrahim B. Syed, Ph. D. President, Islamic Research Foundation International, Inc. (published on this site with his approval)

(This article was first published in JIMA (Journal of Islamic Medical Association, Volume 15, and No.4, 1983. The author holds the unique distinction and honor to be the first Muslim Scholar in the world to declare Smoking is Haram. He did with full conviction and courage.  Twenty years later the Ulama have realized the truth and every Muslim country in the world is following suit by declaring Smoking is Haram.)  

SUMMARY

Cigarette smoking is the most widespread example of drug dependence in the United States and in all the Islamic countries as well.  The U.S.  Surgeon General’s Office considers cigarette smoking to America’s worst drug addiction problem. Medical investigations show that cigarette smoking is a major factor in the development of many cases of cancer, heart trouble, chronic lung and respiratory disease and other ailments. Smoking causes more illness and death than all other drugs. Cigarette smoking in pregnant women results in deleterious health effects on their newborn children. These Findings and the revelations in the Holy Qur’an clearly prohibit smoking of tobacco by Muslims. Hence smoking is unlawful in Islam.

 Smoking and Health Effects

 It is very well known that cigarette smoking is the most widespread example of drug dependence in the United States. A pamphlet released by the U.S. Surgeon General’s Office entitled “Why People Smoke Cigarettes” calls cigarette smoking America’s worst drug addiction problem. It involves addiction to the drug nicotine in tobacco and possible other tobacco substances.

            An authoritative British report (1) stated that tobacco smoking is a form of drug dependence different from but no less strong than that of other addictive drugs—the most stable and well-adjusted person will, if he smokes at all, almost inevitably become dependent on the habit.

 An Australian government report of 1977 called Drug Problems in Australia – An Intoxicated Society(2), says, “It is important to recognize that smoking is a form of drug dependence, but one with especially insidious characteristics.”

 Like many other drugs, the chemicals in cigarette affect the chemistry of the brain and nervous system and create dependence and lead to compulsive use.

 More than 56 million Americans and multiple scores of millions more in other nations, including Islamic nations (3) are hooked on cigarettes in the same way as caffeine addicts are hooked on caffeine. A major reason why sales continue at high levels despite widespread public knowledge about the health hazards is the addictive nature of cigarettes.

  Most people start smoking just to conform to peer or social pressures. They get a feeling of “grown up.” They find smoking (nicotine) at first acts as a stimulant. Later they find they need to smoke as a tranquilizer.  These smokers develop a level of tolerance and bodily adjustment to nicotine. If this level of nicotine is not maintained in their blood, they will experience uncomfortable physical-psychological dependence problems. These uncomfortable feelings are classic drug withdrawal symptoms. Addictive drugs are psychoactive which create brain and nervous system dependence and lead to compulsive use. Abrupt discontinuation leads to physiological and psychological distress. The withdrawal symptoms are headache, stomach discomfort, nervousness, irritability, sweating, change in heart and blood pressure and lower excretion of some hormones affecting the nervous system (4).

The former U.S. Surgeon General, C. Everett Coop, says, “Cigarette smoking is clearly identified as the chief preventable cause of death (340,000 deaths per year in U.S.A.). In our society it is a major factor in the development of many cases of cancer, heart trouble, chronic lung and respiratory diseases and other ailments. Smoking causes more illnesses and death than all the other drugs.”(5)

Smoking and Islam

 In Islam cleanliness and hygiene are emphasized to the extent that it has been considered a part of Iman (faith). It is very well known that a smoker’s mouth is unclean and foul smelling “like a cigarette ash-tray.” Allah (SWT) says:

And forbids them what is bad.” The Qur’an, Surah Al-‘Araf, 7: 157

 “0 ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling are an abomination of Satan’s handiwork. Eschew such abominations that ye may prosper.”

 Al Ma’idah, 5: 93 

 The word intoxicant has three meanings (6):

(1)       To induce, especially the effect of ingested alcohol.

(2) To stimulate or excite.

(3)    To poison.

Except the first meaning the latter two are very well valid and both applicable to nicotine and caffeine.

  Smoking is nothing but a form of slow suicide. The Qur’an says:

“And slay not the life which Allah hath forbidden…”

  Surah, Al-Isra, 17: 33

 “And make not your own hands contribute to your destruction.” Surah, Al-Baqara, 2: 195

 “Nor kill or destroy yourselves for verily Allah hath been to you most   Merciful.”    Surah, An-Nisa, 4: 29

 

The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) has said:

“Nor be hurt or injure others.” It is scientifically proven that the exhaled smoke of the smoker is hazardous to non-smokers around him.

The amount of money a smoker spends on cigarette smoking in a period of 30 years is calculated to be Two Hundred Thousand Dollars or more. All this money is simply wasted (not including the money spent on smoker’s health care).

Allah (SWT) says:  

“But squander not your wealth in the manner of a spend thrift, verily spendthrifts are brothers of evils.”

            Surah, Al-Isra, 17: 26, 27

 Body is polluted by smoking. Hence smokers cannot pray until they have cleansed themselves. According to the Qur’an:

 “0 ye who believe! Draw not near unto prayer when you are drunken, till ye know that which ye utter, nor when you are polluted save when journeying upon the road, till you have bathed.”

Surah, An-Nisa, 4: 43

 The Christians consider the human body to be a sacred trust given to man by God because it contains the spirit breathed into it by God. Even the Qur’an says 

“So,when I have made him and have breathed unto him of My spirit, do ye fall down, prostrating yourselves unto him ”                    Surah, Al-Hijr, 15: 29. 

Hence the physical body should not be polluted or injured or destroyed in any way by smoking or taking of alcohol or any type of habit-forming drugs.

The following is presented as evidence to prove the adverse effects on human body by tobacco smoke; figure 1 shows the chemical structure of Benzo (a) pyrene which is one of the most potent carcinogens known to man to be present in the tobacco smoke. Table I shows a list of tumor-initiating agents present in the particulate phase of tobacco smoke. Tables 2 to 5 present the mortality ratios for coronary artery disease, lung cancer, and other diseases. Table 6 shows the adverse effects of smoking by pregnant women on themselves, their fetuses, and their children.

C 0 N C L U S 1 0 N

For the foregoing reasons and for reasons considered elsewhere smoking is Haram or unlawful in Islam, hence smoking should be discouraged and finally banned in all Islamic countries.

All smoking Muslims should give up this unhealthy and un-Islamic activity. The best way to give it up is to stop all smoking completely. Tapering off on the amount one smokes does not work for most people. It is not easy to quit suddenly, but it is presently the most successful way. There are many ways and techniques available for a serious minded person to give up smoking, which cannot be discussed here.  For the Muslims who sincerely practice Islam and who submit themselves to the Will of Allah, this should not be a difficult task.

