Archive for the ‘Muslim scholarship’ Category

Sharia’a Punishments of Islam 

April 3, 2019

The central principle/theme in the application of the hudood punishments is maximizing mercy. This was formulated clearly in a hadith of the Prophet ﷺ that was echoed by the prominent Companions, such as, his wife Aisha and the Caliphs Umar and Ali. The best-attested version states, “Ward off the hudud from the Muslims as much as you all can, and if you find a way out for the person, then let them go. For it is better for the authority to err in mercy than to err in punishment.” Within a century of the Prophet’s death, Muslim scholars had digested this hadith into the crucial legal principle of Ward off the hudud by ambiguities/doubts (shubuhāt)”

In Qura’an there are only four {Hudood} punishments prescribed/enforced by Allah Himself, whereas the rest are left to man (Qazi/Judge) to administer and apply. [penal laws]

1) Theft.

2) False accusation against a chaste woman.

3) Drinking alcohol.

4) Adultery. {Q, 24:2}

NOW AS FOR the man who steals and the woman who steals, cut off the hand of either of them in requital for what they have wrought, as a deterrent ordained by God: 48  for God is almighty, wise. (Q, 5:38)

And to those who accuse chaste women [of adultery], 6  and then are unable to produce four witnesses [in support for their accusation], flog them with eighty stripes; 7  and ever after refuse to accept from them any testimony since it is, they who are truly depraved”- (Q, 24:4)

O You who have attained to faith! Intoxicants, and games of chance, and idolatrous practices, and the divining of the future are but a loathsome evil of Satan’s doing: 105  shun it, then, so that you might attain in a happy state! (Q, 5:90)

Shurb al-Khamr: Though the Qur’an prohibits drinking wine (khamr) and intoxication, the punishment for drinking comes from the Sunna. The most reliable hadiths state that the Prophet ﷺ would have a person lashed 40 times for intoxication, but the caliphs Umar and Ali subsequently increased this to 80 after consultation with other Companions.

“The woman and the man guilty of adultery or fornication flog each of them both with 100 stripes; let not the compassion move you in their case in a matter prescribed by Allah If you believe in Allah and the Last Day; and let a party of believers witnesses their punishment”         (Q, 24:2)

Muslim schools of law have disagreed on whether three other crimes should be included in hudood category as well: public apostasy (ridda), sodomy (liwāṭ) and assassination/premeditated murder for purposes of robbery (ghīla). 

Ḥirāba(Fisad fil Ard—corruption in the land) This crime is understood to be set out in Qura’an for the condemnation of “those who make war on God and His Messenger and seek to spread harm and corruption in the land.” Qura’an declares the harshest punishment–for those who cause chaos/corruption in the land–: crucifixion or amputation of one hand and one opposite foot; of all involved in the group, regardless of the level of participation. (Qur’an 5:33).

It is but a just recompense of those who make war on God and His apostle, 43 and endeavor to spread corruption on earth, that they are being slain in great numbers, or crucified in great numbers, or have, in result of their perverseness, their hands and feet cut off in great numbers, 44  or are being [entirely] banished from [the face of] the earth: such is their ignominy in this world. 45  But in the life to come [yet more] gruesome suffering awaits them.

First three hudood acts; though willfully committed; may partially be influenced by some circumstantial compulsions; beyond one’s control, such as poverty, suspicion, or depression, etc., adultery is sure an outcome of one’s continual and deliberate flouting of the continence and precepts of morality. Hence, the punishment for it is also the harshest. For those who are unmarried, it is 100 lashes and banishment from society {of the male only} for one year. (hadith) For those who are married,  Rajm– stoning till death. [incontrovertible evidence, proof, such as pregnancy, or confession is pre-requisite].

Punishment has to be meted out without any compassion/leniency towards the culprits and in public for its optimal deterrent effect.

The punishment for adultery was revealed piecemeal; initially, a softer one; wherein repentance was permissible (Q, 4: 15-16).  Adulterous woman was to be confined within the house, deprived of husband’s company in the bed, a necessity of four trustworthy witnesses of the crime and resultant hurt (a light infliction of harm) OR until Allah prescribe a way for them. (Q, 4:15)

Then Surah Al-Noor 24:2 was revealed.

Finally; the 100 lashed and banishment of the unmarried and stoning (Rajm) of the married (Through the Hadith & Sunnah of the Prophet).

