Archive for the ‘Islamic perspective’ Category

Disavowing or Disowning a Wrong!

May 1, 2020

 

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In an individual’s life come several occasions where one hears or sees something untrue, repugnant or altogether false. Most often, a person despite cognitive consonance may get perturbed for his inability to correct, address, refute such a situation due to some, religious, social, familial or political correctness constraints. Such a situation was faced by Prophet Abraham (Ibrahim A.S) when he saw his father, relatives and people of his tribe worshipping false gods. He, despite having explained to them; that they are worshiping wrong god, did not feel satisfied therefore, vehemently and openly declared in their presence that “I free myself (absolve) from what you are worshipping” (Surah Zukhruf 43 V26).

 

The lesson to be learnt here is; that when someone is living in the company of disbelievers, or those who are habituated of doing wrongful acts, or those who out of sheer ignorance, misconstrue the religious injunctions, or altogether distort to justify their own lapses or that of someone else’s  should not be allowed to get a free-pass. In such a situation any person not raising the voice of concern may inevitably become part of that distortion and resultant sinfulness. In the light of this Qura’anic verse; uttered by Prophet Abraham (Ibrahim A.S) it could be inferred that keeping quiet, ignoring such an injustice/distortion or just being concerned with one’s own good deeds only is not enough.

 

It is not enough, that one should keep his own deeds and faith on the right track but also declare his disapproval, disavowal in suitable yet distinctly categorical terms.

 

This view could be corroborated by the Hadith whereby prophet (pbuh) instructed to “stop the one doing wrong with HANDS, TONGUE or the least, THINK of his act as bad act (this being the weakest degree of faith)”  Disapproval, disavowal of bad deeds categorically (even if verbally) would have twofold effect. 1) He would not become part of the sin simply by association or acquiescence. 2) Wrongdoer might heed and change his way—-which would entail immense blessings. This Qura’anic Ayah also corroborates the contemporary saying—–Be part of the solution and not of the problem”

 

NOTE–(Disapproval, disavowal does not mean, in any form or shape, to resorting to violence or Foisting of one’s opinion on others)

 

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What is a “Halala/Tahleel-marriage” in Islam?  

January 25, 2020

Image result for pic of a Muslim divorced couple?

Answered a question on Halala (briefly) on 01/15/2020 at Quora.com

Halala Also known as Tahleel Marriage” loosely means to “legitimize” something.

Most often, the concept of Halala” is misunderstood and misquoted by ignorant Muslims and Non-Muslims alike.

Halala is neither a convenience nor a short-cut to undo an irrevocable divorce; but a sort of punishment for the man, who has committed an abominable act without due diligence and deliberation. 

A woman will not become lawful for the first husband to marry again, had the second husband divorced her without consummating the marriage, even at his own free will.  Bukhaari (2639) and Muslim (1433) Narrated by Ayesha (r.a.a)

This matter ought to be looked at; bearing in mind; that the act of “Divorcing” though permissible, is considered the most despised act, by the Almighty!

Hadith. The Prophet (PBUH) said, “Among lawful things, divorce is most hated by Allah.” (Abu Dawud).

 These are the three most important verses in the Holy Qura’an; setting the principles and modalities of “Divorce” Tahleel-Marriage” and “Post-Tahleel-Behavior”, to be followed.

“And when you divorce women and they have [nearly] fulfilled their term, either retain them according to acceptable terms or release them according to acceptable terms, and do not keep them, intending harm, to transgress [against them]. And whoever does that has certainly wronged himself. And do not take the verses of Allah in jest. And remember the favor of Allah upon you and what has been revealed to you of the Book and wisdom by which He instructs you. And fear Allah and know that Allah is Knowing of all things” [Q, 2:231]

“And if he has divorced her [for the third time], then she is not lawful to him afterward until [after] she marries a husband other than him. And if the latter husband divorces her [or dies], there is no blame upon the woman and her former husband for returning to each other if they think that they can keep [within] the limits of Allah (SWT). These are the limits of Allah, which He makes clear to a people who know” [Q, 2:230]

“And when you divorce women and they have fulfilled their term, do not prevent them from remarrying their [former] husbands if they agree among themselves on an acceptable basis. That is instructed to whoever of you believes in Allah and the Last Day. That is better for you and purer, and Allah knows and you know not” [Q, 2:232]

It has been emphatically advised that the utterances of “Divorce” [talaq] should not be carried out in one go but in three stages, spanning through the duration of married life, known as (Talaq al-bayyina al-sughra) [agreed upon by the majority of scholars and schools]. Affording the couple at least two opportunities in their married life to reconsider their decision and re-unite (Raja’a), before it is too late, and the irrevocable divorce becomes established. (Talaq al-bayyina al-kubra)

Hadith. [Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) reported that the (pronouncement) of three divorces during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) and that of Abu Bakr and two years of the caliphate of Umar (R.A. A) was treated as one. But Umar bin. Khattab (R.A.A) said: Verily the people have begun to hasten in the matter in which they are required to observe respite. So, if we had imposed this upon them, and he imposed it upon them]. Book 9, Number 3491.

NOTE: – Here, if a couple, after the first divorce, hasn’t re-united within the idda period, an irrevocable divorce would become established. They may, nevertheless, re-marry, with a fresh nikah. So, would they be entitled to, after the second divorce as well—either to re-unite before the expiration of the idda period or re-marry afresh after the lapse of idda-period. {re-union without nikah is available before the expiration of the idda period after all three divorces. The convenience of re-marrying after the lapse of third idda-period, however, would come to an END, and the compulsion of Tahleel-marriage would kick in. 