REFERENCES 

  1. The Royal College of Physicians, Smoking, or Health, Third Report

     1977, p.98.

  1. Drug Problems in Australia: An Intoxicated Society?  A Report from the Senate Standing Committee on Social Welfare. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, Australia, 1977.

3.Taha A.: Smoking and Muslim Countries: The immediate and serious Threat. J I M A.  14: 50-52, 1982.

  1. Jaffee JH, Drug Addiction and Drug Abuse  (Ch.16), Clinical Characteristics: Nicotine. In: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Goodman LS and Gilman A (Editors), Macmillan Pub. Co. Inc., New York, 1975.  P. 305.
  2. The Health Consequences of Smoking. The Changing Cigarette – a Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, P.H.S., Rockville, Maryland, 1981, DHSS (PBS) 81 – 50156.
  3. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1978, P. 686.
  4. Yusuf Al Qaradawi, Al Halal Wal Haram.  Cairo, 1960.
  5.  Smoking and health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. P.H.S. Publication NO.1103 U. S.  Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, D.C.  1965.

Indian Muslims and Conquest of Mecca!

April 2, 2018

 

Image result for Pic of Muslim burn in Gujrat

Indian Muslims are braving a predicament which they never imagined, would be staring them in their faces. After living in India for generations their loyalty, citizenship, and even presence are being challenged by the Indian Government and Hindu extremists; the main constituents of Modi’s BJP and its government.

 

Two press reports, Presented here below, amply highlight the gravity of the situation.

 

The Times of India

Nowadays Hindu extremism is out of control and Indian Muslims are its major target. A Few days ago BJP MP Vinay Katiyar said that “Muslims should not even be living in this country, they should go to Pakistan or Bangladesh what business do they have here”, reported. Previously many Muslim iconic figures of India have reported problems faced by them in renting or buying property in Bombay. There is hardly any Muslim employed in the Indian defense Industry. Due to Indian government discriminatory policies, Muslims are deprived of employment opportunities in the almost entire public sector, resulting in a forced living below the poverty line.”

The New York Times

“Over the last three years, under Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Bharatiya Janata Party’s government, some of the League’s fears in the 1930s and ’40s have returned to haunt India’s Muslims — who account for 172 million of India’s 1.3 billion citizens. Punishment for cow slaughter, which is proscribed in most states of India, has become more severe. A conviction can lead to sentences ranging from five years to life imprisonment.

 

The foot soldiers of Mr. Modi’s party (BJP) and its affiliates have run aggressive campaigns demanding that, apart from giving up beef, India’s Muslims must not date or marry Hindu girls or women. They should reconvert to Hinduism, the B.J.P. and like-minded others say, because their ancestors were Hindus who were forcibly converted by medieval Muslim rulers. They must sing “Vande Mataram,” the national song, these proponents say, to prove their loyalty to India, and their children must perform yoga in schools to show respect for India’s culture. The markers of Muslim identity — beards, skullcaps and headscarves — invite frowns, even violence, in India”

Indian Muslim’s decision to stay back and an inevitable remedy thereto, already provided by Allah (SWT), is looked at from a different angle.

 When the Prophet (PBUH) ordered the Meccan Muslims to migrate to Medina there were some Muslims who did not comply and stayed back—like Indian Muslims at the time of partition. It may be argued that Meccan Muslims were given the order by the Prophet (PBUH) whereas the migration to Pakistan was an after effect of political wrangling/war/partition. The point missed in this argument, however, would be that Pakistan was created by Allah (SWT), like Medina, as a sanctuary for the persecuted Muslims. The obvious reason for these stay backs (in both the cases) was nothing but the love for worldly assets (fitnah) and the disregard for the blessings of migration*1.

“And be aware that your wealth and your children are but a trial and that with Allah there is a great reward” (Q, 8:28)

Hadith:- “Hijrah (migration) erases all sins which existed before migration”

Hijrah from “Darul-Harb/Kufr” such as India to “Darul-Islam” such as Pakistan is obligatory, and (wajib) necessary under certain conditions (as were at that time in India) while (Mustahab) recommended and desirable in others.

They failed to fulfill the trust of Allah (SWT). To regain the lost trust and bounty of Allah (SWT) here is a way already chalked out:-

“Oh those who believe, if you fear Allah (SWT) He will provide you with a criterion, (to distinguish between the right and wrong { what to do?—conquer Mecca} and will write off your evil deeds and will forgive you. Allah (SWT) is the Lord of great bounty. (Conquest of Mecca). (Q, 8:29)

 The rational demand for huge blessing presented, in the form of Pakistan, would have made all Muslims jump on it, but since the opportunity has been wasted by those who stayed back and no Prophet is going to come to conquer the Mecca for them, they have to do it themselves. This is the only logical, rational and definite way for them and their generations.

Any slothfulness would be devastating, for them and their generations.  They will suffer in this world and the next for their complacency and dismissal of the criterion provided by Allah (SWT).

 

According to the majority of scholars, the essence of granting “Furqan” to those who fear Allah (SWT) is to help and support them in whatever legitimate objective they embark on. No enemy can hurt them and success goes with them, for it is “kaffarah” for their slips and mistakes.

 

The right of self-determination is enshrined in UN Charter, Chapter 1, Article 1, part 2

The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a Jus Cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as an authoritative interpretation of the Charter’s norms. It states that a people, based on respect for the principle of equal rights and fair equality of opportunity, have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no interference.

East Timor & South Sudan (both Christian states) was created by the West {Out of Sovereign Muslims states} by manipulating the clauses in the old independence/ decolonization agreements (drafted by the western criminal-states) and arms twisting.  {Read the related article;- https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2017/10/25/break-up-of-ottoman-empire-through-british-conspiracy/}

Kashmir & Palestine (both the people facing systematic genocide), however, cannot be freed for they involve Muslims.

*1) Here are some verses from the

 Holy Qur’an praising those who migrate:- Qur’an 2: 218 says, “Those who believed

and migrated and struggled in the way of God are those who are hopeful of the

mercy of God. God is Forgiving and Merciful.” Another verse says, “Those who

have migrated surely I will forgive their sins” (Qur’an, 3:195). A common element

in these verses is the combining of faith and migration. One verse asks those

who were persecuted yet did not migrate: “Wasn’t the land of God large enough

that you could have migrated?” (Qur’an, 4:97). As part of the same narrative, the

Qur’an actually encourages believers to migrate and states that those who chose

to migrate when they are oppressed will find success: “Those who are migrating in

the way of God will find refuge and prosperity” (Qur’an, 4:100).