NoteIn the beginning; the quantity and type of harm to be inflicted etc. was left to the discretion of the judge.

What is in common about the hudood crimes is that; their punishments have been specified in the Qur’an or Sunna, they are considered to be violations of the rights of God and that; no one—even the king or the ruler– has the right to alter, abate or abolish them.

Note: In Qura’an, adultery is the only crime where a woman has been mentioned before man. In Qura’an, a masculine gender is the main addressee whereas feminine gender is considered included by implication.

A logical reason for mentioning women here first is that; women are overly compassionate and impressionable toward their physique. The evil of adultery is so impudent that; initiation from a woman would be the result of an extremely brazen behavior, for she is endowed with instinctive shyness and protection of her chastity. 

It is worth noticing here that; where the punishment is severe, the conditions about the proof are also tough and the slightest doubt would remit the punishment out of Hudood ambit. A judge then would have the jurisdiction to decide the case under (tazir) penal laws prescribed in Sharia’a/Fiqh.

A false accuser or witness whose evidence has been rejected is liable for punishment of 80 lashes. (#2 above).

NOTE: If there are four HONEST, EQUITABLE and JUST witnesses not available but less than four, or not willing to testify, the crime can still be reported by the witness (s) to be dealt with by the Judge under penal law; awarding the punishment based on circumstantial imperatives, as he deems fit, in the light of sharia’a/fiqha.

The punishment for false accusation does not fall in the category of “Hadd” as this is the right of the falsely accused. It shall be awarded [80 stripes] only if the accused demands its enforcement. She/He may forgive the accuser or not demand its implementation at all, thereby giving up her/his right.

The accusation of adultery, between Husband and wife, although falling under the doctrine of “Hudood”, has been SPECIFICALLY dealt with under a sub-doctrine of “LIA’AN—CURSE of ALLAH” {where either one of them is unable to neither produce 4 witnesses nor keep quiet}.[Q, 24:6]

The spirit and intent of the Islamic laws are, the compassion and mercy, therefore the benefit of the slightest doubt would go to the accused.

Islamic injunctions are based on pre-emption; therefore, it promulgates the laws to (nip the crime in the bud) stem the crimes before they take place. Women, therefore, are required to cover themselves appropriately, not be ostentatious and thumping while walking. Men are also required to keep their gaze down and not cast an eye on women. Proscription for a man and a woman to be together in the absence of a third person/guardian. One should not enter a house without permission.

Apart from Hudood, there are two more categories under which punishments may be administered in Islam.

Tazir (or ta’zir, Arabic) Penal-Law refers to punishment, usually corporal, that can be administered at the discretion of the judge or the ruler of an Islamic State.

Qisas (equal retaliation) — an alternate of which is “Diya” (Arabic: دية‎; plural diyāt, Arabic: ديات‎), often called blood-money–in Islamic law, is the financial compensation paid to the victim or the heirs of a victim in the cases of murder, bodily harm or property damage.

O you who believe! retaliation is prescribed for you in the matter of the slain; the free for the free, and the slave for the slave, and the female for the female; but if any remission is made to anyone by his (aggrieved) brother (relatives), then (the demand for the bloodwit) should be made according to usage, and payment should be made to him in a good man­ner; this is an alleviation from your Lord and a mercy; so whoever exceeds the limit after this, he shall have a painful chastisement” (Q,2:178).

“And there is life for you in the retali­ation, O men of understanding, that you may guard your-selves (against evil)” (Q, 2:179).

LIFE FOR LIFE/QISAS

Murder is not a crime that takes place at the hands of sound individuals; surely the murderer suffers from some psychological disorder (sickness/disease). We witness and understand that for the purpose of protecting a body, the diseased part of that body is amputated. Therefore, eliminating such blood-shedding individuals from society is akin to severing a harmful limb to safeguard the life and the society at large.

NOTE:

Western canon law was influenced/shaped a great deal by Islamic law (sharia’a), just as the Western philosophy and science were profoundly shaped by Muslim scholars from the tenth to the thirteenth centuries.

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Lying and deception in Islam. 

February 27, 2019

Image result for Pinterest. Image of a tree bRANCHES showing several faces?