 

Divorce is of four kinds:  Ahsan, most laudableHasan, laudable, In-correct/irregular Bida’a and under duress Mukrah.

Talaq Ahsan–most laudable divorce–is where the husband repudiates his wife by making one pronouncement within the period of Tahr (purity–when the woman is neither menstruating nor having post-natal bleeding) and husband has not had sexual intercourse, and (after the utterance of “Talaq”) she is left to observe her ‘Idda waiting-period:-

Iddah. “Women who are divorced shall wait, keeping themselves apart, three (monthly) courses. (Q, 2:228).  And as for pregnant women, their term shall end with delivery. (65:4).   And those among you who die and leave behind wives, (these wives) should keep themselves waiting for four months and ten days” (Q, 2:234).

Talaq Hasan–laudable divorce–is where a husband repudiates an enjoyed-wife (having had intercourse with) by three sentences of divorce, in three Tuhrs

Talaq Bida’a—irregular or In-correct divorce–is where a husband repudiates his wife by three utterances of “Divorce” (talaq) in one go. According to the majority of the jurists, the Divorce, though valid, is against the spirit of the Shari’ah, therefore, the man following this course would be a deviator in the eyes of Allah (SWT).

Talaq Mukrah–under duress.

“There are three things in which, not only the serious worlds but nonserious words would also count serious. 1) Nikah 2) Divorce 3) Emancipation of a slave. 4) Re-uniting (raja’a), by revoking the divorce. [Narrated by Abu Dawood and Tirmazi—category—good]

According to Imam Abu Hanifa, Nakhai, Qatadah,  Zuhri, and Al Sha’bi, the application of this hadith is restricted to the divorce under duress/compulsion. [discounting the consideration of the will and the intention]

Imam Shafai’i, Imam Ali Ibn Talib and Ibn Abbas, however, contended otherwise by citing another hadith;

“Removed are, from my Ummah, the consequences of acts done by mistake, in forgetfulness and under duress” [ Narrated by Tabarani and Thawhan—category—authentic]

Imam Abu Hanifa is of the view that the “exculpation” as per this hadith pertains to the hereafter, not this world.

Should this premise be admitted, then in my humble view, the consideration of the will and the intention will inevitably become pertinent and integral! Moreover, the intent/purport of the earlier narration seems to have a deterring-undertone (against a casual attitude in serious matters) rather than injunctive, which will satisfy the conciliatory-requisite for the accommodation of both the narrations.  Famous Hadith: “Actions are judged by the intentions” clearly support the argument. (Allah knows the best).

 Divorce initiated by a Woman. (khula)

The right of a woman in demanding the dissolution of marriage is known as “Khula (meaning, the putting off or taking off of a thing). It is a kind of facility/right provided to the wife in securing “Divorce” Talaq from her husband by returning a part or full amount of the bridal gift.

Hadith. ‘A’isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported: When the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was commanded to give option to his wives, he started it from me saying: I am going to mention to you a matter which you should not (decide) in haste until you have consulted your parents. She said that he already knew that my parents would never allow me to seek separation from him She said: Then he said: Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, said: Prophet, say to thy wives: If you desire this world’s life and its adornment, then come, I will give you a provision and allow you to depart a goodly departing; and if you desire Allah and His Messenger and the abode of the Hereafter, then Allah has prepared for the doers of good among you a great reward She is reported to have said: About what should I consult my parents, for I desire Allah and His Messenger and the abode of the Hereafter? She (‘A’isha) said: Then all the wives of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) did as I had done. [Book 9, Number 3498]

 

A desire to re-uniteONLYafter the third and final Divorce (irrevocable—talaq bayyina al-kubra), would necessitate the process of “Halala” or “Tahleel-marriage”

 

One may contend why the woman has to suffer for the fault of the man?

The logical answer is that; a man being the head of the family, custodian of the honor and the dignity, of the family, clan, tribe, etc. would psychologically suffer the most. The woman on the other hand (depending on the ex-husband’s overall behavior/treatment), may or may not like the apparently grotesque process of reunification with her first-husband. However, in all fairness, the woman not only gets re-instated in her status, but she also gets an opportunity extended, to prudently compare and evaluate the present and the past situations. If she feels comfortable and content with the present situation, she may avail of this opportunity and stay put, for she, having been repudiated, was disrespected, dishonored and belittled by her former husband!

Had the man been subjected to go through the process instead, it would have been rather a boon to him; as he is already allowed to marry up to four women. Instead of deterring it would have, most likely, incentivized him for his callous behavior to repeat!

Allah (SWT), is best of the psychologists, therefore, He has ordained the redress jolting the psychological reflexes of the man to the core.

 

Moreover, the woman here neither has the control (over the divorce), nor the obligation to go back to her former husband!

The second husband is also under no moral or legal obligation to divorce. Anyone who does so deliberately; to facilitate the return of the woman to her first husband, has been “cursed” by the Prophet (PBUH)} [Tahleel-marriage in such a situation would become “haram” Invalid]

Women having been endowed with unique temperamental flexibility in terms of the marital relationship by Allah (SWT), therefore, may not take long to adjust in a new situation,

“And one of His signs is that He created mates for you from yourselves that you may find tranquility in them, and He put between you love and compassion; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect” [Q,30:21]

 

Divine injunctions, when analyzed from a secular or western frame of mind; often lacking the faith in the Divine will and wisdom, would neither make sense nor would lead to the right conclusion.