 

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Why Muslim should not eat the meat prepared* by the People of Book (POB)? *

March 5, 2018

 

Image result for still pic of beautiful bull from Pakistan

*(Word “prepared” has been used instead of “slaughtered” to avoid any misunderstanding which might be created)

Sounds Strange? Yes, it does, until one reads it all before making up his mind.

First of all, let us understand what is“Halal” and what is “Dabiha”?

Halal:- is a generic term for permissible animals/things, which may be slaughtered/consumed by Muslims.

Dabiha:- on the other hand, is the meat of a permissible (halal) animal slaughtered by meeting 4 conditions, namely:- Severance (by a sharp object) of Jugular veins, Cutting of Esophagus, while invoking the name (chanting-takbeer) of Allah (SWT) and then letting the blood be drained.

Now, according to the (Q, 5:5) “Today, all the good things of life have been made lawful to you. And the food of those who have been vouchsafed revelation aforetime is lawful to you, 14  and your food is lawful to them. And [lawful to you are], in wedlock, women from among those who believe [in this divine writ], and, in wedlock, women from among those who have been vouchsafed revelation before your time – provided that you give them their dowers, taking them in honest wedlock, not in fornication, nor as secret love-companions. 15  But as for him who rejects belief [in God] – in vain will be all his works: for in the life to come he shall be among the lost. 16 

Here I would like to draw attention to a very subtle hint. Muslims, in this verse, have been allowed to marry the chaste women* of the People of Book (POB) by paying them dower.(ensuring the legitimate relationship) On the other hand, POB has not been allowed to marry Muslim women, regardless. Food of each other, on the contrary, however, has been allowed to be consumed (Unconditionally). It is an excellent display of Divine wisdom; by granting a concession at this juncture; because the women who have been made lawful for Muslims (despite being Chaste) grew up on the food; which might not have been prepared as per Islamic rules; and the same would most likely be offered to Muslim-Husbands, refusing to eat whereof would sound offensive and insulting. (Muslim may take their women but refuse to eat their food!). {Explanations # 14 & 15 by Asad, in his translation of 5:5, alluding to this subtlety}

*(Can one, in the given circumstances, find a chaste woman easily amongst the POB? Hence, one ought to see the overall-condition of POB also in the same-vein; necessitating the application of conditional clauses 1 &2, mentioned below)

Here is, however, what has been categorically ordained before/after the concession allowed by Allah (SWT) in (Q, 5:3 & 6:118)

The conditional clause # 1 of “إِلَّا مَا ذَكَّيْتُمْ (unless you have properly slaughtered)” should be closely observed as it is used in the Qura’an as a distinguishing factor for the permissibility of meat. Linguistically Dhakah means to complete or perfect something.

Legality operates until proved Otherwise.

A ruling deduced from (Q,10:30) has been specified by Al Jassas in his “Ahkam Al Qura’an” that all edibles are permissible and Halal(lawful) unless the unlawfulness or prohibition of something particular stands proved through an evidence of shria’a. (Consider the current religious practices of the people of the book in the light of clause #1 &2).  A pertinent Hadith reported by Sahih Muslim, on the authority of Abu Hurairah, where Prophet (PBUH) said “By the one in whose hands rests my life, any Jew or Christian (POB) who hears my call and still does not believe in the teachings I have brought, then he/she will be of the people of Hell (Jahannam)” (the language employed in this Hadith expresses the continuity of its application until the end of the time).

Accentuation of the point of eating properly slaughtered meat.

Eat of that (meat) over which the name of Allah (SWT) has been pronounced—The conditional clause #2 (while slaughtering that animal/bird) if you are believers in His revelations (6:118)

And why should you not eat of that (meat) on which Allah’s Name has not been pronounced (at the time of slaughter), while He has explained to you in detail what is forbidden to you, except under extreme necessity? And, surely many do lead (mankind) astray by their own desires through lack of knowledge. Certainly, your Lord knows best the Transgressor (6:119)

Eat not (O believers) of that meat on which Allah’s Name has not been pronounced (at the time of slaughtering) for sure it is disobedience of Allah (a sinful conduct). And certainly, the Shayaatin (devils) do inspire their friends (from mankind) to dispute with you, and if you obey them [making al-Maytatah legal to eat (Maytatah – a dead animal or animal/bird slaughtered without taking the name of Allah during slaughter)], then you would indeed be a polytheists (i.e. doing shirk, ascribing partners to Allah) (6:121)

And such animals (cattle) upon which they mention not the Name of Allah (during slaughter) only to fabricate a lie against Him (6:138)

So eat of the lawful (Dabiha) and good food (Pure wholesome, Halal cattle slaughtered according to Islamic method) which Allah has provided for you. And be grateful for the Graces of Allah, if it is He Whom you worship (16:114)

And say not concerning that which your tongue says falsely: “This is Halal and this is Haram,” so as to invent lies against Allah. Verily, those who invent lies against Allah will never prosper…A passing brief enjoyment (will be theirs), but they will have a painful torment (16:116-117)

For every nation, We have appointed religious ceremonies so that they may mention the Name of Allah (SWT) upon the animals that He has given them for food (22:34)

So mention the Name of Allah (SWT) upon them (sheep, goat, cows, oxen, camels etc) as they line up (for sacrifice) (22:36)

Relevant Ahadith

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah (R.A) reports that the Prophet (PBUH) said, “A time will come upon the people wherein a man will not bother what he intakes; whether from a Halal source or Haram.”  (Bukhari 2059)

The Prophet (PBUH) said, “Avoid whatever you have doubts about in favor of what is not (doubtful).” (Tirmidhi)

 

Hanbalite, Shafai’ite, Malikite and Hanafite school, all adhere to the above position.

 

IMPORTANT NOTE

One should not pick and choose a verse to present his/her own (favorite) point of view. Instead, a collective outcome, of all the verses on the topic, should be the one guiding and binding. (Q, 2: 85 & 4: 150)

 

Opposite Points of views

Despite all the above quotes and the position emphasized upon in this treatise several Imams, such as Imam Ibn Katheer (RA) writes in famous commentary, “Ibn Abbas and Abu Umaamah and Mujaahid and Sa‘eed ibn Jubair and ‘Ikrimah and ‘Ataa’ and al-Hasan and Makhool and al-Suddi and Muqaatil ibn Hayyaan said that it (the food of the people of the book) means “what they slaughter”; in fact this is a matter on which there is agreement among the scholars that is what they [the People of the Book] slaughter is lawful for the Muslims because they believe that it is unlawful to slaughter to other than Allah and they mention nothing other than the name of Allah over what they slaughter even though they believe things about Him, exalted is He, that he transcends.”