Lying is one of the greatest sins in Islam. Text and the corpus juris are quite explicit about this. Evils of lying are more dreadful than the evils of adultery. In one of the Ahadith lying is equated with committing adultery with one’s own mother. 

“Only they forge the lie who do not believe in Allah’s communications, and these are the liars.” (Q,16:105) 

“Surely Allah does not guide him aright who is a liar, ungrateful.” (Q, 39:3) 

A liar also invokes the curse of Allah (SWT) 

“… and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars.” (Q,  3:61) 

“… the curse of Allah be on him if he is one of the liars.” (Q, 24:8) 

Hadith: “When a believer speaks a lie, he becomes prone to committing every other sin; and when this happens, he commits kufr (disbelief) which then makes him liable to enter Hell.” 

Toriyyah (dissimulation) 

It means to say something, which could be interpreted in more than one way. One of the meanings should be the truth while the other ambiguous 

Example:  If a tyrant comes to one’s place seeking him out but he wants to remain in the safety of his home; a person from his family may answer the door and say, ‘He is not here’; with the intention that ‘He’ is not at the door’. 

Toriyyah (dissimulation) It is a dissimulation which is permissible and legitimate; when spoken in defense of oneself from cruelty or persecution, would not fall within the definition of a lie. Same would justify the three dissimulations uttered by Prophet Abraham (PBUH). 

1) Declaring that he is not feeling well/or is indisposed. 

2) Not acknowledging the Amputation of the arm of the big idol in Ka’aba and pointing instead to the big idol. 

3) Declaring his wife as his sister to protect against the evil intention of the king. 

                                                                  Also 

A statement in the nature of an assumption and a supposition which is contrary to facts is not a lie. It is a metaphoric attribution/assumption which does not belie an established fact. Example: [prophet saying] “If the Rahman (GOD) has a son I would be the first one to serve him” (Q, 43:81) 

 

Hila (Hiyal) [pl] is the avoidance of observing the Islamic law in (extremely) difficult situations while still obeying the letter of the law. 

Note: in Sunni schools it is still controversial while in Shia’a school by 15th century it was fully acceptable; by the force of fatawa issued by Ibn Hajar Al Asqalanibanning its criticism. Hanafites accepted it, Malikites still consider it illegal. There is however a growing debate about the purpose of Sharia’a; its increased interpretational flexibility; in view of the problems/issues faced, due to “Modernity” and “concrete-thinking”, hence revival/increased-employment of Hila as a legitimate tool. Sharia’a based Islamic finance industry is making greater use of it in developing “Riba-(interest)-free” products.  

Imam Bukhari (following the transmission-based juris) differed with Hanafites on the use of legal device “Hila” with vehemence. He condemned the use of Hiyal on the basis of hadith “All deeds are judged by their intentions” in tandem with Imam Hanbal and Iban Al Mubarak, who also vehemently rejected the use of Hiyal 

He also disagreed with Hanafite’s well-known laxity in defining; by employing the device of “hila”—an intoxicant—wine, as grape juice.  

Allah’s planning: (use of Hila) “when we revealed to your mother what was to be revealed” (Q20:38) [ Pharaoh having been told that; someone born in Bani Israel would ruin/kill you, ordered the killing of all male children]. Allah told the mother of Moses to put Moses in a basket and cast him into the river and not to entertain any apprehension about his safety. He will be picked up by the one who is his and My enemy. Your sister working for pharaoh’s family would guide him to you (Moses’s mother) as a sulking nurse, whereby she (Moses’s mother) will not be grieved. [Q, 20:38-39]. 

 Tentative Conclusion of Hiyal Doctrine 

Ḥiyal (sg. ḥīla) are “legal devices” or tools used in achieving certain objectives, lawful or not, through lawful means. Although it is generally agreed that ḥiyal are not a subterfuge for the “evasion of the law,” their exact nature and place within Islamic jurisprudence, however, remains an open question. To date, there have been only a few studies devoted to this doctrine and these have focused almost exclusively upon the Ḥanafītes, who developed ḥiyal into a special branch of the law, called makhārij, i.e. “exits” 

Examined here is the doctrine of the Ḥanafīte together with that of the Mālikīte/Medinaite jurists; who were early witnesses for and against ḥiyalas conceived by the Ḥanafītes. On the basis of their understanding of the law in terms of utility, Ḥanafītes employed makhārij (exits) to provide remedies for those who sought them. As a particular transmission of Ḥanafīte doctrine, the genre of makhārij sought to confirm the standard doctrine by discovering “exits” suggested therein. Ḥanafīte’s concern for the subject was shared by the Mālikītesalbeit from a different point of viewMālikītes discussed ḥiyal as jurisprudential materials; that convey the validity of their doctrine, prescribing appropriate solutions. Thus, it is concluded that both the Ḥanafītes and Mālikītes regarded ḥiyal as solutions drawn from the materials of jurisprudence in accordance with the spirit of the law as interpreted by the jurists of their respective schools. 

