Archive for the ‘Islamic perspective’ Category

Hagia Sophia Mosque–Religious Chauvinism? 

August 8, 2020

 

A symbol of civilizations: Hagia Sophia

Q; – Did the Muslims or did the Christians build the Hagia Sofia in Istanbul, Turkey? 

The question, asked by S Conceicao, was originally answered by the author (in brief) on November 19, 2017. @ Quora.com. before the conversion. 295 views.

Hagia in Greek (hágios ) means “Holy” and in Christian liturgy something consecrated.

 

Watch my first formal V-Log on the topic and subscribe, please.

https://youtu.be/mpU9z5X4CRo

I would not blink agreeing that the timing of conversion of Hagia Sofia, back to the mosque, by the Pres. Recep Tayyip Erdogan is politically motivated. It is to show Turkeys’ leadership resolve and to boost his popularity, domestically and internationally simultaneously. It was not, however, a religious chauvinism.

Some accounts suggest that the original church Hagia Sophia was ordered to be built, on the foundations of a pagan temple, by Constantine l in 325. Way before the advent of Islam. His son, Constantinus ll, consecrated it in 360. It was damaged in 404 by a fire that erupted during a riot following the second banishment of St. Johan Chrysostom, the patriarch of Constantinople. It was rebuilt and enlarged by the Roman emperor Constans I. Then restored building was rededicated by Theodosius II in 415. The church was burned down again in the Nika insurrection of January 532, which allowed Justinian I to envision a splendid replacement. (532-537) CE

 

Since Eusebius was bishop of Constantinople from 339 to 341, and Constantine died in 337, it seems possible that the first church was erected by the latter. The edifice was built as a traditional Latin colonnaded basilica with galleries and a wooden roof. It was preceded by an atrium. It was claimed to be one of the world’s most outstanding monuments at the time.

Socrates of Constantinople, writing in 440, however, claimed that the church was built by Constantius II, who was working on it in 346. A tradition which is not older than the 7th or 8th century, reports that the edifice was built by Constantine the Great. Zonaras reconciles the two opinions, writing that Constantius ll had repaired the edifice consecrated by Eusebius of   Nicomedia after it had collapsed.

Yet another account suggests that this Cathedral was completed by the Byzantine king, of Eastern Roman EmpireJustinian I in 537 as an epitome of Byzantine architecture.

An account with a different perspective, suggests that this edifice was built as a result of a sectarian split in the Christian ranks into—Roman Catholics and Orthodox Christians. The seat of the Roman Catholics was the Vatican whereas Hagia Sofia became the epicenter of the Orthodox Christians.

21 years old king, Fateh Sultan Mohammad II, the conqueror, after the fall of Constantinople in 1451, entered the Byzantine’s prestigious cathedral and, keeping the tradition of “general-amnesty”  by the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) after the conquest of Mecca, pardoned all his adversaries, thereby winning the hearts and minds of the people.  The result was that in a short period a city with 99% Christians was left with only 3% Christians. [mainly Armenian-Christians]. Other accounts, however, differ and suggest that the Christians, Assyrians and Greeks’ cleansing was done through mass killing. I will, therefore, let the history bear the fact out.

When the Christian worshippers were left far and few between, and the edifice was dilapidated, King Sultan Mohammad II, in the year 1453, bought Hagia Sofia with his own money and endowed it to a trust. He, having envisioned the future cost of maintenance, also built a Bazar (market), and a museum adjoining the edifice.

{Note: The status of a “TRUST” cannot be changed/abrogated arbitrarily, even by the original donor, should he change his mind later on}

 

Hagia Sofia, throughout the era of the Ottoman Empire, of about 500 years, until 1935 had been a mosque held in trust.

 

Who was Mustafa Kemal Pasha and why did he convert Hagia Sofia into a Museum?

 

There are several interesting accounts about his background, his rise to the esteemed position of “Father of the Turks” and about his dubious behavior, in a wider context, relating to Islam!

He is a highly revered heroic figure, not only for Turks but also for most of the Muslims. [May not, however, be so for the Arab-Muslims]. When the Grand Vizier, Ahmed Pasha, of the Ottoman Empire planned to ratify the Treaty of Sevres, in 1918, the nationalist Turks headed by Kamal Ataturk defied the king’s will and revolted. Turkish parliament and the people refused to accept the treaty without substantive changes! Although, it was he who signed the treaty of Lausanne in 1923. This established the Republic of Turkey, and Mustafa Kemal became the country’s first president.

Kamal Ataturk in the last 150 years of Muslim history was the first leader; who not only defeated the coalition of the colonial powers; which included Britain, France, Italy, Greece and Bolsheviks supporting Armenians, but also expelled them out of Muslim-Turkey. Interestingly, American president Woodrow Wilson was planning to establish a Christian Armenian independent state out of Turkey but Kamal Ataturk, the hero of the Gallipoli war (1916), trashed his planning by defeating western colonialist forces one by one. Turkish Parliament granted him the title of “Ataturk” Father of the Turks. Parliament also made him field marshal and awarded him a title of “Ghazi” after defeating Greeks in the battle of Sakarya in1921.

 

Mehmed Vahideddin VI, the last sultan of the Ottoman Empire, was forced to abdicate the throne and exiled to Italy in 1922. It prepared the way for declaring Turkey the Secular Republic under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. (in 1923 after signing Lausanne treaty)

 

President Kamal Ataturk, contemplating to keep Turkey out of the well-conceived impending WWII, approached Balkan states and Greece (Greece had been under the Ottoman rule for 500 years), to sign the Balkan-Pact. Greece suggested declaring Hagia Sofia a church, as a goodwill gesture. Kamal Ataturk capitulated, therefore in 1934, abrogated the Hagia Sofia mosque trust and declared it a museum instead. The idea was that the old structure would need a huge sum of money to be restored and maintained, therefore, declaring it a museum would not only generate funds for it but goodwill for (secular) Turkey also. It did happen and UNESCO declared it (in 1985- E. Britannica) a world-heritage-site and has been maintaining the building ever since, for almost 80 years.

Note: there are some suggestions that President “k. Attatuk’s” signature was forged on the conversion decree!

Another account about Kamal Ataturk suggests that he belonged to a Jewish sect, “Dönmeh” or “Crypto-Jews”, created by a Romaniote rabbi from Smyrna named Sabbatian Zevi. Sabbatian Zevi declared himself as the long-awaited Messiah[Exploiting the pronouncement made by Musa bin Maymun (Maimonides) about the coming of the Messiah]

Sabbatian Zevi even at a young age displayed great brilliance and became an accomplished Talmudic and Kabbalistic scholar. Between 1642 and 1648 he lived in semi-seclusion and began to display character traits that psychologists describe as manic-depressive. His following was, nevertheless, spreading far and wide. Turkish Sultan finally arrested him and forced him to renounce the prophethood. Sabbatian Zevi offered to accept Islam and renounced Judaism taking the new name Aziz Mehmed Effendi. This way he ostensibly became a Muslim but clandestinely remained a Jew. [hypocrite]. Kamal Ataturk, according to this account, belonged to this hypocrite-Jewish cult-Dönmeh, hence declared not only Hagia Sofia a Museum but also Turkey a secular Republic.