 

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Are Ahmadis [Qadyanis], Ismailis Muslim?

January 3, 2020

Image result for pic of Rabwa ?

(Ahamdya town Rabwah—Chenab Nagar–Pakistan)

Originally answered on Quora.com on June 16th, 2017.

On principle, No. Because they openly reject that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was the last Prophet and declared Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as their Prophet—-who died in the toilet. They, therefore are guilty of triple rejection. 1) Qura’anic verses, 2) Prophet Muhammad being the last of the prophets and 3) Declaring and accepting—Mirza Ghulam Ahmad—- as their Prophet.  (no one can be a prophet after Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] in Islam). [A final judgment, nevertheless, rests with Allah S.W.T]

I happened to be a Sunni Muslim speaker, many years ago, at one of their conventions in Atlant Georgia and noticed first hand their deceitful behavior with respect to the finality of the Prophethood of Mohammad (PBUH).

So should Not be Ismailis, who,

1) Curtailed the number of Mandatory Prayers from 5 to 3 as a routine

2) Changed the mode of prayer performance.  (Praying without bowing-down or prostrating, sitting on a chair like in a Church).

3) They consider that Prince Agha Khan is endowed with an authority to alter/reject the Divine Injunctions. Some even call him a Prophet and the “Noor” of Allah (SWT)—(NAUZB) out of sheer blind reverence and ignorance.

4) They do not attend the regular mosque but their own social-club type–Jama’t Khana.

5) They do not introduce themselves as Muslim but “Momin” to distinguish from mainstream Muslims.

6) The concept of Haram and Halal is non-existent among them.

Note: I loathe to call someone a Non-Muslim or Kafir, {as no Muslim is entitled or authorized to declare someone, who claims otherwise, an Infidel or Kafir} however, it is important for Muslims and common people to know the differences for a better understanding of religious sensibilities while dealing with each group.

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Separation of Church and State in Christianity & Rejection of Mass participation in Election (Democracy), Nationalism/Patriotism/Allegiance in Islam!

October 21, 2019

Weird!!!!!

 

I would acknowledge, in defiance of the western thinking, that it is but natural for one to have an erumpent-attachment to one’s homeland; with a propensity to guarding and protecting it, while taking pride in sense of belonging to it and owning it!

In essence, it is one’s kinfolks, community and the nation one cares about and wanted to protect. It is not only the piece of real-estate; but all that, what is burgeoning from it, living on it and reaping benefits from it.

In Islam, although the concept of customary nationalism/patriotism is not enshrined as such, for there is no concept of a nation-state enshrined as well, yet nationalism/patriotism/allegiance is espoused and encouraged in a non-customary-senseprimarily to a universally-mosaicked, pluralistic nation (Ummah). {According to some, brazenly extrovert, Muslim scholars/thinkers this extends even to the Jews and the Christians}

“We have revealed it (Qura’an) in the Arabic language so that you (people) would understand it”. (Q, 12:2)

This laid the foundation of a NEW-pluralistic-nation comprising of people from all walks of life, lands, communities, ethnicities, skin color and texture. The first [Muslim country], comprising of two sacred cities of mecca and medina, was also made to be protected against all evils.

[He] who made for you the earth a bed [spread out] and the sky a ceiling and sent down from the sky, rain and brought forth thereby fruits as provision for you. (Q, 2:22)

And the earth We have spread out (like a carpet); set thereon mountains firm and immovable, and produced therein all kinds of things in due balance. (Q, 15:19)

“The (whole) earth has been made good for me, a means of purification and a mosque (place of prayer); so, wherever a man maybe, when the time for prayer comes, let him pray wherever he is.” (Hadith”: Sahih Muslim, 521)

As per the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 the sovereign power of God to make laws and ordain monarchs with the divine right to rule was absolute. The legal concepts of national sovereignty and the sovereignty of man in matters of governance were introduced by Hugo Grotius in the late 17th century and further developed by Enlightenment thinkers such as John Locke and Thomas Jefferson.

Thomas Jefferson and Roger William; both are presumptively assertive of God and His religion, whereupon they have driven a wedge.

Their acknowledgment of Divine sovereignty in the face of inductive-reasoning-based premise becomes dubious, hence the conclusion is bound to be flawed.

Muslim Intellectuals/Scholars, therefore consciously refrained from treading this path. They rather used the deductive reasoning to the textual authority [Qura’anic–Nas] and adopted the religion (in its letter and spirit) as a way of life.

Muslims, nevertheless, faltered on account of the “right to rule” as per the divine will; by a Caliph chosen through mutual consultations and consensus of the pious elders, resulting in tyrannical dynasties, absolute-kingship and ruling elitism.  {Although, conceptually, the Absolute Sovereignty of Allah remained intact} 

So-called caliphates started bending the Sharaii rules; for following Qura’anic verdicts exactly would mean a caliph is relegated to a secondary position, a guardian (vice-regent), while the absolute-sovereignty and kingship rest with Allah (SWT)!

This dichotomy has become more pronounced now; due to adopting the western style election through mass participation, of a Muslim ruler of a Muslims dominated state, in contravention of the divine will. (Q, 6:116)

This is the main reason why there is not a single, 100 % Sharia’a compliant, state in the entire world?