Taqiyyah(dissembling) It is termed as an outright lie in the Sunni school of thought. In Shia’a School, however, it is considered (based on the word [ittiqa]prudence, precaution or fear”. {A precautionary denial of the faith or its practices in the face of persecution. Kitman (covering)—by silence or omission}. Among the “Twelver-Shia’as it is politically legitimized to maintain unity among the Muslims in general and fraternity among the shia’a clerics in particular. 

Taqqiyah was developed by Imam Jafar Al Sadiq to protect against the oppression of Abbasid Caliph—Al Mansur—who was a Sunni Muslim.  Also, that esoterically, the Ilm–knowledge” given to Shia’a Imam has to be hidden from the uninitiated and adversaries until the descending of their “Twelfth-Imam”[Taqqiyah—This term is often used against Islam and Muslims indiscriminately by the Islamophobes and Anti-Islam polemicists]. 

Its authority is said to have been derived from the Qura’anic verse 3:28 although, there is not the slightest indication of permission for lying or deceivingexcept for exoteric stop-gap accommodation of the nonbelievers–in the face of extreme adversity. 

“Believers should not take disbelievers {where the interest of the deniers of the truth clashes with that of the believers} as guardians instead of the believers; and whosoever does so will have nothing to hope for from Allah (SWT), unless it is a precaution against their tyranny. {where there is a reason to fear from them something; which ought to be guarded against, for they are more powerful than the Muslims} And Allah warns you about Himself. And to Allah is the final return” (Q, 3:28) 

Scientific dimension of Divine injunction with respect to Lying, deception, and planning,  

Surah Al-Alaq # 96 verse, 15 & 16 exhibits; how scientifically structured are Islamic injunctions; as shown here, with respect to lying, deceiving and planning. 

No! If he does not desist, We will surely smite his forehead – (96:15) 

A lying sinning forehead (96:16) 

“And shun the false speech” (Q, 22:30) 

 Lying and deception are generated in the frontal lobe/cortex of the forehead, also known as the “The voice of reason” 

 (we will certainly smite his forehead),  ناصيته NAASIYAH is the forehead. 

Image result for pic of the brain frontal cortex
 Obvious questions would beWhy did the Quran describe the front of the head as being lying and sinful?  Why didn’t the Quran say that the person was lying and sinful?  What is the relationship between the front of the head and lying and sinfulness?  

 If we look into the skull at the front of the head, we will find that the prefrontal area of the cerebrum (left side of the figure) is what does the physiology tells us about the function of this area?  

 A book entitled Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology explains about this area that; “the motivation and the foresight to plan and initiate movements” occur in the anterior portion of the frontal lobes, the prefrontal area. This is a region of association cortex…” The book also explains, “In relation to its involvement in motivation, the prefrontal area is also thought to be the functional center for aggression 

So, this area of the cerebrum is responsible for planning, motivating, and initiating good and sinful behavior and is responsible for the telling of lies and the speaking of truth.  Thus, it is befittingly described in the Holy Qura’an; that it is the front of the head lying and sinful when someone lies or commits a sin. “...A lying, sinful naseyyah (front of the head)!” 

 

SAVE—-ROHINGYA, UGHER, PALESTINIAN AND KASHMIRI MUSLIM FROM STATE-SPONSORED GENOCIDE. RECLAIM—AFRICA— A MUSLIM CONTINENT.      

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Proof of the Originator/God.

January 3, 2019

Image result for Pic of Al jahm bin safwan?