 

The Validity of opposing views

 

These Imams; based on their ijtihad (juridical-contemplative-deduction); uphold the injunctions given in (Q, 5:5) as self-contained/ freestanding. In Islamic parlance; where a difference of opinion like this ensues; neither of the points of views is considered invalid or wrong.

 

(H) “Difference of opinion of Muhammad (PBUH)’s companions is a mercy for Allah’s slaves” Every difference of opinion, in juridical (Fiqhi) issues, is based on a sincerely deduced unique perspective hence become a basis/source of mercy.

 

 The Basis of a difference of opinion

 

A difference of opinion among the Imams normally stems from the state/understanding of the Evidence such as-(text or hadith);

Un-availability, abrogation, considered weak, forgetfulness of it, the unreliability of its narrator, misconstruing its meaning or thinking that the one in hand is stronger than the new one.

 

Here is how one may decide which “way” to follow:-

 

Those who know of the evidence should follow it (Qura’anic text or hadith Sahih) even if it goes against some of the Imams (but not against the consensus–Ijma’a–of the ummah). Shaykh Uthaymeen (R.A)

 

Those who are not well versed in such a knowledge should resort to a reputed scholar, for Allah (SWT) says:- “So ask those who know the scripture, if you know not”(Q,16:43)

 (I seek refuge in Allah (SWT) for my shortcomings. May Allah (SWT) guide us all on the right path).

 shakir2.wordpress.com

 

Hope and Prayer

February 19, 2018

Image may contain: bird and outdoorHope is an instinctive impulse of a rational being. Prayer is an actualization thereof by ardently imploring (hoping from) the Supreme Being (God). Both, in tandem, are activated by human free-will*1. A prayer, even by a Non-Believer, (Q, 10:11)*2 is not a futile but fruitful activity. Hope and Prayer are mutually inclusive hence cannot be counterproductive.

*1According to St. Plotinus sin is a consequence of free-will. In Islamic parlance; good choice is reward-worthy while bad choice is blame-worthy; for it becomes a tool or source of evil (Satan).

*2It may however be dashed due to one’s disbelief(Q, 4:104) Yet a prayer made in distress would be heard.

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Scientific Elaboration of Surah At-Tin (Fig) 95, verse 4

February 3, 2018

“We have indeed created man in the best of the moulds”

Image result for pic of microtubules

Sometimes back, I came across a scientific research about the evidence of God through the existence of design in molecular cell’s formation and functioning. The link to which is available below. This research mainly deals with the human development and functioning based on molecular activities. This research explains the above verse with amazing comprehensiveness.

“It is widely known that the DNA is a sophisticated information storage device; encoding complex specified information to make proteins, and directing many highly complex processes in the cell. What is less known, is that there are several other code systems as well, namely the histone*1 binding code, transcription factor binding code, the splicing code, and the RNA secondary structure code. And there is yet another astonishing code system, called the tubuline*2 code, which is being unraveled in recent scientific research. It is known so far that amongst other things, it directs and signals Kinesin*3 and Myosin*4 motor proteins precisely where and when to disengage from nanomolecular*5 superhighways and deliver their cargo. 

 Here is the link to the site to read through.

Molecular biology of the cell

http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t2096-the-astonishing-language-written-on-microtubules-amazing-evidence-of-design#3669

 

“We have indeed created man in the best of the moulds.”

The term “taqweem” means to form something into an appropriate shape and in a moderate regulation. The capaciousness of the meaning refers to the fact that Allah has created malt proportionately in all respects; from physical point of view; spiritual and rational point of view, because He has settled all faculties in him and prepared him appropriately to cover a great path towards a perfect development. Although man is a ‘microcosm’, He has set the ‘macrocosm’ in him and has promoted him to such a high position that it is said: “We have honored the sons of Adam…” (17:70)

This assertion has been aptly explained in another research paper which is as follows.

Dr. Francis Collins, director of the Human Genome Project (that mapped the human DNA structure) said that one can “think of DNA as an instructional script, a software program, sitting in the nucleus of the cell.”5

Perry Marshall, an information specialist, comments on the implications of this.

“There has never existed a computer program that wasn’t designed…[whether it is] a code, or a program, or a message given through a language, there is always an intelligent mind behind it.”6

Just as former atheist Dr. Antony Flew questioned, it is legitimate to ask oneself regarding this three billion letter code instructing the cell…who wrote this script? Who placed this working code, inside the cell?

It’s like walking along the beach and you see in the sand, “Mike loves Michelle.” You know the waves rolling up on the beach didn’t form that–a person wrote that. It is a precise message. It is clear communication. In the same way, the ing in our cells?

The reason why man is given such a coveted status and endowed with unparallel qualities is because the whole universe revolves around him. He is endowed with characteristics which are like that of the God Himself, such as knowledge, power, Hearing, sight, speaking, compassion and Wisdom. This has been elucidated in Surah Al Qiyamah,# 75, V-2 saying “Lo! We Created man from a drop of thickened fluid; so we made him hearing, and understanding” means endowed him with intellect and consciousness for the test. (The word “Taqweem” signifies setting something on the best of the foundations). Word “amshaj” (thickened fluid) in this verse expresses the combination of human cardinal humors/fluids, blood, phlegm, choler and melancholy, constituents of human semen (sperm).

Human beings rank higher than the Angels. A quote from my article “Mysteries of Creation” published on 02/04/2008. “There is very distinct and subtle difference between Human and Angels. The former bear the mysterious knowledge of the Creator and His Essence, along with the tendency to transgress. Whereas Angels have, only the knowledge of the entire spectrum of the creation with absolute servitude without any free will or desires” It is aptly summarized in Surah Bani-Israel 17, V-70 “And we bestowed dignity to the children of Adam (R.A)” “Dignity” in this verse implies the widest range of attributes and characteristics. Speech (with requisite eloquence for praising his lord) is one such attribute which distinguishes man from the rest of the creations. If a man knows God for thousands of years but does not confess would be virtually an infidel. (Not undertaking the pronouncement of the Article of faith). God has bidden all believers to give thanks and praise Him, rehearse His bounties, supplicate; He would answer the supplicants.

Yet another reason, which signifies man’s special position in the Universe, is his makeup:

Man is made of 10 constituents, 5 of which belongs to the Realm of the Divine-Ordinance (Aalame-Amar) and other 5 belongs to the Realm of Divine-Creation (Aalame Khalq).