Note: Sultanate of Brunei has recently announced Sharia’a to be the law of the landwhich remains to be adjudged on the anvil of the time! 

Read more on a similar topic: https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2017/11/29/cherished-democracy/

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Is Wife a Sex- Slave?

August 29, 2019

Image result for pic of a worried Muslim woman

“A Muslim wife must not refuse to satisfy the sexual urges of her husband as and when demanded”

There seems to be some misunderstanding here; in justification whereof; often quoted verses, in addition to some ahadith, are; –

1 “Man is a degree above them (women) [in authority and responsibility] …women be devoutly obedient” (Q, 4:34)

2 “Your women are a tillage for you; so, come unto your tillage as you wish”.    (Q, 2:223)

This dissertation may be better understood by trifurcating into; Psychophysical, behavioral and spiritual segments, successively.

Authentic ahadith, in essence, make a woman obligated to fulfill her husband’s sexual desires as and when demanded and should not refuse. (unnecessarily)

Here are two things to be borne in mind that; keeping husband satisfied would endure and perpetuate the marital and family life. It is also in consonance with a woman’s exhortative libidinal wanderlust. It is hard to imagine that a woman; who is lured into sexual overture by a legitimate partner; would not be thrilled to jump on it unless inhibited by some stone-cold reason?

Women, especially of the feminist mindset, interpret these verses/ahadith; suggestive of women’s “obligation”, as if these have enforced some kind of bondage or sex slavery.

A general tendency, often exhibited, is that we take a verse/hadith in Isolation and interpret it in black and white!

Islam (through Qura’anAhadith and Sunnah) molds human behavior to employ rationality, reason, logic and somewhat common sense (to harness one’s understanding and interpretation) to achieve the ultimate goal; through habituated behavior of obedience/compliance, a successful end of the sojourn. {coerced compliance would make the whole edifice come to naught}

“Had your Lord willed, all the people on earth would have believed. So can you [Prophet] compel people to believe?”(Q,10:99)

There are many traditions emphasizing upon the importance of legitimate sexual satisfaction, of both the partners equally (including for pleasure). Legitimate sexual-activity attains the station of worship, sadaqah and sunnah.

I wonder if there is any hadith/sunnah whereby Prophet is known to have ever forced any of his wives for sex?

CARDINAL RULE

One ought to; take the cumulative-contextual-sense of all the verses on the topic/issue; take the common(contextual) theme of the authentic ahadith  {which must be in conformity with the Qura’anic dictum}; then get to the gist/essence of the injunction, reposing one’s trust in Allah (SWT) to guide him on the right course. (Q, 2: 85 & 4: 150) [Ijtihad/Personal Ijtihad–by employing the Uslub Tafsir Maudhu’i]

Note: – Every hadith; like Qura’anic verse; is necessitated by a context; which must be correctly established, for its correct understanding and application. 

In regard to the wife’s “obligation” to husband’s sexual satisfaction; one should keep the following things in mind; 

A wife’s sexual-satisfaction is similarly obligatory on the husband.

Compassionate, good treatment of women is commonplace in the Qura’anAhadith and Sunnah.

Moderation in behavior is the hallmark of Islamic teachings.

Ultimate pleasure sought/desired, through various acts/abstinences, is of Allah (SWT).

Therefore, the sexual satisfaction of the husband by his wife does not become mandatory/compulsory in all the circumstances but congruous, cogent and permissible ones, garnering the ultimate pleasure/blessings of Allah. Hence the verse is suggestive/advisory of the obligation; without making it mandatory in disregard of the behavioral or circumstantial swings; discounting the botched concept of bondage/slavery of a devoutly obedient wife. {Vindicated by the proscription of the sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman}It is a state of impurity; so, keep away from the women in the state of menstruation, and do not approach them until they are cleansed (Q, 2:222)

Marital rape/forced-sex

Women having been granted the highest status; such as; the mother of the Prophets; the mother of the faithful; cannot be imagined, to having been made slavishly subservient to the indecorous sexual urges of the husband.

Some scholars try to justify the sexual-satisfaction-right of the husband; even when secured through coercion, by using an apparently formidable but in reality, an untenable argument.  The justification generally presented; in denial/suppression of woman’s feelings, dignity and free-will; is the pleasure of Allah (SWT); which no Muslim would normally dare, differ with or challenge!

In my humble opinion; sexual satisfaction obtained by coercing one’s wife, as if she is a lump of dead meat; in the face of the man having multiple options/rights of divorcing, having more than one wife and marrying another woman, cannot be justified. On the other hand; the woman who is not inclined/agreeable to having sex with the husband must be having a sound reason(s) (psychological or physical incongruity) for it. Therefore, forcing her would not make her either in obedience/compliance of the desires of the husband or of the will of Allah (SWT). Neither will there be a sense of satisfaction/fulfillment on the part of the husband (normally derived from the mutuality/consensual participation of the two); but mere ejaculation, coupled, most likely, with remorse and guilt.