 

Al-Jahm bin Safwaan,(reportedly a deviant {mulhid} Muslim scholar of 7th Century). Kurt Godel (of 1906—1978)—A theist in the Christian traditions, believing in the afterlife, and God being personal, saying: “If the world is rationally constructed and has meaning, then there must be such a thing [as an afterlife].” He also said: “I like Islam: it is a consistent [or consequential] idea of religion and open-minded”   

 Worth Noticing is the conceptual proximity of two people; poles apart in times and ideological persuasions! 

 Stated that whatever we see around are, either bodies and their attributes or just the attributes. And their attributes (like colors, dimensions, tastes, smells and so on, whatever is perceived by the senses) cannot exist on their own, they have to exist in bodies. Because they need bodies to exist, then all these attributes must be originated. But, since bodies are never free of theses originated attributes (which can never exist on their own), then the bodies too must be originated. This now is a proof against those atheist Philosophers that the universe is originated and whatever is originated must have an originator, creator.  

Source. The Terminology of the Jahmiyyah.

http://www.asharis.com/creed/articles/ynxqc-uncovering-the-innovated-terminology-of-the-jahmiyyah-and-their-relatives-from-a.cfm 

 Without mathematics we cannot penetrate deeply into philosophy, without philosophy we cannot penetrate deeply into the mathematics. Without both, we cannot penetrate deeply into anything. Math is the language God wrote the universe in. (Leibniz) 

 Holy Qura’an is predominantly woven around specific numbers such as 19, 7, 27, 114 and some others –Investigated by Dr. Rashad Khalifa and some others. (Number 19, being the mathematical key of the Qura’an and sign of building block of the universe). 

Source. Kur Godel’s Incompleteness theorem.

Science originally came from the idea that God made an orderly universe which obeys fixed, discoverable laws. Therefore, nearly all scientific laws are based on inductive reasoning based on fixed and discoverable laws. In order to construct a rational, scientific model of the universe, belief in God is not just logical but 100% necessary. For science can never fill its own gaps, [Anything, one can draw a circle around, cannot explain itself without referring to something outside the circle—something assumed but not provable] one has no choice but to look outside of science for answers. Most people do not know that outside the science circle is a philosophy circle. Science is based on philosophical assumptions which cannot be proven scientifically-but inferred. 

For further reading:

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2019/01/03/quraan-a-divine-manifestation-confirmed-by-19/

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/02/03/scientific-elaboration-of-surah-at-tin-fig-95-verse-4/

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Real vs. pseudo Scholar

November 4, 2018

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Aalim bil Haq-vs-Aalim bil Iktisab (almathqaf/ashtal kutub)         (Religious Scholar vs. Secular Scholar)

Awliya-Allah (bondmen of God) who, understand the intricacies of the spiritual maze, have done this by virtue of being Arifeen (Knowers of Allah). They also understand that the revelation of esoteric knowledge is through the heart. A heart cleansed of malice and hypocrisy to receive the divine knowledge. (Knowledge sanctioned and inspired by Allah).

Note: Awliya-Allah are far superior in status and station than the scholars.

Meaning: People spend all their life in reading and writing (like a bookworm/   عثة الكتب) but alas! (All their efforts go in vain as) they fail to gain Union with Allah; which ought to be the actual objective of a real scholar. Real knowledge is that which prevents one from self-conceit, lust and is inspired by Allah. Whosoever has not got the knowledge from the divine; is surely a seeker of the world; intending to be called/known as a perspicacious scholar, is a sinner. To gain the real knowledge one has to first of all sacrifice the four birds (shades) of Nafs i.e. cock of lust, the crow of greed, the peacock of fake beauty and the pigeon of the desires. The lowest level of Nafs is Nafs-e-Ammara i.e. the ill commanding Nafs, the second level is  Nafs-e-Lawama i.e. the Nafs which repents after committing sin, A better level is Nafs-e-Mulhima which prevents from sin by inspiration and the best level is Nafs-e-Mutmaina i.e. the satisfied self which is never inclined towards sins.