These are Heart, Soul, Mystery, Secret, Secret of Secret—-&—–Dust, Water, Air, Fire and Self (Nafs).  This special formation of man endows him with the capacity to absorb the light of Divine Guidance; hence worthy of being vice regent of his Creator to whom angels were asked to prostrate in gratitude to their Lord, who created such a marvelous being.

It can be elaborated further by quoting parts of sufic interpretation of this verse.

“Mankind is the substance and the revolving (spheres are) his incidental (qualities).9

 “O you (man) (in regard to whom) reason, deliberations, and understanding (are) your slaves, why do you sell yourself (so) cheaply as this?1
“(Since) service toward you is an indispensable duty for all existence, how should a substance seek help from an incidental quality?” “You are the ocean of knowledge hidden in a dewdrop; you are the world hidden in a body three cubits long”
13 

  1. “We have honored [the sons of Adam]’: Qur’an 17:70. Here, the One God speaks in the “royal plural” tense– a verse interpreted by the Sufis to mean honored above all creation, including the angels, who did not know the “names” [the Names of God, according to the Sufic interpretation], which Adam knew, but the angels did not (Qur’an 2: 31-33). 
  2. “Primary aim [`araz](beseeching)… incidental (qualities) [gharaz](need): Nicholson translated, “Man is the substance, and the celestial sphere is his accident.” He explained the “celestial sphere” means “the world” [Footnote]. These two terms, which rhyme, refer to the philosophical difference between the essential substance of something and its “accidental” or external aspects which happen to manifest. Here, it means that the saintly man or woman is the primary end of creation,
  3. and the planets, stars, and the rest of the creation are secondary aspects”. 
  4.  “Why do you sell yourself (so) cheaply as this: Nicholson referred to another verse of the

Mathnawi (which he translated), “Man has sold himself cheaply: he was satin, he has sewn himself on (become attached) to a tattered cloak.” (III: 1001) And he explained that “a tattered cloak means “the body and the carnal nature.”.

At another place in Qura’an, in Surah Abas (Frowning) 80, V 16, 19 God questions man “Of what material have you been made, A drop of semen?” It is reminder of his humble beginning; then He declares how he destined him with attributes, faculties, and limbs and then made his way easy from that stage till his death. It is said that during the pregnancy a child is pre-destined of 4 things, sustenance, age, life style (sinful or pious) and his state of leading a happy or sad life. (H) The word “Qaddarahu” means everything granted to him was well calculated, measured, balanced and made to suit the purpose of his existence. A child is conceived and developed under three layers of darkness:  the belly, the womb and amniotic membrane.(whole process of conception revealed has been verified by medical science). 

 One of the wonders of man’s birth is that a few moments before the time of nativity the child is so located in the mother’s womb that usually its head is right side up, its face is to the mother’s back and its feet are toward the down side of the womb; but when the time of birth comes, the child turns upside down so that its head is downwards, and this very position makes the birth (process) easier for both the child and its mother. There are, of course, exceptions where some children are born under various complications therefore, their mothers encounter many difficulties.

 After studying the research presented and the above passages there should remain no doubt in any rational being’s mind about the God’s existence, His omnipotence, and Human-being being the most high in the chain of creation; which He has described as His vice-regent on the earth. (For, Man is not what eats, drinks, and suffers decays but a Divine mystery, of which body is the vesture, situated in the interfusion of natural humors and in the union of body and spirit). 

*Definitions of scientific terms used in this piece.   

Histones:–are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.

Tubulinin molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily.

kinesinis a protein belonging to a class of motor proteins found in eukaryotic cells.

myosin. (mī’ə-sĭn) A protein found in muscle tissue as a thick filament made up of an aggregate of similar proteins.

nanomolecular(not comparable) Describing any nanoscale process that involves the manipulation of individual molecules.

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Love!

January 17, 2018
love

Temporal Love

Love (Psycho-sophically speaking–Temporal)

It is twitching of the brain, impulsive vibrations translating into emotive feelings yearning for the satisfaction of lust or instinct. It has beginning and end, it is ephemeral. It may, however, be fractional constituent of the true whole, which we were inculcated with before being descended into temporality. Buried in sub-conscience, it is clamoring to reach its Zenith in perpetuity. True love with fellow human beings is improbable, but an instinctual bonding; which cannot be classed as love. Love could only exist between God and (Creation) human. This love, if true, would require human to lose his “self” or else it would simply be reverence. Temporally speaking, it is delusional attachment entailing unwholesomeness—self centeredness.

Image result for pic of the parts of the brain affected by spiritual experienceLOVE (Theosophically Speaking–Spiritual)

Most of us observe servitude, whereas love is a gift endowed only to far and few between like, Yazid Bastami and Rabia Basri. Even Prophets do not seem to be the recipient of the gift of love, since they are entrusted with the obligations and responsibilities of Prophet-hood. They cannot afford the ecstasy of endowment of love by neglecting their primal obligation towards their people/Ummah. They are however accorded with the highest echelon of spiritual rank, immunity from all evils, and guidance through direct and indirect means.

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A WOMAN’S PLACE IN ISLAM

January 11, 2018

 

Image result for pic of woman in islam

 

Women’s position in Divine religions; is not as it is contemporaneously construed; on the basis of western social and cultural practices; rationalized in the hoopla of gender-equality, since it is based on Divine wisdom. It therefore, demands for an extensive contemplation to reach an understanding of the real role of a woman in Islam. It is somewhat supplementary and utilitarian graced with superlative* dignity and respect. (It may sound outlandish/non-apologetics but is the reality).

*(Islam stands out in conferring maximum rights, respect and dignity to women)

 

A Look at the Primal Divine Mode of creation of man and woman

In support of this, two postulates need to be pondered upon. 1)-The woman was created out of the rib cage of man (Adam-PBUH) who was created by God with His own hands (Created by His own hands here signifies the preeminence of Man) and that; 2) – woman was created for the service/comfort of “The Man”. She was created so, for she was to supplement, as a part and parcel of, man and NOT as his competitor or a distinct equal; which, is obviously counter intuitive, cause for acrimony and antagonism, defeating the very purpose of her creation. Your wives are as a tilth unto you; so approach your tilth when or how ye will; but do some good act for your souls beforehand; and fear Allah. And know that ye are to meet Him (in the Hereafter), and give (these) good tidings to those who believe” (Q, 2:223)

(She has never been endowed with the responsibility of Prophet-hood, leading the prayer, or divorcing but rather asking for it when necessary). 