{The emphasis placed; on the compassion; hygienics; good smell and foreplay, therefore, tacitly predicates for a consensual/participatory sex} 

 

Further reading on the topic of women;

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/01/11/a-womans-place-in-islam/

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2015/06/22/muslim-women-marrying-non-muslim-men/

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If everything is determined in our fate, why did Allah send us down to earth for testing? {Predestination VS Free-Will}

June 19, 2019
The question is very logical but unfortunately based on the misconception. It is a commonplace misconception that everything is pre-determined. Had that been the case there would have been no need for creation’s subjection to retribution. God sure does know everything but has not pre-destined as perceived. There is a difference in His knowing everything and having pre-determined everything. He, being the Creator does know how a person would lead his life, what choices would he make, etc. He, nevertheless, has endowed man with free-will to exercise his right of choice from the options available. {an elbow room} It, therefore, can not be imagined/construed that He (God forbid) is going against his own words/promise. 

The man operates under two different kinds of creational realms. 1) Takweeni—-where there is no choice. which applies to things such as death, age, etc. 2) Tashri’i—- One would be a believer or nonbeliever, would be selfless or selfish, etc. In-animated bodies such as trees, mountains, celestial objects, etc normally operate under the first rule of creation.

Similarly, there are two kinds of order/decree issued by God. 1) final decree—which does not admit of any change. Like death, height, color, race, place of birth, etc. 2) decree—which may or do admit of a change—such as an affliction may be changed to health due to the prayers, or the intervention of the angels; appointed for the protection of human beings.

This is confirmed in Qura’an in Surah Al Nahal 16, V 36. “And among them were those whom Allah guided, and among them were those upon whom error was [deservedly] decreed” & also V 37 “[Even] if you should strive for their guidance, [O Muhammad], indeed, Allah does not guide those He sends astray, and they will have no helpers” 

Hopefully, this explanation would suffice for the correct understanding of the topic of Free-will vs Predestination. 

Also read: https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2016/03/21/the-anthropocentric-character-of-the-universe-special-status-of-man-and-yet-his-denial-of-god/

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What is I’tikaf in Islam? What does one have to do during an I’tikaf?

May 27, 2019
It is the name of “spiritual retreat”. Seclusion for a certain number of days in the mosque, giving up/curtailing worldly affairs while keeping busy in the worship of Allah (SWT).

“Shara’i I’tikaf must be in the mosques because Allah says:: “… while you are in I’tikaf (i.e. confining oneself in a mosque for prayers and invocations leaving the worldly activities) in the mosques” [al-Baqarah 2:187]. “Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen in Fataawa Noor ‘ala al-Darb (8/176)”

“Undoubtedly I’tikaf in the mosque is an act of worship, and (observing it) in Ramadan is better than at other times. It is prescribed in Ramadan and at other times. [Fiqh al-I’tikaf by Dr. Khaalid al-Mushayqih, p. 41 – Shaykh Ibn Baaz said in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (15/437)]

One may get out of A’atikaf only for necessities/emergencies. Both men and women may perform I’tikaf in the mosques. It is not limited to the month of Ramadan only. It is sunnah. Its duration may be from the shortest to the longest time. Normally, however, it is for the last 10 nights of the Ramadan.

Al-Shaafa’i and his companions said: Whoever would like to follow the example of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in observing I’tikaf during the last ten nights of Ramadan should enter the mosque before the sun sets on the night of the twenty-first, so that he will not miss any of it, and he should come out after the sun sets on the night of Eid, whether the month is twenty-nine days or thirty.

Reed: https://shakir2.wordpress.com/tag/taraweeeh/

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2019/06/01/are-qiyam-ul-lail-and-taraweeh-the-same-is-it-allowed-to-pray-both-taraweeh-with-vitr-and-qiyam-ul-lail-at-the-last-ten-days-of-ramadan/

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Valiant, Assertive Women Flocking to Islam!

May 6, 2019

 

Claire Evans

{female converts finding true feminism in Islam}

The utilitarian but sacralized character of woman, defined in Islam!

Pondering upon the creational imperatives of a woman with an open mind would inevitably make her (Divine-rule/command) utilitarian role stand out. From the Judaic and biblical accounts; carried over Into Islamic literature: Adam knew the names of everything (Adam having been taught the names of all the things, is Confirmed in Q, 2:31). Adam, at times, used to engage in conversation with angels, but they were often busy worshipping God, so Adam felt lonely. Ibn Abbas and a group of companions of the Prophet (PBUH) narrated that when Iblis (Satan) was expelled out of Paradise and Adam was accommodated therein, Adam was lonely as he did not have a partner from whom he could get tranquility. He slept for some time and when he woke up, he saw a woman, whom Allah had created from his ribs. So, he asked her, “Who are you? She replied, “A woman,” He asked: “Why have you been created?” She said; “So that you could find tranquility in me” The angels, trying to find out the extent of his knowledge, asked him: “What is her name O Adam?” He replied, “Eve,” They asked, “Why was she so named?” He replied, “Because she was created; out of me, something living” (Q, 2; 33 & Hadith—present similar narrative).

Reportedly Eve was created from the rib-cage of Adam. She was not created as a separate entity at par with Adam. Qura’an confirms that; human [Adam] was created from one soul; then-out of him–was created his mate; therefrom multiplied them, into the human race.

“It is He who created you from one soul and created from it its mate that he might dwell in security with her. And when he covers her, she carries a light burden and continues therein. And when it becomes heavy, they both invoke Allah, their Lord, “If You should give us a good [child], we will surely be among the grateful.” (Q, 7:189)

Her utilitarian character is accentuated in Surah Ar-Rahman # 8 verses: 54, 56, 58, 60, 70, 72, 74 and 76. Here; what is noteworthy is that; she is presented as a reward for the good conduct of man; praised by Allah, as the rubies and coral; untouched by a man or a gene (emphasizing her purity/chastity)fair ones reserved for him (man) in pavilions, reclining on green cushions and beautiful carpets.