An Aalim bil Iktiasb (Islamic-Bookworm) [I would refrain from using the term Aalim-e-Soo] operates without the auspices and inspiration of the divine and presents the argument/reason/logic to confound his audience at the time/occasion. An Aalim bil Haq, on the other hand, is constantly inspired and guided by the divine; hence enlightens his audience with the argument/reason of universal nature; valid for all times/occasions, without falling victim to self-contradiction. [An Aalim bil Iktisab is also known as “scripturalist somewhat, but not exactly, similar to Pervaizis/Qura’anist]

An Aalim who eschews from the spiritual aspect of Islam deprives himself of the blessed title of an Aalim Bil Haq. The reason is that the essence of human being “Indestructible Soul/Spirit” emanates from the Aalme-Amr of Allah (SWT). Spirituality, therefore, becomes an inevitable threshold to the esoteric dimension of the Divine Knowledge, which obviously demands pondering over and contemplation about the creations (ayat/signs) of Allah. It has been repeatedly elicited in the Holy Qura’an by posing questions, such as; “Don’t you contemplate?”, “Don’t you ponder over?”, “Don’t you observe?”& “Don’t you have intellect?”, hence becomes imperative of human essence/nature and cannot be ignored.

When closely scrutinized, one would notice that the Muslim scientists of the old used to be Awliya, first and peripheral scientist of any other discipline later. Most of their knowledge was inspired rather than acquired (eruditional, as is today). They did not have access to highly sophisticated laboratories and scientific gadgets like today.

Knowledge (of religion) is exoterically related to prayers and levels*, *(level of veracity by blessing them [the seekers] with the knowledge of verification (4:69). This is the level about which it is said: Perseverance is better than miracles).

while esoterically it is related to:

1) The inspired knowledge.

2) The knowledge which directly comes from the Divine.

3) The knowledge gained through the undoubted Book of

Allah-The Quran, when (its hidden meanings are) revealed.

These three kinds (of esoteric knowledge) can be sought through the ways of contemplation given hereinbelow. Their practice would show the spectacle of both the worlds.

 “Tasawur-e-Tareeq” (Contemplation of the Divine Way),

“Tasawur-e-Taufeeq” (Contemplation of the Divine favor),

“Tasawur-e-Tehqeeq” (Contemplation of the Divine Verification) and “Tasawur-e-Dariya-e-Ameeq” (Contemplation of The Deepest Ocean of Divinity).

Prophet (PBUH), before being endowed with prophet-hood, for such contemplation often used to seek solitude in the cave of “Hira”. It, therefore, becomes imperative; for him being an unlettered person; that he would have no other preoccupation there for days, but busy pondering and contemplating.

Allah (SWT) has also advised spending time worshiping/contemplating in the last/later parts of the night for it is suitable for coherence/concentration. According to a hadith Allah descends to the first Heaven to grace the invocations, plights of late night worshipers.

Indeed, the hours of the night are more effective for concurrence [of heart and the tongue] and more suitable for words” (Q, 73:6)

[He is] the Lord of the East and the West; there is no deity except Him, so take Him as Disposer of [your] affairs” (Q, 73:9)

“Indeed, this is a reminder, so whoever wills may take to his Lord a way” (Q, 73:19)

A hadith gives the prescription for recognizing a real scholar (Aalim-bil-Haq) as follow;

The one meeting him would remind you of Allah and also makes you eager to meet him again.

Firstly, while choosing a religious scholar/sheikh to follow, one should ensure that the deeds and words of such a Scholar/Guide are in accordance with the Sharia’ah.

Secondly, he should have complete knowledge of exegesis of the

Qura’an and Hadith i.e. he should know; what is annulled and what is not, which orders of the Qura’an must be practiced and which not. He should have the insight to differentiate the importance of one order of the Qura’an from the other, because, though it is essential to believe in the whole of the Book of Allah it is not obligatory to act upon every word of it. Some orders are obligatory, some are desirable but not obligatory and some are allowed but not desirable.

IMPORTANT NOTICE

One should not pick and choose a verse to present/form his (skewed) point of view instead of a collective outcome, of all the verses on the topic. Such a deduction then should be the guiding and binding. (Q, 2: 85 & 4: 150)

 

Sources used for this piece, apart from Qura’an, Hadith, Sunnah and Islamic literature is, Sultan Bahoo’s “Kashf ul Asrar”{excerpts/concepts improvised for clarity and ease of comprehension}

(I seek, Allah’s forgiveness and refuge, for any inadvertent misrepresentation or misstatement made)

SAVE—-ROHINGYA, UGHER, PALESTINIAN AND KASHMIRI MUSLIM FROM STATE-SPONSORED GENOCIDE. RECLAIM—AFRICA— A MUSLIM CONTINENT. (Use and share this slogan as often as possible)

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