 

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was a Free-Masonry, initiated into Freemasonry in 1907 in Macedonia Risorta Lodge # 80 under the charter and constitution of the Grand Orient De France. It was likely his involvement at a young age in Freemasonry that inspired his idealistic tendencies in life. He believed that modernization necessarily entailed Westernization, and he established a policy of state secularism, with a constitution that separated the government from religion. Although he believed he was advancing the country, not all of Mustafa Kemal’s reforms were warmly received. His policy of state secularism was particularly controversial, and he was accused of decimating important cultural and religious traditions.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2019/10/21/separation-of-church-and-state-in-christianity-rejection-of-mass-participation-in-election-democracy-nationalism-patriotism-allegiance-in-islam/

Kamal Ataturk. while in a position of strength, accepted/enforced many controversial, anti-Islam measures, which afford credibility to the above assertions. Unless he was naively influenced by the western modernity and secularistic trends of his time; as many western-educated Muslims, with scanty knowledge of Islam, think even nowadays!

 

Anti-Islam changes accepted/enforced. 

He changed the Azan (call for prayers) chanting from Arabic to the Turkish language.

He changed the Turkish language script from Arabic to Roman (Latin) so that people eventually would not be able to read/understand Arabic and Qura’an.

Mosques were locked except for a brief interval of prayers. [preventing any religious education or discourse]

Keeping or carrying the Holy Qura’an was forbidden.

No Hafiz was allowed to be a high-ranking army official.

Changed the name of Islambul city to Istanbul.

The Dardanelles (Bosporus) Straits was made an international waterway with the Ottoman Empire having no control over it. Certain ports near to Constantinople were declared “free zones” as they were deemed to be of international importance. This deprived Turkey of huge amounts of tariff collection.

Accepted the restrictions on the exploration of natural resources, such as oil and gas.

The army was made custodian of the Secular-Turkish-constitution, to perpetuate the secular character of the previously Islamic state.

Economic and political restrictions were also accepted.

The Ottoman Empire had the control of its finances and economy taken away from her and handed over to the Allies

Kamal Ataturk, in the face of Balfour declaration, acted as a vanquished (instead of an ally, Germany), acquiescing to the dictates of the “Protocols of the Elders of Zion”.

Although, officially, he was pursuing the “Six-Arrows” policy — republicanism, nationalism, populism, statism, secularism and revolution. 

 

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2017/10/25/break-up-of-ottoman-empire-through-british-conspiracy/

 

Conclusion: Legally or morally only UNESCO has a right to object to the status change of Hagia Sofia, for it has spent huge sums of money on this edifice as a museum.

Although originally it was built as a Church but was sold and bought legally and for consideration and the title held in trust, which cannot be changed/abrogated arbitrarily.

Turkish supreme court on this very ground annulled the decision taken by Kamal Ataturk in 1453 and ordered its restoration to its original status–a place of worship—a mosque.

A site/building declared a national heritage; also gives the owning state the right to its “Adaptive-use”, anyway suitable/beneficial.

Turkish President, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, has changed a museum not a church into a mosque assigning only a portion of the edifice for Muslim Prayers while the remaining parts will still be open to the general public, as a tourist attraction.

 

These arguments, when considered rationally and logically, would repudiate any objection, especially that of religious chauvinism.

 

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/12/14/behemoth-turkey/

 

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Why does the Holy Qura’an claim that all life forms are created in pairs when bacteria, viruses and other unicellular organisms are created asexually?

June 2, 2020

20 Things You Didn't Know About ... Algae | Discover Magazine

 

   This question was originally answered, in brief, by the author on Jan, 3rd, 2019, on Quora.com

The question seems to be an argumentum-ad-ignorantiam.

Qura’an has not specifically mentioned the sexuality of the pair/couple— except when referenced to human beings. Qura’an has also not restricted the “duality in creation” to the sentient beings”. In the daily-life parlance, a day and night or a pair of socks would not warrant such a specification. So, it would be the case with the bacteria, viruses and unicell organisms. (interchanging/adaptive as explained in Q, 51:49 below.

By the way, Adam (PBUH), is said to, had been created a “Hermaphrodite” (having male and female systems except for the delivery system) so he self-fertilized conceiving “Eve” who then, was delivered through cesarean operation. (said to be, borne out of his rib-cage). Vestiges of it are still witnessed, occasionally, in some men. 

“Verily, all things have We created by pair (in proportion and measure), so that you may reflect OR We have created everything to fulfill a certain purpose”. (Q, 54:49)

Exegetical views about the word “azwaj”–Pair

Lit., “all pairs”. Some commentators regard the term azwaj as synonymous in this context with “kinds” (Baghawi, Zamakhshari, Baydawi, Ibn Kathir): i.e., they take the above phrase to mean no more than that God created all kinds of things, beings and phenomena. Others (e.g., Tabari) see in it a reference to the polarity evident in all creation. Ibn’Abbas (as quoted by Razi) says that it denotes the concept of opposites in general, like “sweet and sour, or white and black, or male and female”; to which Razi adds that everything in creation has its complement, “like high and low, right and left, front and back, past and future, being and attribute”, etc., whereas God – and He alone – is unique, without anything that could be termed “opposite” or “similar” or “complementary”. Hence, the above sentence is an echo of the statement that “there is nothing that could be compared with Him” (112:4).

Reproductive position of micro-organisms, Plants and Animals in terms of science and biology.

Asexual reproduction is found in the majority of living organisms, including most plants, protists (e.g. bacteria, protozoans, and unicellular algae and fungi), and many lower invertebrates such as tapeworms. Other examples of asexual reproductive organisms are hydrae and many lower plants (e.g. ferns). Some organisms are also capable of regeneration, a specialized form of asexual reproduction, for example, starfish, polyps, zebrafish, flatworms, newts, and salamanders. Many plants are capable of total regeneration. Among animals, the lower the form, the more capable it is of total regeneration. The highest animals that exhibit vegetative reproduction are the colonial tunicates (e.g. sea squirts), which, much like plants, send out runners in the form of stolon; small parts of which, form buds that develop into new individuals.

(Note that hydra and jellyfish and many primarily asexual organisms are also capable of sexual reproduction – however many simple organisms like bacteria, yeasts and Fungi Imperfecti are but, asexual).

In asexual organisms (at least in bacteria), the differences between species (different strands) are measured through genetic sequences and organism characteristics.

In these days of high throughput sequencing, most attempts to describe new species come with at least one genomic sequence. Additionally, a whole host of characteristics, including optimal growth temperature, morphology, numerous metabolic capabilities, etc. are used.

Hermaphrodite

Some creatures, for example, sponges, snails, the slug-like sea hare, and some kinds of deep-sea arrow worms are hermaphrodites, that is, they have both sexes in one body.

The objection raised by atheistic minds!

Some apologists may claim that hermaphrodites are actually a male-female pair, as both the sexes are included in one organism. It may be that in a population some hermaphrodites act as males while others as females. This claim, of course, would be totally wrong as a hermaphrodite, by definition, is both male and female at once, even if performing one of its sexual functions at the one time.