In surah An-naba # 78, verses, 33-34 her contour {appealing to man’s psychological passion} is highlighted as an inducement for man to do good and be rewarded with; {and a full-breasted—and (size of) a full cup–a woman of equal age}. {As a reward from your Lord, a generous gift [made due by] account (of good deeds)}

 

“And among His Signs is this, that He created for you wives from among yourselves, that you may find repose in them” (Q, 30:21) 

Your wives are as a tilth unto you; so, approach your tilth when or how ye will” (Q, 2: 223) {Categorical imperatives}

 

Historically, a woman was considered a chattel, of an unspecified multitude. Islam, however, limited that to only four at any given time. (still preserving her utilitarian character—granting numerical excess over men—to accommodate polygamy).

“Marry women of your choice two or three or four; but if ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly (with them) then only one” (Q, 4:3) {prima-facie choice/duty vs actual choice/duty}

 

Here is how this role has been sacralized by Almighty Allah (SWT); by granting her the status of the mother of the Prophets, mothers of the faithful; underneath whose feet lies the paradise. Maryam (Virgin-Mary), the only woman mentioned in the Holy Qura’an, by name with an appellation of “the truthful” [siddiqa]. (Q, 5:75)

The major part of Surah An-Noor is dedicated to the protection and security of the chastity and continence of women. Utmost importance has been attached to the honor and chastity of a believing woman in Islam.

“Those who slander chaste women indiscreet (naive) but believing are cursed in this life and in the Hereafter. For them, there is a grievous Penalty” (Q, 24:23)

The second most venerated woman is Aisha—the youngest wife of the Prophet. She was slandered falsely by a hypocrite but exonerated by Allah (SWT) by revealing 10 verses. (Q, 24: 11-21)

Here is a brief of the heartwrenching story about her grief and exoneration by Allah (SWT). 

Quote: “WAllah, now I do not see an example on the issue between you (prophet) and me, except the one father of Yousuf (Joseph) Yaqoob (Jacob), said after hearing the wrong statement by his sons. “So, Patience is best, and It is Allah whose help is sought against what you describe”

Prophet who was sitting there received the revelation about her exoneration and gave her the good news.

Grief-stricken Aisha, urged by her parents to go to the Prophet, responded: “I do not feel obligated to anyone in this case, except Allah, nor would I get up. I am thankful to my Lord who has exonerated me”

The woman has been elevated in-status by asking her to cover herself and adorn herself only to please her husband. {to save her from the lustful staring, gazing or glancing by the strangers}. Islam is the religion that granted her the right to inheritance and the right to be consulted in daily life matters. Vehemently protecting her from false accusation of adultery/fornication. Portraying as a poetic creature, repeatedly advised men to treat her with compassion and tenderness.

O you who have believed, it is not lawful for you to inherit women by compulsion. And do not make difficulties for them in order to take [back] part of what you gave them unless they commit clear immorality (adultery). And live with them in kindness. For if you dislike them – perhaps you dislike a thing and Allah makes therein much good. But if you want to replace one wife with another and you have given one of them a great amount [in gifts], do not take [back] from it anything. Would you take it committing injustice and manifest sin?” (Q, 4:19, 20)

So when Zayd had no longer any need for her, {When a husband is done with his wife; having no feeling for her, he may divorce her amicably} We married her to you [Prophet] in order that there not be upon the believers any discomfort concerning the wives of their adopted sons when they no longer have need of them {having become disinterested, without feelings/emotions in their relationship}. (Q, 33:37) 

This injunction; granting a concession primarily to man, is an example of purely Divine rule/command utilitarianism. {secondarily, however, a woman may also exercise her right to seek a divorce in similar situation}

“So, with those of whom, you have enjoyed sexual relations, give them their due compensation as an obligation” Q, 4:24)*

 

Note: *From this very verse, Shia’a school derives the validity of the terminal marriage (muta’a), which Sunni schools abhor as forbidden. 

                                                                      

{Shia’a school, seems to be making use of the “Hedonistic utilitarianism”; where the rule-utilitarianism—Sunni school– is collapsing into act-utilitarianism!}

 

Sura An-Nisa’a, contrary to the usual misinterpretation/misunderstanding, secures women’s place; rights to have autonomy and independence, within the family structure. 

 

“O Children of Adam! We have bestowed on you, the raiment to cover your shame as well as to adorn you. But the raiment of righteousness, that is the best. Such are among the Signs of Allah, that they may receive admonition.” (Quran 7:26)

“And say (O Prophet) to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what must ordinarily appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands’ fathers, their sons, their husbands’ sons, their brothers, or their brothers’ sons or their sisters’ sons, or their women or the servants whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex, and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments. And O you Believers, turn you all together towards Allah, that you may attain Bliss.” (Quran 24:31).

“O Prophet, tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks close round them (when they go abroad{outside}). That will be better, so that they may be recognized and not annoyed. Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful.” (Quran 33:59)

West has exploited her act-utilitarian character [defying Divine-rule/command] by objectivizing and universalizing it so that she may be trampled and abused with impunity. West also, exploited her overly compassionate and impressionable nature towards her physique. Thus, a naivete-prone, (act-utilitarian), woman worthy of being revered, respected and protected; is misguided/indoctrinated—in the name of gender equality and woman’s emancipation—to commoditize herself to be desecrated willingly.