 

“O humanity, fear your Lord who created you from one soul, and created from it its mate…”(Q,4:1) Many Scholars and exegetes understood this to mean that Allah Most High first created Adam (PBUH), and then from him, i.e., from his rib cage, our mother Hawwa {Eve-PBUH}

 

Both Jewish and Christian traditions also maintain that Eve was created from Adam’s rib, although in a literal translation of the Jewish tradition, rib is sometimes referred to as side.

 

Imam Razi and others mentioned that another interpretation is also possible, meaning; “Who created you from one soul” i.e., “starting from one soul” since “from” in Arabic could indicate the starting point of something [ibtida’ al-ghayab], and then “created from it its mate” i.e., “created from that same species, its mate.” [Mafatih al-Ghayb]

 

A scholar who pondered about this verse (4:1) states;“It is believed that there is no text, old or new, that deals with the humanity of women from all aspects with such an amazing brevity, eloquence, depth and originality as this divine decree”

 

Why man has a degree above woman?

We have created everything in pairs so that you may reflect (Q, 51:49) When observed carefully It is noticed that one of the pair is always given/created with an edge over the other to make them befitting the purpose. For example A lioness kills the pray but the lion devours the kill first–for he is the protector and head of the family. A hen, for the most part, sits on the eggs to hatch the chicks whereas cock, for the most part, is busy serenading other hens—to produce more eggs and chicks. This excellence (pre-eminence) of one over the other, as a norm in a couple; is always maintained. .“Because Allah has made one of them to excel the other” (Q, 4:34)

Human beings as the crown of the creation [most innovative, intelligent and beholden to the urges of free-will] may however, alternate this edge or dispense with it altogether, due to circumstantial compulsions; falling victim to botched notion of gender-equality, hence have been told specifically of their assigned places/roles in tandem with Adam and Eve (PBUT). Allah knows well what He has created; which we human cannot fathom, even at the prime of our intelligence. “The nature (framed) of Allah, in which He hath created man. There is no altering (the laws of) Allah’s creation. (Q, 30:30)

 

Spiritual Equivalence

Quran provides clear cut verdict that a woman in the sight of God is equal to a man as far as her rights and responsibilities entailing retribution are concerned. “Every soul will be (held) in pledge for its deeds” (Q, 74:3)

(Responsibilities/deeds include obedience/fidelity to Husband–Q, 2: 223 & Ahadith quoted in forthcoming paragraphs)

 

One may accept it as “Divine Wisdom” —OR— exploit it as “Denigration of Women” It, however, does not mean, in any sense, that she is made either worthless or insignificant or should be treated as such. Both, man and woman have been assigned a specific role.

 

Her personality and contour, by design, is made attractive to man. She has been endowed with femininity coupled with, an intense desire for a mate (man) to fulfill her role as an embodiment of procreation. All these factors result in complete harmony and synchronicity; between a man and a woman; (with the help of Allah, placing love and mercy between them-Q, 30; 21); providing a sound foundation, for an efficacious family unit.

 

Islam, to compensate for her; apparently—obsequious—but in reality; indispensably supportive role–accords her highly respectable status; with specific instructions to be treated with dignity and respect; even in worst of the situations, such as divorce.

 

Women not only used to help in wars and other matters but also were consulted by the Prophet (PBUH) in certain matters. Ayesha (Prophet’s wife) and Fatima, (Prophet’s daughter) are among the most revered women; describing and elaborating Prophet’s (PBUH) religious teachings, including those relating to women.

 

In Quran mother of the Jesus Christ Maryam (Marry) has been mentioned by name and characterized as the “MOST PIOUS, PURIFIED” woman. The wives of the Prophet (PBUH) have been venerated as the mothers of the believers; hence no other man; after the prophet (PBUH), may dare marry them. Daughters in Islam are considered a sign of blessing and mercy of God. Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) used to adore his daughters.

 

Prophet (PBUH) said that “paradise lies under the feet of the mother”. With these instruction/sayings, it became a religious responsibility, a praiseworthy act, to respect and honor women.

 

Woman, according to Qura’an is not blamed for Adam’s first mistake (Original sin, in Christianity). Both were jointly held responsible for disobedience, both repented and both were forgiven.                           (Q, 2:36, 7:20-24)

 

In another verse, Adam alone was specifically held responsible.           (Q, 20:121). {An allusion to his {man’s} preeminence and leadership role}

 

Accolade lavished, by the prophet (PBUH), on those raising daughters.

“Whosoever has a daughter and does not bury her alive, does not insult her, and does not favor son over daughter. God will enter him into Paradise” {Ibn Hanbal # 1957}

 

“Whosoever supports two daughters till they mature, he and I (Prophet-PBUH) will come in the Day of Judgment as this” (Prophet joined two fingers together). (Muslim & Tirmidhee)

 

Tender touch of Islam for women                           (Exceptions granted in religious duties)

 

A woman is exempted from fasting; during pregnancy; or while nursing a baby, if there is some risk for her or her baby’s well being. She does not have to make up for the missed prayers in above cases. She is not obligated to go to mosque for congregational prayers. Her physiological and psychological changes associated with her natural functions are also taken into account.

 

The traditions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) relate that Eve was created while Adam was sleeping from his shortest left rib and that, after sometime, she was clothed with flesh.  He (Prophet Muhammad-PBUH) used the story of Eve’s creation from Adam’s rib as a basis for imploring people to be gentle and kind to women.  “O Muslims!  I advise you to be gentle with women, for they are created from a rib, and the most crooked portion of the rib is its upper part.  If you try to straighten it, it will break, and if you leave it, it will remain crooked; so I urge you to take care of the women.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari

          

Man on the other hand; right through the known history of mankind; has been beholden to the status of; the head of the family, rationality and reasoning

Quiwama—(Maintenance and Protection)

This alludes to the natural physical difference between the sexes which entitles the weaker/feminine sex to the protection (as a norm in a couple) of the stronger/masculine sex. Man’s leadership role in relation to his family does not mean husband’s dictatorship. (Islam quashes any such misunderstanding by clear cut advice issued by the prophet).

“The most perfect believers are the best in conduct and best of you are those who are the best to their wives” {Ibn Hanbal # 7396}

Here is how the scholars and renowned exegetes interpret the position of a woman in Islam.