Refutation. The objection seems to be argumentum ad ignorantiam, ignoring the declaration Exalted is He who created all pairs – from what the earth grows and from themselves and from that which they do not know”. Q,36:36 [refer to the examples of Adam conceiving Eve and Marry conceiving without male intervention]

[Logically, a system/unit is described according to the capacities/functions it has, not necessarily performing simultaneously, to justify the description—it is named after; e.g. fax, copier and printer, washer and dryer, etc.]

Exegetical view of the declaration: The mention of “that which they do not know evidently relates to things or phenomena not yet understood by man but potentially within the range of his comprehension—maybe sometime in the future.

Ambisexual

Some creatures also change their sex during their life-cycles: Quahogs (hard-shell clams) are born and grow up as a male, but later on, half of them transform into a female. Slipper shells and cup and saucer shells do this too; they commence every season as males, but later on, nearly all of them pass through a phase of ambisexuality and turn into adult females. Some species change sex depending on their environment, such as the marine worm ophryotrocha, if the portly young females are later underfed, they revert back to the male gender. Some fish can also change their sex spontaneously, for example, some groupers and guppies.

“that which they do not know

We were largely in the dark, some of it was morphological, but past that we don’t know.

Think about the defunct kingdom Protista: we thought that single-celled eukaryotes were all closely related, but now we know that they’re spread around the multicellular eukaryotes.

Protists are eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified as a plant, animal, or fungus. They are mostly unicellular, but some, like algae, are multicellular. Kelp, or ‘seaweed,’ is a large multicellular protist that provides food, shelter, and oxygen for numerous underwater ecosystems.

“Exalted is He who created all pairs – from what the earth grows and from themselves and from that which they do not know.” (Quran 36:36)

In this verse, “from themselves” means, from the human pair of male and female. And “from that which they do not know is the process of parthenogenesis and many others. The processes and the terminologies; which were unheard of, when the Quran was revealed or for a long time even after that. Parthenogenesis was discovered in the 18th century by Charles Bonnet.

 

For unisex animal, Allah also gave them a pair, by parthenogenesis, that is embedded within the unisex. Some of the unisex animals are Crayfish: Its egg has a 2n number of chromosomes while all other creature’s egg has n number of chromosomes. So, its egg has a pair. A similar thing happens in Parasitic Wasps.

Komodo Dragon: Its egg starts with n chromosomes. But soon it becomes 2n during the developmental stages, unlike embryogenesis of other animals. So, its pair is made during the developmental process. A similar thing happens in Hammerhead Sharks.

Whiptail Lizard: It is a hybrid product of 2 different lizards. Unusually it has a double number of chromosomes than its parents. So, it is its pair.

Anglerfish: Is female until it reaches maturity, at which point it can switch back and forth between genders. So, pair is created in one.

 

Now we also know that rock-crystals have pairs too!

 

Botany explains that every plant has male and female gender. Even the plants that are unisexual have distinct elements of both male and female. “…. And sent down water from the sky.’ With it have We produced Diverse pairs of plants Each separate from the others.” [Al- Qura’an 20:53]

 

Male, Female and Parthenocarpic-Fruits

Parthenogenesis is a form of reproduction in which the ovum develops into a new individual without fertilization. Natural parthenogenesis has been observed in many lower animals (it is characteristic of the rotifers), especially insects, e.g., the aphid. In many social insects, such as the honeybee and the ant, the unfertilized eggs give rise to the male drones and the fertilized eggs to the female workers and queens. they are also capable of sexual reproduction.

“And the fruit of every kind He made in pairs, two and two.” [Al-Qura’an 13:3] Fruit is the end product of the reproduction of the superior plants. The stage preceding fruit is the flower, which has male and female organs (stamens and ovules). Upon the pollination of the stigmas of the flowers, they bear fruits, which in turn free their seeds at maturity. All fruits, therefore, are equipped with male and female organs; a fact that is mentioned in the Qura’an, 13:3.

 In certain species, fruit can come from non-fertilized flowers (parthenocarpic-fruits) e.g. bananas, certain types of pineapple, fig, orange, vine, etc. They also have definite sexual characteristics.

Matter and Anti-matter “Parity”

Qura’anic verses, particularly 43:12, 51:49, especially 36:36 “things unknown to them”. This part, likely, refers to our understanding of particle physics. The British physicist Paul Dirac discovered the matter in 1933. Antimatter represents the pair/opposite characteristics of the matter. For instance, contrary to matter, antimatter electrons are positive and protons negative.

Schizophyllum commune

Schizophyllum commune is the world’s most widely distributed fungus, occurring on every continent except Antarctica. It is known to have more than 28,000 distinct sexes.

As long as two parental strains are of different mating types, they are able to mate and form fertile offspring. The enormous number of sexes is meant to encourage non-sibling mating and non-relative mating, which ensures genetic diversity in the population.

This species, along with other such fungi is a good counter-example to verse 36:36 as they are things that the Earth grows, yet are not made in pairs. (argumentum ad ignorantiam of atheistic minds)

Refutation: “Distinct Sexes” — ought to be one different from the other—-mating with distinct sex (from itself) would, therefore, create a pair! 

The Chinese concept of “duality in creation”—Yin & Yang

The ancient Chinese already believed in the duality of all creation. This duality principle is known as ‘Yin and Yang’, part of the Taoist belief system. The date of origin of the Yin-Yang duality principle is unknown, however, all reasonable estimates predate Islam by at least two thousand five hundred years. (Note the Yin-Yang symbol dates back to at least 400BC and was present in ancient Shang Dynasty Bronze (age) but the Yin-Yang principle dated much earlier.) The Yellow Emperor, legendary Chinese emperor and cultural hero ruling from 2698 BC to 2598 BC and considered to be the ancestor of the Han Chinese, said “The principle of Ying and Yang is the foundation of the entire universe. It underlies everything in creation. It brings about the development of parenthood; it is the root and source of life and death.

Therefore, the claim, that the existence of antimatter proves the miraculous nature of Qur’anic verses referring to ‘creation in pairs’ is absolutely rational. (yet another argumentum ad ignorantiam of atheistic minds}

 

Refutation

The above quotes of 2698 BC to 2598BC and 400BC; with reference to “Duality in Creation” confirm the veracity of the knowledge contained in the Qura’anic verses, since these are the word of “GOD”, not a human construct! 

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2019/03/23/quraan-narrates-all-life-forms-are-created-as-pairs-while-bacteria-virus-and-unicellular-organisms-are-asexual/

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Disavowing or Disowning a Wrong!

May 1, 2020

 

Conceptual And Expressionism Art Examples - Lessons - Tes Teach

In an individual’s life come several occasions where one hears or sees something untrue, repugnant or altogether false. Most often, a person despite cognitive consonance may get perturbed for his inability to correct, address, refute such a situation due to some, religious, social, familial or political correctness constraints. Such a situation was faced by Prophet Abraham (Ibrahim A.S) when he saw his father, relatives and people of his tribe worshipping false gods. He, despite having explained to them; that they are worshiping wrong god, did not feel satisfied therefore, vehemently and openly declared in their presence that “I free myself (absolve) from what you are worshipping” (Surah Zukhruf 43 V26).