Valiant, thoughtful and assertive women, therefore, are rebelling against this exploitative indoctrination and flocking to Islam to fit in the natural pecking order. {النظام الطبيعي- alnizam altabiei}; which is reason-basedDivine-rule/command utilitarianism.

[I seek refuge and forgiveness of Allah, for any inadvertent wrongful assertion].

For further reading on the topics about women: https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/01/11/a-womans-place-in-islam/

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2015/06/22/muslim-women-marrying-non-muslim-men/

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Why Philosophy is incapable of apprehending God-The ultimate Reality? 

March 14, 2019

Image result for pic of an incapacitated animal

The spirit of Philosophy is one of the free inquiries suspecting all authorities. It caters to human thoughts –which are finite and inconclusive at best—with the help of reason and logic; which fail to apprehend the multiplicity of mutually repellent thought universes as a coherent universe.

Belief, on the other hand, demands unwavering certitude in, the unseen. Philosophy seems to have jurisdiction to judge religion but what is to be judged would not submit to its authority, for One, it is divine and “pure-truth”. Second, it is not the outcome of human thought but divine “word”. (It, however, does allow philosophy’s application for its interpretation and the (essential) comprehension by the human beings).

Ghazali’s refutation: “Well, perhaps, there is above reason another judge who, if he appearedwould convict reason of falsehood”.

Al Ghazali put it aptly; I recognized that certitude is the clear and complete knowledge of things, such knowledge as leaves no room for doubt nor possibility of error and conjecture so that there remains no room in the mind for error to find an entrance.

Islam is an anti-classical, deductive and pro-life religion.

Inductive reasoning is based on the top-down philosophy of argumentation and the conclusions would depend on the premise established. If the premise selected is wrong then the conclusion cannot be correct. Islam, therefore, based on the divine truth ought to be deductive with the need to establish the true premises. These premises, however, may be wrong and conflicting with the already established truths, therefore need to be scrutinized and reestablished anew. (interpretations/understanding).

Philosophy as a field of inquiry is based on inductive argumentation also based on doubting the premise/authority with “maybe,” “probably” or “what if?” Etc., therefore cannot apprehend the Ultimate Reality–God.

Philosophical pursuit to encompass the ultimate reality; aided by rationalism; would however end up; either in outright denial or a frank admission of philosophy’s incapacity.

Read: https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/01/06/reality/

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Lying and deception in Islam. 

February 27, 2019

Image result for Pinterest. Image of a tree bRANCHES showing several faces?

Lying is one of the greatest sins in Islam. Text and the corpus juris are quite explicit about this. Evils of lying are more dreadful than the evils of adultery. In one of the Ahadith lying is equated with committing adultery with one’s own mother. 

“Only they forge the lie who do not believe in Allah’s communications, and these are the liars.” (Q,16:105) 

“Surely Allah does not guide him aright who is a liar, ungrateful.” (Q, 39:3) 

A liar also invokes the curse of Allah (SWT) 

“… and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars.” (Q,  3:61) 

“… the curse of Allah be on him if he is one of the liars.” (Q, 24:8) 

Hadith: “When a believer speaks a lie, he becomes prone to committing every other sin; and when this happens, he commits kufr (disbelief) which then makes him liable to enter Hell.” 

Toriyyah (dissimulation) 

It means to say something, which could be interpreted in more than one way. One of the meanings should be the truth while the other ambiguous 

Example:  If a tyrant comes to one’s place seeking him out but he wants to remain in the safety of his home; a person from his family may answer the door and say, ‘He is not here’; with the intention that ‘He’ is not at the door’. 

Toriyyah (dissimulation) It is a dissimulation which is permissible and legitimate; when spoken in defense of oneself from cruelty or persecution, would not fall within the definition of a lie. Same would justify the three dissimulations uttered by Prophet Abraham (PBUH). 

1) Declaring that he is not feeling well/or is indisposed. 

2) Not acknowledging the Amputation of the arm of the big idol in Ka’aba and pointing instead to the big idol. 

3) Declaring his wife as his sister to protect against the evil intention of the king. 

                                                                  Also 

A statement in the nature of an assumption and a supposition which is contrary to facts is not a lie. It is a metaphoric attribution/assumption which does not belie an established fact. Example: [prophet saying] “If the Rahman (GOD) has a son I would be the first one to serve him” (Q, 43:81) 

 

Hila (Hiyal) [pl] is the avoidance of observing the Islamic law in (extremely) difficult situations while still obeying the letter of the law. 

Note: in Sunni schools it is still controversial while in Shia’a school by 15th century it was fully acceptable; by the force of fatawa issued by Ibn Hajar Al Asqalanibanning its criticism. Hanafites accepted it, Malikites still consider it illegal. There is however a growing debate about the purpose of Sharia’a; its increased interpretational flexibility; in view of the problems/issues faced, due to “Modernity” and “concrete-thinking”, hence revival/increased-employment of Hila as a legitimate tool. Sharia’a based Islamic finance industry is making greater use of it in developing “Riba-(interest)-free” products.  