 

“According to Qura’an women are created for men. Their existence is based on comfort for men”. “And of His signs is that He created for you from yourselves mates that you may find tranquility in them; and He placed between you affection and mercy Indeed, in that are signs for a people who give thought” (Q, 30:21) &

“He is the one who created you [man] from a single soul, and from him created his wife, so that he may find comfort in her. So when he covered her with himself, she carried a light burden and moved about with it, thereafter, when she grew heavy, they both prayed to their Lord, if you bless us with a perfect child, we shall be among the grateful”     (Q, 7:189)

The Creation of Hawa (Eve)

Adam knew the names of everything. Sometimes he talked to the angels, but they were preoccupied with worshipping Almighty Allah. Therefore Adam, felt lonely. One day he slept and when he awoke he found near his head, a woman gazing at his face with beautiful tender eyes. The angels asked him her name. He replied: “Eve (Hawa).” (Means living things).They asked: “Why did you call her Eve?” Adam said: “Because she was created of me and I am a living being.”

Ibn Abbas and a group of companions of the Prophet (PBUH) narrated that when Iblis (satan) was sent out of Paradise and Adam was accommodated therein, Adam was alone in Paradise and did not have a partner from whom he could get tranquility. He slept for some time and when he woke up, he saw a woman whom Allah had created from his ribs. So he asked her, “Who are you? She replied, “A woman” He asked: “Why have you been created?”She said;”So that you could find tranquility in me” The angels, trying to find out the extent of his knowledge, asked him: “What is her name O Adam?” He replied, “Eve” They asked “Why was she so named?” He replied, “Because she was created from something living” (Based on Q, 2; 33 & Hadith narration).

 

 

“Men are in charge of women by [right of] what Allah has given one over the other and what they spend [for maintenance] from their wealth. So righteous women are devoutly obedient, guarding in [the husband’s] absence what Allah would have them guard. But those [wives] from whom you fear arrogance – [first] advise them; [then if they persist], forsake them in bed; and [finally], strike them*3. But if they obey you [once more], seek no means against them. Indeed Allah is ever exalted and grand” (Nisa, 4:34)

*3 (with something like handkerchief or a bunch of shrub not leaving a mark on the skin).

Because Allah has made one of them to excel the other, for they spend (t support them) from their means” (other here is the man) [Al Nisa’ 4:34]

 

 

{Explanation/Tafseer}

Al-Baydaawi said in his Tafseer (2/184): “Men are the protectors and maintainers of women’ means that they are in charge of them and responsible to take care of them. He gave two reasons for that, one that is inherent in them and one that is acquired subsequently, and said: ‘because Allah has made one of them to excel the other’, because Allah has favored men over women by making men more “Apt” in reasoning and running affairs, and has given them more (physical) strength (and endurance) with regard to work and acts of worship. Hence men are singled out when it comes to Prophet-hood, leadership, guardianship, establishing rituals, giving testimony in legal matters, the obligation to engage in jihad and praying Jumu’ah, and so on, and they are given a greater share of inheritance, and divorce is in the man’s hand. ‘and because they spend (to support them) from their means’ refers to what they spend with regard to marriage, such as the “mahr” (man’s obligatory due committed to the wife) and maintenance, etc.”

{Note:-Firstly, Maintenance here is not limited to monetary or material support, it encompasses every tangible and intangible aspect attached to this relationship. Secondly, In Islam this obligation is not reversible despite the fact that a wife may be a woman of means or a breadwinner of the family—for injunctions are ordained for commonplace situations not exceptions}

 

Mutuality of rights and obligations

“And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect) to what is reasonable, but men have a degree (of responsibility) over them. And Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise”

[Al-Baqarah 2:228]

 

Gender-equality in Islam exists insofar as all human beings are equal and that they shall be equally accountable for their good and bad deeds. There is nevertheless a marked divergence when it comes to the roles of the two; which is a schematic, innate and natural; evident from the episodic story of Adam and Eve, described in scriptures and Ahadith. Gender –equality in the western sense of the word is malevolent, contrary to the natural order of things. Its ill effects, unfortunately, are being portrayed as an epitome of women’s emancipation achieved by the western progress and liberalism. Woman has been brainwashed to give up her most coveted position to be exploited willingly as a cheap sex object. Most abused partner in sexual nomadism.

 

Woman in Ahadith

“If I were to command anyone to prostrate to anyone other than Allah, I would have commanded women to prostrate to their husbands. By the One in whose hand is the soul of Muhammad, no woman can fulfill her duty towards Allah until she fulfils her duty towards her husband. If he asks her (for intimacy) even if she is on her camel saddle, she should not refuse.”

Note:- (Similitude of prostration to husband emphasizes the pre-eminence of man and importance of woman (wife)’s obedience to her husband; providing him comfort, which is the very foundation of a happy and tranquil family)

Narrated by Ibn Maajah, 1853; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Ibn Maajah.

 

Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said in his Tafseer (1/363):  “The phrase ‘but men have a degree (of responsibility) over them’ means that they are superior in physical nature, attitude, status, obedience to the commands of Allah, spending, taking care of interests, and virtue, in this world and in the Hereafter, as Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

 

“Because, Allah has made one of them to excel the other’ means, because men are superior to women, and men are better (poised) than women. Hence Prophet-hood was given to men only, as is the highest position of authority (i.e., khilaafah or the position of caliph), because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “No people will ever succeed who appoint a woman as their ruler.” Narrated by Al-Bukhaari, from the hadeeth of ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Abi Bakr, from his father. “The same applies to the position of judge etc. ‘and because they spend (to support them) from their means’ means, because of the “mahr”, spending and maintenance that Allah has enjoined upon men with regard to women in His Book and in the Sunnah of His Prophet (PBUH). So men are better (poised) than women in and of themselves, and they have the responsibility to spend on them and maintain them, so it is appropriate that the man should be the protector and maintainer of the woman”

 

Al-Baghawi said in his Tafseer (2/206):  “because Allah has made one of them to excel the other means, men excel women because they have more powers (apt) of reason and religious commitment and they are in charge of affairs. And it was said that this refers to giving testimony, because Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): ‘And if there are not two men (available), then a man and two women’ [Al-Baqarah 2:282].  And it was said that it refers to jihad, to worship i.e., Jumu’ah and prayers in congregation, or that it refers to the fact that a man may marry four wives, (consent of the wife{ves} is not required) but a woman is not permitted to have more than one husband; or the fact that divorce is in the man’s hand; (though women may also resort to authorities, seeking the divorce from her husband, for legit reason) or with reference to inheritance, or Diyah (blood money), or to Prophet-hood.” 

 

Material Equivalence

One may appreciate that; where Allah (SWT); on the one hand; has created man with an edge; He on the other; has granted a favored status to woman according her some exceptions, thereby maintaining “material equivalence” in their rights and responsibilities.