 

The lesson to be learnt here is; that when someone is living in the company of disbelievers, or those who are habituated of doing wrongful acts, or those who out of sheer ignorance, misconstrue the religious injunctions, or altogether distort to justify their own lapses or that of someone else’s  should not be allowed to get a free-pass. In such a situation any person not raising the voice of concern may inevitably become part of that distortion and resultant sinfulness. In the light of this Qura’anic verse; uttered by Prophet Abraham (Ibrahim A.S) it could be inferred that keeping quiet, ignoring such an injustice/distortion or just being concerned with one’s own good deeds only is not enough.

 

It is not enough, that one should keep his own deeds and faith on the right track but also declare his disapproval, disavowal in suitable yet distinctly categorical terms.

 

This view could be corroborated by the Hadith whereby prophet (pbuh) instructed to “stop the one doing wrong with HANDS, TONGUE or the least, THINK of his act as bad act (this being the weakest degree of faith)”  Disapproval, disavowal of bad deeds categorically (even if verbally) would have twofold effect. 1) He would not become part of the sin simply by association or acquiescence. 2) Wrongdoer might heed and change his way—-which would entail immense blessings. This Qura’anic Ayah also corroborates the contemporary saying—–Be part of the solution and not of the problem”

 

NOTE–(Disapproval, disavowal does not mean, in any form or shape, to resorting to violence or Foisting of one’s opinion on others)

 

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What is a “Halala/Tahleel-marriage” in Islam?  

January 25, 2020

Image result for pic of a Muslim divorced couple?

Answered a question on Halala (briefly) on 01/15/2020 at Quora.com

Halala Also known as Tahleel Marriage” loosely means to “legitimize” something.

Most often, the concept of Halala” is misunderstood and misquoted by ignorant Muslims and Non-Muslims alike.

Halala is neither a convenience nor a short-cut to undo an irrevocable divorce; but a sort of punishment for the man, who has committed an abominable act without due diligence and deliberation. 

A woman will not become lawful for the first husband to marry again, had the second husband divorced her without consummating the marriage, even at his own free will.  Bukhaari (2639) and Muslim (1433) Narrated by Ayesha (r.a.a)

This matter ought to be looked at; bearing in mind; that the act of “Divorcing” though permissible, is considered the most despised act, by the Almighty!

Hadith. The Prophet (PBUH) said, “Among lawful things, divorce is most hated by Allah.” (Abu Dawud).

 These are the three most important verses in the Holy Qura’an; setting the principles and modalities of “Divorce” Tahleel-Marriage” and “Post-Tahleel-Behavior”, to be followed.

“And when you divorce women and they have [nearly] fulfilled their term, either retain them according to acceptable terms or release them according to acceptable terms, and do not keep them, intending harm, to transgress [against them]. And whoever does that has certainly wronged himself. And do not take the verses of Allah in jest. And remember the favor of Allah upon you and what has been revealed to you of the Book and wisdom by which He instructs you. And fear Allah and know that Allah is Knowing of all things” [Q, 2:231]

“And if he has divorced her [for the third time], then she is not lawful to him afterward until [after] she marries a husband other than him. And if the latter husband divorces her [or dies], there is no blame upon the woman and her former husband for returning to each other if they think that they can keep [within] the limits of Allah (SWT). These are the limits of Allah, which He makes clear to a people who know” [Q, 2:230]

“And when you divorce women and they have fulfilled their term, do not prevent them from remarrying their [former] husbands if they agree among themselves on an acceptable basis. That is instructed to whoever of you believes in Allah and the Last Day. That is better for you and purer, and Allah knows and you know not” [Q, 2:232]

It has been emphatically advised that the utterances of “Divorce” [talaq] should not be carried out in one go but in three stages, spanning through the duration of married life, known as (Talaq al-bayyina al-sughra) [agreed upon by the majority of scholars and schools]. Affording the couple at least two opportunities in their married life to reconsider their decision and re-unite (Raja’a), before it is too late, and the irrevocable divorce becomes established. (Talaq al-bayyina al-kubra)

Hadith. [Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) reported that the (pronouncement) of three divorces during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) and that of Abu Bakr and two years of the caliphate of Umar (R.A. A) was treated as one. But Umar bin. Khattab (R.A.A) said: Verily the people have begun to hasten in the matter in which they are required to observe respite. So, if we had imposed this upon them, and he imposed it upon them]. Book 9, Number 3491.

NOTE: – Here, if a couple, after the first divorce, hasn’t re-united within the idda period, an irrevocable divorce would become established. They may, nevertheless, re-marry, with a fresh nikah. So, would they be entitled to, after the second divorce as well—either to re-unite before the expiration of the idda period or re-marry afresh after the lapse of idda-period. {re-union without nikah is available before the expiration of the idda period after all three divorces. The convenience of re-marrying after the lapse of third idda-period, however, would come to an END, and the compulsion of Tahleel-marriage would kick in. 

 

Divorce is of four kinds:  Ahsan, most laudableHasan, laudable, In-correct/irregular Bida’a and under duress Mukrah.

Talaq Ahsan–most laudable divorce–is where the husband repudiates his wife by making one pronouncement within the period of Tahr (purity–when the woman is neither menstruating nor having post-natal bleeding) and husband has not had sexual intercourse, and (after the utterance of “Talaq”) she is left to observe her ‘Idda waiting-period:-

Iddah. “Women who are divorced shall wait, keeping themselves apart, three (monthly) courses. (Q, 2:228).  And as for pregnant women, their term shall end with delivery. (65:4).   And those among you who die and leave behind wives, (these wives) should keep themselves waiting for four months and ten days” (Q, 2:234).

Talaq Hasan–laudable divorce–is where a husband repudiates an enjoyed-wife (having had intercourse with) by three sentences of divorce, in three Tuhrs

Talaq Bida’a—irregular or In-correct divorce–is where a husband repudiates his wife by three utterances of “Divorce” (talaq) in one go. According to the majority of the jurists, the Divorce, though valid, is against the spirit of the Shari’ah, therefore, the man following this course would be a deviator in the eyes of Allah (SWT).

Talaq Mukrah–under duress.

“There are three things in which, not only the serious worlds but nonserious words would also count serious. 1) Nikah 2) Divorce 3) Emancipation of a slave. 4) Re-uniting (raja’a), by revoking the divorce. [Narrated by Abu Dawood and Tirmazi—category—good]

According to Imam Abu Hanifa, Nakhai, Qatadah,  Zuhri, and Al Sha’bi, the application of this hadith is restricted to the divorce under duress/compulsion. [discounting the consideration of the will and the intention]

Imam Shafai’i, Imam Ali Ibn Talib and Ibn Abbas, however, contended otherwise by citing another hadith;

“Removed are, from my Ummah, the consequences of acts done by mistake, in forgetfulness and under duress” [ Narrated by Tabarani and Thawhan—category—authentic]

Imam Abu Hanifa is of the view that the “exculpation” as per this hadith pertains to the hereafter, not this world.

Should this premise be admitted, then in my humble view, the consideration of the will and the intention will inevitably become pertinent and integral! Moreover, the intent/purport of the earlier narration seems to have a deterring-undertone (against a casual attitude in serious matters) rather than injunctive, which will satisfy the conciliatory-requisite for the accommodation of both the narrations.  Famous Hadith: “Actions are judged by the intentions” clearly support the argument. (Allah knows the best).