Imam Bukhari (following the transmission-based juris) differed with Hanafites on the use of legal device “Hila” with vehemence. He condemned the use of Hiyal on the basis of hadith “All deeds are judged by their intentions” in tandem with Imam Hanbal and Iban Al Mubarak, who also vehemently rejected the use of Hiyal 

He also disagreed with Hanafite’s well-known laxity in defining; by employing the device of “hila”—an intoxicant—wine, as grape juice.  

Allah’s planning: (use of Hila) “when we revealed to your mother what was to be revealed” (Q20:38) [ Pharaoh having been told that; someone born in Bani Israel would ruin/kill you, ordered the killing of all male children]. Allah told the mother of Moses to put Moses in a basket and cast him into the river and not to entertain any apprehension about his safety. He will be picked up by the one who is his and My enemy. Your sister working for pharaoh’s family would guide him to you (Moses’s mother) as a sulking nurse, whereby she (Moses’s mother) will not be grieved. [Q, 20:38-39]. 

 Tentative Conclusion of Hiyal Doctrine 

Ḥiyal (sg. ḥīla) are “legal devices” or tools used in achieving certain objectives, lawful or not, through lawful means. Although it is generally agreed that ḥiyal are not a subterfuge for the “evasion of the law,” their exact nature and place within Islamic jurisprudence, however, remains an open question. To date, there have been only a few studies devoted to this doctrine and these have focused almost exclusively upon the Ḥanafītes, who developed ḥiyal into a special branch of the law, called makhārij, i.e. “exits” 

Examined here is the doctrine of the Ḥanafīte together with that of the Mālikīte/Medinaite jurists; who were early witnesses for and against ḥiyalas conceived by the Ḥanafītes. On the basis of their understanding of the law in terms of utility, Ḥanafītes employed makhārij (exits) to provide remedies for those who sought them. As a particular transmission of Ḥanafīte doctrine, the genre of makhārij sought to confirm the standard doctrine by discovering “exits” suggested therein. Ḥanafīte’s concern for the subject was shared by the Mālikītesalbeit from a different point of viewMālikītes discussed ḥiyal as jurisprudential materials; that convey the validity of their doctrine, prescribing appropriate solutions. Thus, it is concluded that both the Ḥanafītes and Mālikītes regarded ḥiyal as solutions drawn from the materials of jurisprudence in accordance with the spirit of the law as interpreted by the jurists of their respective schools. 

Taqiyyah(dissembling) It is termed as an outright lie in the Sunni school of thought. In Shia’a School, however, it is considered (based on the word [ittiqa]prudence, precaution or fear”. {A precautionary denial of the faith or its practices in the face of persecution. Kitman (covering)—by silence or omission}. Among the “Twelver-Shia’as it is politically legitimized to maintain unity among the Muslims in general and fraternity among the shia’a clerics in particular. 

Taqqiyah was developed by Imam Jafar Al Sadiq to protect against the oppression of Abbasid Caliph—Al Mansur—who was a Sunni Muslim.  Also, that esoterically, the Ilm–knowledge” given to Shia’a Imam has to be hidden from the uninitiated and adversaries until the descending of their “Twelfth-Imam”[Taqqiyah—This term is often used against Islam and Muslims indiscriminately by the Islamophobes and Anti-Islam polemicists]. 

Its authority is said to have been derived from the Qura’anic verse 3:28 although, there is not the slightest indication of permission for lying or deceivingexcept for exoteric stop-gap accommodation of the nonbelievers–in the face of extreme adversity. 

“Believers should not take disbelievers {where the interest of the deniers of the truth clashes with that of the believers} as guardians instead of the believers; and whosoever does so will have nothing to hope for from Allah (SWT), unless it is a precaution against their tyranny. {where there is a reason to fear from them something; which ought to be guarded against, for they are more powerful than the Muslims} And Allah warns you about Himself. And to Allah is the final return” (Q, 3:28) 

Scientific dimension of Divine injunction with respect to Lying, deception, and planning,  

Surah Al-Alaq # 96 verse, 15 & 16 exhibits; how scientifically structured are Islamic injunctions; as shown here, with respect to lying, deceiving and planning. 

No! If he does not desist, We will surely smite his forehead – (96:15) 

A lying sinning forehead (96:16) 

“And shun the false speech” (Q, 22:30) 

 Lying and deception are generated in the frontal lobe/cortex of the forehead, also known as the “The voice of reason” 

 (we will certainly smite his forehead),  ناصيته NAASIYAH is the forehead. 

Image result for pic of the brain frontal cortex
 Obvious questions would beWhy did the Quran describe the front of the head as being lying and sinful?  Why didn’t the Quran say that the person was lying and sinful?  What is the relationship between the front of the head and lying and sinfulness?  

 If we look into the skull at the front of the head, we will find that the prefrontal area of the cerebrum (left side of the figure) is what does the physiology tells us about the function of this area?  

 A book entitled Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology explains about this area that; “the motivation and the foresight to plan and initiate movements” occur in the anterior portion of the frontal lobes, the prefrontal area. This is a region of association cortex…” The book also explains, “In relation to its involvement in motivation, the prefrontal area is also thought to be the functional center for aggression 

So, this area of the cerebrum is responsible for planning, motivating, and initiating good and sinful behavior and is responsible for the telling of lies and the speaking of truth.  Thus, it is befittingly described in the Holy Qura’an; that it is the front of the head lying and sinful when someone lies or commits a sin. “...A lying, sinful naseyyah (front of the head)!” 

 

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