 

Social and Political Rights

There are many recorded historical references that at the beginning of Islam, at the time of the Prophet (PBUH), Muslim men or women chose to join the Prophet’s army to fight against his enemies, and leading wars after his passing. There are also occasions recorded in the history of Islam where men and women, would equally, take bayat (pledge) with the Prophet, voting and choosing him as a political leader”

Such positions, rights and equality among all were the result of the support and the teachings of the Prophet (PBUH). Women could take part in social, political, and military affairs. The result of his teachings was not only promotion of human rights but also encouraging individuals to stand for their own rights.

Fatima, daughter of the Prophet (PBUH), was well learned and highly respected. It is reported that whenever Fatima entered the room, the Prophet would stand up and give his seat to her. Her sacrifices to protect and support human rights were among the most praiseworthy acts.

Property Rights conferred on women

Under the laws of Islam, women have obtained the right to sell and buy property, own business, take legal action, vote, and participate in political affairs. Inheritance law was/is also among the most important rights. According to Islam, a woman inherits half the share of her brother. At the same time a daughter, can chose but has no obligation to support her parents or children, while her brother does. This right undergoes no changes whether she is single or married. She retains her full rights to buy, sell, mortgage or lease any or all her properties. A man, a brother, has the obligation, by the rules of Islam, to support his mother, wife, children, sisters, and the children of his sisters if necessary. If a woman, a mother, a sister did not have the wealth or the desire to support her children it would become the duty of her brother to support them. The Prophet (PBUH) has introduced the rules and the laws for humanity, some honor the rules and some chose not to. Under Islamic law, women also have control not only over their property but also dowry claims. Once she is married, she may demand her dowry from her husband at any time, and in the case of divorce, she would receive her share of the property.

 

Woman in Politics & Public life

During the Caliphate of Umar Ibn Al Khattab, a woman argued with him in the mosque, proved her point and caused him to declare in the presence of people, “A woman is right and Umar is wrong”

Women role in the early period of Islam had been significantly visible but seems to have been curtailed in the later period*1. Women excelled in the field of war, literature, oratory, public administration, music, theology (Kalam), jurisprudence (Fiqh), Hadith Studies (I’lmul Hadith), mysticism (Tasawwuf), poetry etc. Fatima Binte Abbas and Sikha Sayeeda, the two Islamic scholars, used to come to the mosque regularly to deliver lectures on Islamic theology.  Ayesha (R.A) is recorded to have been chanting Adhan and saying Aqama. History records the name of many female warriors who fought against the enemies in the battle fields. Even Hazrat Ayesha (R.A) took active part in many battles. Umme Atyqah was a brave lady who accompanied the Prophet (PBUH) in seven battles. Wairyh, the sister of Muawia, led a contingent of women in the battle of Yarmuk.

*1 (Most logical reason seems to be the rationalization of the division of labor in the aftermath of increased numerical strength of Muslims).

Woman as a Head of State

There is no verse in the Quran regarding the permission or prohibition of a woman being head of the state/ruler. The Quran is silent on this point but according to one Hadith Prophet (PBUH) rendered woman ineligible (not incapable) for the position of “Head of the State” in these words;”A people will not prosper if they let a woman be their leader”.*2 this limitation has nothing to do with the dignity of the woman, or with her rights. It is rather, related to the natural differences in the biological, physiological and psychological make-up of men and women.

*2–The reporter of this Hadith Abu Bakra; according to some sources, lacks the credibility.

 

Though majority of Islamic scholars do not support the leadership role of a woman or woman as a head of the state, but there are some eminent scholars who support it.

 

Apologetes for woman’s position.

Allama Syed Sulaiman Nadavi (R.A), in his book Seerat-i-Ayesha (R.A) recognized the practical considerations in this context:

This is correct that the natural tendencies of the women make her unfit for discharging the duties of Imamate (government or chieftainship) and it is not possible for the fair sex (Woman) to comply with the conditions which Islam has imposed for the governmental role. For this reason, the women are exempted from assumption of the authority of the head of the state. But from this it cannot be concluded that it is not lawful for a woman to ever lead the public politically or to assume the leadership of the army. (Hossain 1987:217).

 

Mohammad Elius, Lecturer, Department of World Religions, university of Dhaka published in The Arts Faculty Journal, July 2010-June 2011

If we make a thorough examination and critical appreciation of the arguments advanced by both parties, we come to notice that none of these two parties has been able to carry their points. Arguments given in favor of the proposition and arguments given against the proposition are by and large indirect. There is no verse in the Quran which directly either permits the rule of women or prohibits it. The traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), mentioned in this article, against women as the head of the state are believed to be unreliable and unauthentic due to many reasons. As a result, we can say without contradiction that the Quran and Sunnah. Rather the silence of the Quran and the Hadith on this very important and vital issue is not without wisdom and sagacity.

(The author of this opinion is assuming the silence of Ahadith, against women being Head of State, due to their reported weaknesses)

Imam Malik (R.A) is reported to have opined that a woman can become head of the state in all its affairs.

Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A) would have given opinion in favor of their appointment as judges.

 

A rational, logical and cogent explanation

(It would make sense only, when looked at objectively, with an open mind and without being emotionally charged—especially by the women).

 

According to Islam, a head of the state is not mere figurehead. He leads people in the prayers and festivities, decision making in times of war and peace, leading in Jihad as commander-in-chief. This demanding position or any other of similar nature is generally inconsistent with the biological, psychological and physiological make-up of a woman. For example during their menstruation, pregnancy, child birth, rearing and weaning of children such demanding positions; which require maximum strength, rationality, composure and emotional stability, may put excessive strain/stress, thereby impairing their decision making capability thereby distracting them form fulfilling their leadership role.

Such a demanding position therefore, is logically and rationally, inconsistent with the natural disposition/make-up of a woman.

 

 The Last word

Islam is a religion in which a Muslim’s temple is not limited to a building; instead it is the whole wide world; whereas the guidance always descends on his heart; a Muslim’s preacher/trainer is neither a priest nor a liberal teacher, but the intellect (Wisdom) descending on his unblemished heart (Fuwad–enlightened by Allah’s mercy through Qura’an, and the Prophet) by Allah (SWT). It’s a religion of preemption to stem the miscarriage of justice and obligation; and if one’s religion is founded upon mere (thoughtless) imitation, he enjoins blasphemy. In Islam, ignorance is an unforgivable sin; so is one’s evasion of responsibility, towards oneself as well as all the sentient beings.

(May Allah forgive and guide us all on the right path with true understanding)

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