 Divorce initiated by a Woman. (khula)

The right of a woman in demanding the dissolution of marriage is known as “Khula (meaning, the putting off or taking off of a thing). It is a kind of facility/right provided to the wife in securing “Divorce” Talaq from her husband by returning a part or full amount of the bridal gift.

Hadith. ‘A’isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported: When the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was commanded to give option to his wives, he started it from me saying: I am going to mention to you a matter which you should not (decide) in haste until you have consulted your parents. She said that he already knew that my parents would never allow me to seek separation from him She said: Then he said: Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, said: Prophet, say to thy wives: If you desire this world’s life and its adornment, then come, I will give you a provision and allow you to depart a goodly departing; and if you desire Allah and His Messenger and the abode of the Hereafter, then Allah has prepared for the doers of good among you a great reward She is reported to have said: About what should I consult my parents, for I desire Allah and His Messenger and the abode of the Hereafter? She (‘A’isha) said: Then all the wives of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) did as I had done. [Book 9, Number 3498]

 

A desire to re-uniteONLYafter the third and final Divorce (irrevocable—talaq bayyina al-kubra), would necessitate the process of “Halala” or “Tahleel-marriage”

 

One may contend why the woman has to suffer for the fault of the man?

The logical answer is that; a man being the head of the family, custodian of the honor and the dignity, of the family, clan, tribe, etc. would psychologically suffer the most. The woman on the other hand (depending on the ex-husband’s overall behavior/treatment), may or may not like the apparently grotesque process of reunification with her first-husband. However, in all fairness, the woman not only gets re-instated in her status, but she also gets an opportunity extended, to prudently compare and evaluate the present and the past situations. If she feels comfortable and content with the present situation, she may avail of this opportunity and stay put, for she, having been repudiated, was disrespected, dishonored and belittled by her former husband!

Had the man been subjected to go through the process instead, it would have been rather a boon to him; as he is already allowed to marry up to four women. Instead of deterring it would have, most likely, incentivized him for his callous behavior to repeat!

Allah (SWT), is best of the psychologists, therefore, He has ordained the redress jolting the psychological reflexes of the man to the core.

 

Moreover, the woman here neither has the control (over the divorce), nor the obligation to go back to her former husband!

The second husband is also under no moral or legal obligation to divorce. Anyone who does so deliberately; to facilitate the return of the woman to her first husband, has been “cursed” by the Prophet (PBUH)} [Tahleel-marriage in such a situation would become “haram” Invalid]

Women having been endowed with unique temperamental flexibility in terms of the marital relationship by Allah (SWT), therefore, may not take long to adjust in a new situation,

“And one of His signs is that He created mates for you from yourselves that you may find tranquility in them, and He put between you love and compassion; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect” [Q,30:21]

 

Divine injunctions, when analyzed from a secular or western frame of mind; often lacking the faith in the Divine will and wisdom, would neither make sense nor would lead to the right conclusion.

 

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Are Ahmadis [Qadyanis], Ismailis Muslim?

January 3, 2020

Image result for pic of Rabwa ?

(Ahmadiyya town Rabwah—Chenab Nagar–Pakistan)

Originally answered on Quora.com on June 16th, 2017.

As a matter of principle, No. Because they openly reject that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was the last Prophet and declared Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as their Prophet—-who, unfortunately, died in the toilet. They, therefore are guilty of triple rejection. 1) Qura’anic verses, 2) Prophet Muhammad being the last of the prophets and 3) Declaring and accepting—Mirza Ghulam Ahmad—- as their Prophet.

Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is the last of the prophets. After His eminence, no other prophet is going to come. The Prophet, from the beginning of his mission, introduced himself as the seal of the prophets and was accepted by the Muslims as such. The subject of the finality of prophethood in the Islamic milieu is considered to be settled in the light of the categorical statement in the Qura’an as well as in the Ahadith.

“Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Apostle of Allah and the Last of the prophets and Allah is cognizant of all things.” (Q,33:40)

I, many years ago, happened to be a Sunni Muslim speaker at one of their conventions in Atlanta Georgia and witnessed firsthand their deceitful behavior concerning the finality of the Prophethood of Mohammad (PBUH).

So should Not be Ismailis, who,

1) Curtailed the number of Mandatory Prayers from 5 to 3 as a routine

2) Changed the mode of prayer performance.  (Praying without bowing-down or prostrating, sitting on a chair like in a Church).    [Note:—The ritual of Rukuu (bowing down) and sajda (prostration) is repeatedly enjoined in Qura’an].

3) They consider that Prince Agha Khan is endowed with an authority to alter/reject the Divine Injunctions. Some even call him a Prophet and the “Noor” of Allah (SWT)—(NAUZB) out of sheer blind reverence and ignorance.

4) They do not attend the regular mosque but their social-club type–Jama’at Khana.

5) They do not introduce themselves as Muslim but “Momin” to distinguish them from mainstream Muslims.

6) The concept of Haram and Halal is non-existent among them.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2021/01/12/are-the-5-times-of-prayers-mentioned-in-the-quran/

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2017/12/13/are-ahadith-word-of-god/

Note: I loathe to call someone a Non-Muslim or Kafir, {as no Muslim is entitled or authorized to declare someone, who claims otherwise, an Infidel or Kafir} however, it is important for Muslims and common people to know the differences for a better understanding of religious sensibilities while dealing with each group.

Ismailis, like modern Quranists, pray only three times a day citing that, Qura’an mentions only 3 prayers. Here they, like the Quranists, disregard the Sunnah and hadith of the Prophet of 5-mandatory prayers. They even disregard the prophet-adopted mode of praying! 

Elaboration about the word “Kahtm”

The Arabic word of KHATM recited with the vowel ‘I’ on ‘T”, would imply one who ends something. Thus, meaning that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is the last of the prophets. However, if it is recited with the vowel ‘A’ on ‘T’ it would mean, with which something ends. Such as a customary seal pressed at the ends of Important documents. because they are placed at the end of a letter and indicate the end of it. According to this interpretation, it would, again, mean the seal (end) of the prophethood.

Some of the traditions known as “the tradition of position” (Hadith Manzila) are recorded in Shia and Sunni books through various channels asserting that no other prophet is to come after the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).

How people like, Mirza Ghulam Ahmed, Bahaullah and Khalifa Rashid, dare declare themselves the messengers whereas Muhammad was the seal of the Prophethood?

It finds its origin in the contemplations by several Sufi-saints, like Ibn Arabi, Imam Ghazali and others. They bifurcate the nabuwwa into two kinds. One that is, endowed by Allah (SWT) specifically to His chosen people alongwith a Sharia’a–Like Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), here “nabuwwa” has ended for good but not its “Muqam”. Other is general, and is acquirable through a deliberate/compulsive (iztarari) act, owing to their blessed state-of-being (faizane-wujud). This is conceived as, the continuation of “Muqam” and “kamalat” of nabuwwa. Therefore, few of the people of Sufi-strain, as mentioned above, resorting to this contemplative-thinking have claimed to be “messenger”, an equivalent of “Wali/Saint”, which Qura’an name as “Muqarrabun” [Allah knows the best] 

The second coming of Jesus (Issa) a.s is rationalized under this doctrine, whereby he would come as a Prophet, and would operate under the Muhammadan-law {Islamic-sharia’a} and not under the Mosaic-law.

Quote. “In the second, Seth section of the Fuṣūṣ al-ḥikam, Ibn Al Arabi draws upon, interprets, and in various ways comes to transcend, the `finality’ of the prophetic tradition in which Muhammad is pictured as the “last brick” thereby representing himself as the “last prophet”, within the “wall” of the edifice of prophethood (nabuwwa).[1] For Ibn Al-`Arabī, this tradition has inner and outer dimensions. The “wall” of prophethood leaves room for the khātim al-wilāya (the `Seal of Divine Intimacy – Sainthood’). Its concluding “brick” can also be or include the figure of the supreme Walī (Intimate Friend). We glimpse here the possibility of future advent(s) of human instruments of walāya (Divine Intimacy), of the guiding Friend(s) or, saintly Intimates of God. Suggestive of futurity the one “brick” of prophethood becomes two bricks or two “walls”, one of “silver” and the other of “gold” suggestive of future messengers, or intimates of God (see Fuṣūṣ al-ḥikam ed Afīfī, 1980: 63)” Unquote.

Note. Muhyiddin Ibn Al Arabi is one of the most controversial figures in Islamic Sufism. He has often been dubbed as the “heretic” by people like Ibn Tamiya and others, especially for his contemplation whadat-ul-wujud“, which tantamount to endorsing pantheism!  Similarly, Imam Hamid Al-Ghazali has also been criticized by none other than Abu-Rushed (Averroes) for his absolute contempt of philosophy.

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Separation of Church and State in Christianity & Rejection of Mass participation in Election (Democracy), Nationalism/Patriotism/Allegiance in Islam!

October 21, 2019

Weird!!!!!

 

I would acknowledge, in defiance of the western thinking, that it is but natural for one to have an erumpent-attachment to one’s homeland; with a propensity to guarding and protecting it, while taking pride in sense of belonging to it and owning it!

In essence, it is one’s kinfolks, community and the nation one cares about and wanted to protect. It is not only the piece of real-estate; but all that, what is burgeoning from it, living on it and reaping benefits from it.

In Islam, although the concept of customary nationalism/patriotism is not enshrined as such, for there is no concept of a nation-state enshrined as well, yet nationalism/patriotism/allegiance is espoused and encouraged in a non-customary-senseprimarily to a universally-mosaicked, pluralistic nation (Ummah). {According to some, brazenly extrovert, Muslim scholars/thinkers this extends even to the Jews and the Christians}

“We have revealed it (Qura’an) in the Arabic language so that you (people) would understand it”. (Q, 12:2)

This laid the foundation of a NEW-pluralistic-nation comprising of people from all walks of life, lands, communities, ethnicities, skin color and texture. The first [Muslim country], comprising of two sacred cities of mecca and medina, was also made to be protected against all evils.

[He] who made for you the earth a bed [spread out] and the sky a ceiling and sent down from the sky, rain and brought forth thereby fruits as provision for you. (Q, 2:22)

And the earth We have spread out (like a carpet); set thereon mountains firm and immovable, and produced therein all kinds of things in due balance. (Q, 15:19)

“The (whole) earth has been made good for me, a means of purification and a mosque (place of prayer); so, wherever a man maybe, when the time for prayer comes, let him pray wherever he is.” (Hadith”: Sahih Muslim, 521)

As per the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 the sovereign power of God to make laws and ordain monarchs with the divine right to rule was absolute. The legal concepts of national sovereignty and the sovereignty of man in matters of governance were introduced by Hugo Grotius in the late 17th century and further developed by Enlightenment thinkers such as John Locke and Thomas Jefferson.

Thomas Jefferson and Roger William; both are presumptively assertive of God and His religion, whereupon they have driven a wedge.

Their acknowledgment of Divine sovereignty in the face of inductive-reasoning-based premise becomes dubious, hence the conclusion is bound to be flawed.

Muslim Intellectuals/Scholars, therefore consciously refrained from treading this path. They rather used the deductive reasoning to the textual authority [Qura’anic–Nas] and adopted the religion (in its letter and spirit) as a way of life.

Muslims, nevertheless, faltered on account of the “right to rule” as per the divine will; by a Caliph chosen through mutual consultations and consensus of the pious elders, resulting in tyrannical dynasties, absolute-kingship and ruling elitism.  {Although, conceptually, the Absolute Sovereignty of Allah remained intact} 

So-called caliphates started bending the Sharaii rules; for following Qura’anic verdicts exactly would mean a caliph is relegated to a secondary position, a guardian (vice-regent), while the absolute-sovereignty and kingship rest with Allah (SWT)!

This dichotomy has become more pronounced now; due to adopting the western style election through mass participation, of a Muslim ruler of a Muslims dominated state, in contravention of the divine will. (Q, 6:116)

This is the main reason why there is not a single, 100 % Sharia’a compliant, state in the entire world?

Note: Sultanate of Brunei has recently announced Sharia’a to be the law of the landwhich remains to be adjudged on the anvil of the time! 

Read more on a similar topic: https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2017/11/29/cherished-democracy/

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Is Wife a Sex- Slave?

August 29, 2019

Image result for pic of a worried Muslim woman

“A Muslim wife must not refuse to satisfy the sexual urges of her husband as and when demanded”

There seems to be some misunderstanding here; in justification whereof; often quoted verses, in addition to some ahadith, are; –

1 “Man is a degree above them (women) [in authority and responsibility] …women be devoutly obedient” (Q, 4:34)

2 “Your women are a tillage for you; so, come unto your tillage as you wish”.    (Q, 2:223)

This dissertation may be better understood by trifurcating into; Psychophysical, behavioral and spiritual segments, successively.

Authentic ahadith, in essence, make a woman obligated to fulfill her husband’s sexual desires as and when demanded and should not refuse. (unnecessarily)

Here are two things to be borne in mind that; keeping husband satisfied would endure and perpetuate the marital and family life. It is also in consonance with a woman’s exhortative libidinal wanderlust. It is hard to imagine that a woman; who is lured into sexual overture by a legitimate partner; would not be thrilled to jump on it unless inhibited by some stone-cold reason?

Women, especially of the feminist mindset, interpret these verses/ahadith; suggestive of women’s “obligation”, as if these have enforced some kind of bondage or sex slavery.

A general tendency, often exhibited, is that we take a verse/hadith in Isolation and interpret it in black and white!

Islam (through Qura’anAhadith and Sunnah) molds human behavior to employ rationality, reason, logic and somewhat common sense (to harness one’s understanding and interpretation) to achieve the ultimate goal; through habituated behavior of obedience/compliance, a successful end of the sojourn. {coerced compliance would make the whole edifice come to naught}

“Had your Lord willed, all the people on earth would have believed. So can you [Prophet] compel people to believe?”(Q,10:99)

There are many traditions emphasizing upon the importance of legitimate sexual satisfaction, of both the partners equally (including for pleasure). Legitimate sexual-activity attains the station of worship, sadaqah and sunnah.

I wonder if there is any hadith/sunnah whereby Prophet is known to have ever forced any of his wives for sex?

CARDINAL RULE

One ought to; take the cumulative-contextual-sense of all the verses on the topic/issue; take the common(contextual) theme of the authentic ahadith  {which must be in conformity with the Qura’anic dictum}; then get to the gist/essence of the injunction, reposing one’s trust in Allah (SWT) to guide him on the right course. (Q, 2: 85 & 4: 150) [Ijtihad/Personal Ijtihad–by employing the Uslub Tafsir Maudhu’i]

Note: – Every hadith; like Qura’anic verse; is necessitated by a context; which must be correctly established, for its correct understanding and application. 

In regard to the wife’s “obligation” to husband’s sexual satisfaction; one should keep the following things in mind; 

A wife’s sexual-satisfaction is similarly obligatory on the husband.

Compassionate, good treatment of women is commonplace in the Qura’anAhadith and Sunnah.

Moderation in behavior is the hallmark of Islamic teachings.

Ultimate pleasure sought/desired, through various acts/abstinences, is of Allah (SWT).

Therefore, the sexual satisfaction of the husband by his wife does not become mandatory/compulsory in all the circumstances but congruous, cogent and permissible ones, garnering the ultimate pleasure/blessings of Allah. Hence the verse is suggestive/advisory of the obligation; without making it mandatory in disregard of the behavioral or circumstantial swings; discounting the botched concept of bondage/slavery of a devoutly obedient wife. {Vindicated by the proscription of the sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman}It is a state of impurity; so, keep away from the women in the state of menstruation, and do not approach them until they are cleansed (Q, 2:222)

Marital rape/forced-sex

Women having been granted the highest status; such as; the mother of the Prophets; the mother of the faithful; cannot be imagined, to having been made slavishly subservient to the indecorous sexual urges of the husband.

Some scholars try to justify the sexual-satisfaction-right of the husband; even when secured through coercion, by using an apparently formidable but in reality, an untenable argument.  The justification generally presented; in denial/suppression of woman’s feelings, dignity and free-will; is the pleasure of Allah (SWT); which no Muslim would normally dare, differ with or challenge!

In my humble opinion; sexual satisfaction obtained by coercing one’s wife, as if she is a lump of dead meat; in the face of the man having multiple options/rights of divorcing, having more than one wife and marrying another woman, cannot be justified. On the other hand; the woman who is not inclined/agreeable to having sex with the husband must be having a sound reason(s) (psychological or physical incongruity) for it. Therefore, forcing her would not make her either in obedience/compliance of the desires of the husband or of the will of Allah (SWT). Neither will there be a sense of satisfaction/fulfillment on the part of the husband (normally derived from the mutuality/consensual participation of the two); but mere ejaculation, coupled, most likely, with remorse and guilt.

{The emphasis placed; on the compassion; hygienics; good smell and foreplay, therefore, tacitly predicates for a consensual/participatory sex} 

 

Further reading on the topic of women;

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/01/11/a-womans-place-in-islam/

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2015/06/22/muslim-women-marrying-non-muslim-men/

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If everything is determined in our fate, why did Allah send us down to earth for testing? {Predestination VS Free-Will}

June 19, 2019
The question is very logical but unfortunately based on the misconception. It is a commonplace misconception that everything is pre-determined. Had that been the case there would have been no need for creation’s subjection to retribution. God sure does know everything but has not pre-destined as perceived. There is a difference in His knowing everything and having pre-determined everything. He, being the Creator does know how a person would lead his life, what choices would he make, etc. He, nevertheless, has endowed man with free-will to exercise his right of choice from the options available. {an elbow room} It, therefore, can not be imagined/construed that He (God forbid) is going against his own words/promise. 

The man operates under two different kinds of creational realms. 1) Takweeni—-where there is no choice. which applies to things such as death, age, etc. 2) Tashri’i—- One would be a believer or nonbeliever, would be selfless or selfish, etc. In-animated bodies such as trees, mountains, celestial objects, etc normally operate under the first rule of creation.

Similarly, there are two kinds of order/decree issued by God. 1) final decree—which does not admit of any change. Like death, height, color, race, place of birth, etc. 2) decree—which may or do admit of a change—such as an affliction may be changed to health due to the prayers, or the intervention of the angels; appointed for the protection of human beings.

This is confirmed in Qura’an in Surah Al Nahal 16, V 36. “And among them were those whom Allah guided, and among them were those upon whom error was [deservedly] decreed” & also V 37 “[Even] if you should strive for their guidance, [O Muhammad], indeed, Allah does not guide those He sends astray, and they will have no helpers” 

Hopefully, this explanation would suffice for the correct understanding of the topic of Free-will vs Predestination. 

Also read: https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2016/03/21/the-anthropocentric-character-of-the-universe-special-status-of-man-and-yet-his-denial-of-god/

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What is I’tikaf in Islam? What does one have to do during an I’tikaf?

May 27, 2019
It is the name of “spiritual retreat”. Seclusion for a certain number of days in the mosque, giving up/curtailing worldly affairs while keeping busy in the worship of Allah (SWT).

“Shara’i I’tikaf must be in the mosques because Allah says:: “… while you are in I’tikaf (i.e. confining oneself in a mosque for prayers and invocations leaving the worldly activities) in the mosques” [al-Baqarah 2:187]. “Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen in Fataawa Noor ‘ala al-Darb (8/176)”

“Undoubtedly I’tikaf in the mosque is an act of worship, and (observing it) in Ramadan is better than at other times. It is prescribed in Ramadan and at other times. [Fiqh al-I’tikaf by Dr. Khaalid al-Mushayqih, p. 41 – Shaykh Ibn Baaz said in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (15/437)]

One may get out of A’atikaf only for necessities/emergencies. Both men and women may perform I’tikaf in the mosques. It is not limited to the month of Ramadan only. It is sunnah. Its duration may be from the shortest to the longest time. Normally, however, it is for the last 10 nights of the Ramadan.

Al-Shaafa’i and his companions said: Whoever would like to follow the example of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in observing I’tikaf during the last ten nights of Ramadan should enter the mosque before the sun sets on the night of the twenty-first, so that he will not miss any of it, and he should come out after the sun sets on the night of Eid, whether the month is twenty-nine days or thirty.

Reed: https://shakir2.wordpress.com/tag/taraweeeh/

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2019/06/01/are-qiyam-ul-lail-and-taraweeh-the-same-is-it-allowed-to-pray-both-taraweeh-with-vitr-and-qiyam-ul-lail-at-the-last-ten-days-of-ramadan/

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Valiant, Assertive Women Flocking to Islam!

May 6, 2019

 

Claire Evans

{female converts finding true feminism in Islam}

The utilitarian but sacralized character of woman, defined in Islam!

Pondering upon the creational imperatives of a woman with an open mind would inevitably make her (Divine-rule/command) utilitarian role stand out. From the Judaic and biblical accounts; carried over Into Islamic literature: Adam knew the names of everything (Adam having been taught the names of all the things, is Confirmed in Q, 2:31). Adam, at times, used to engage in conversation with angels, but they were often busy worshipping God, so Adam felt lonely. Ibn Abbas and a group of companions of the Prophet (PBUH) narrated that when Iblis (Satan) was expelled out of Paradise and Adam was accommodated therein, Adam was lonely as he did not have a partner from whom he could get tranquility. He slept for some time and when he woke up, he saw a woman, whom Allah had created from his ribs. So, he asked her, “Who are you? She replied, “A woman,” He asked: “Why have you been created?” She said; “So that you could find tranquility in me” The angels, trying to find out the extent of his knowledge, asked him: “What is her name O Adam?” He replied, “Eve,” They asked, “Why was she so named?” He replied, “Because she was created; out of me, something living” (Q, 2; 33 & Hadith—present similar narrative).

Reportedly Eve was created from the rib-cage of Adam. She was not created as a separate entity at par with Adam. Qura’an confirms that; human [Adam] was created from one soul; then-out of him–was created his mate; therefrom multiplied them, into the human race.

“It is He who created you from one soul and created from it its mate that he might dwell in security with her. And when he covers her, she carries a light burden and continues therein. And when it becomes heavy, they both invoke Allah, their Lord, “If You should give us a good [child], we will surely be among the grateful.” (Q, 7:189)

Her utilitarian character is accentuated in Surah Ar-Rahman # 8 verses: 54, 56, 58, 60, 70, 72, 74 and 76. Here; what is noteworthy is that; she is presented as a reward for the good conduct of man; praised by Allah, as the rubies and coral; untouched by a man or a gene (emphasizing her purity/chastity)fair ones reserved for him (man) in pavilions, reclining on green cushions and beautiful carpets.

In surah An-naba # 78, verses, 33-34 her contour {appealing to man’s psychological passion} is highlighted as an inducement for man to do good and be rewarded with; {and a full-breasted—and (size of) a full cup–a woman of equal age}. {As a reward from your Lord, a generous gift [made due by] account (of good deeds)}

 

“And among His Signs is this, that He created for you wives from among yourselves, that you may find repose in them” (Q, 30:21) 

Your wives are as a tilth unto you; so, approach your tilth when or how ye will” (Q, 2: 223) {Categorical imperatives}

 

Historically, a woman was considered a chattel, of an unspecified multitude. Islam, however, limited that to only four at any given time. (still preserving her utilitarian character—granting numerical excess over men—to accommodate polygamy).

“Marry women of your choice two or three or four; but if ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly (with them) then only one” (Q, 4:3) {prima-facie choice/duty vs actual choice/duty}

 

Here is how this role has been sacralized by Almighty Allah (SWT); by granting her the status of the mother of the Prophets, mothers of the faithful; underneath whose feet lies the paradise. Maryam (Virgin-Mary), the only woman mentioned in the Holy Qura’an, by name with an appellation of “the truthful” [siddiqa]. (Q, 5:75)

The major part of Surah An-Noor is dedicated to the protection and security of the chastity and continence of women. Utmost importance has been attached to the honor and chastity of a believing woman in Islam.

“Those who slander chaste women indiscreet (naive) but believing are cursed in this life and in the Hereafter. For them, there is a grievous Penalty” (Q, 24:23)

The second most venerated woman is Aisha—the youngest wife of the Prophet. She was slandered falsely by a hypocrite but exonerated by Allah (SWT) by revealing 10 verses. (Q, 24: 11-21)

Here is a brief of the heartwrenching story about her grief and exoneration by Allah (SWT). 

Quote: “WAllah, now I do not see an example on the issue between you (prophet) and me, except the one father of Yousuf (Joseph) Yaqoob (Jacob), said after hearing the wrong statement by his sons. “So, Patience is best, and It is Allah whose help is sought against what you describe”

Prophet who was sitting there received the revelation about her exoneration and gave her the good news.

Grief-stricken Aisha, urged by her parents to go to the Prophet, responded: “I do not feel obligated to anyone in this case, except Allah, nor would I get up. I am thankful to my Lord who has exonerated me”

The woman has been elevated in-status by asking her to cover herself and adorn herself only to please her husband. {to save her from the lustful staring, gazing or glancing by the strangers}. Islam is the religion that granted her the right to inheritance and the right to be consulted in daily life matters. Vehemently protecting her from false accusation of adultery/fornication. Portraying as a poetic creature, repeatedly advised men to treat her with compassion and tenderness.

O you who have believed, it is not lawful for you to inherit women by compulsion. And do not make difficulties for them in order to take [back] part of what you gave them unless they commit clear immorality (adultery). And live with them in kindness. For if you dislike them – perhaps you dislike a thing and Allah makes therein much good. But if you want to replace one wife with another and you have given one of them a great amount [in gifts], do not take [back] from it anything. Would you take it committing injustice and manifest sin?” (Q, 4:19, 20)

So when Zayd had no longer any need for her, {When a husband is done with his wife; having no feeling for her, he may divorce her amicably} We married her to you [Prophet] in order that there not be upon the believers any discomfort concerning the wives of their adopted sons when they no longer have need of them {having become disinterested, without feelings/emotions in their relationship}. (Q, 33:37) 

This injunction; granting a concession primarily to man, is an example of purely Divine rule/command utilitarianism. {secondarily, however, a woman may also exercise her right to seek a divorce in similar situation}

“So, with those of whom, you have enjoyed sexual relations, give them their due compensation as an obligation” Q, 4:24)*

 

Note: *From this very verse, Shia’a school derives the validity of the terminal marriage (muta’a), which Sunni schools abhor as forbidden. 

                                                                      

{Shia’a school, seems to be making use of the “Hedonistic utilitarianism”; where the rule-utilitarianism—Sunni school– is collapsing into act-utilitarianism!}

 

Sura An-Nisa’a, contrary to the usual misinterpretation/misunderstanding, secures women’s place; rights to have autonomy and independence, within the family structure. 

 

“O Children of Adam! We have bestowed on you, the raiment to cover your shame as well as to adorn you. But the raiment of righteousness, that is the best. Such are among the Signs of Allah, that they may receive admonition.” (Quran 7:26)

“And say (O Prophet) to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what must ordinarily appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands’ fathers, their sons, their husbands’ sons, their brothers, or their brothers’ sons or their sisters’ sons, or their women or the servants whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex, and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments. And O you Believers, turn you all together towards Allah, that you may attain Bliss.” (Quran 24:31).

“O Prophet, tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks close round them (when they go abroad{outside}). That will be better, so that they may be recognized and not annoyed. Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful.” (Quran 33:59)

West has exploited her act-utilitarian character [defying Divine-rule/command] by objectivizing and universalizing it so that she may be trampled and abused with impunity. West also, exploited her overly compassionate and impressionable nature towards her physique. Thus, a naivete-prone, (act-utilitarian), woman worthy of being revered, respected and protected; is misguided/indoctrinated—in the name of gender equality and woman’s emancipation—to commoditize herself to be desecrated willingly.

Valiant, thoughtful and assertive women, therefore, are rebelling against this exploitative indoctrination and flocking to Islam to fit in the natural pecking order. {النظام الطبيعي- alnizam altabiei}; which is reason-basedDivine-rule/command utilitarianism.

[I seek refuge and forgiveness of Allah, for any inadvertent wrongful assertion].

For further reading on the topics about women: https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/01/11/a-womans-place-in-islam/

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2015/06/22/muslim-women-marrying-non-muslim-men/

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