Archive for the ‘Religion and Science’ Category

Qura’an narrates: All life forms are created as pairs, while bacteria, virus and unicellular organisms are asexual?

March 23, 2019

 

 

Image result for Pic of unicellular organisms in pinterest?

The question seems expressing circumstantial-ad-hominem.

Qura’an has neither specified nor referred to the sexuality of the pair/couple. Qura’an has also not used the word “Life-form” in this case.  In the daily-life parlance, a pair of socks does not demand such a specification.  When worn, one would become right foot socks and the other left foot socks. So could be the case with the bacteria, viruses and unicell organisms. (interchanging/adaptive as explained in, Q, 54:49).

“And all things We have created by pairs, that haply ye may reflect”.  (Q, 51:49) 

“Verily, all things have We created in proportion and measure OR We have created everything to fulfill a certain purpose”. (Q, 54:49) 

 Now here is the scientific position about micro-organisms you are referring to.

In asexual organisms (at least in bacteria), the differences between species (different strands) are measured through genetic sequences and organism characteristics.

In these days of high throughput sequencing, most attempts to describe new species come with at least one genomic sequence. Additionally, a whole host of characteristics, including optimal growth temperature, morphology, numerous metabolic capabilities, etc. are used.

We were largely in the dark. Some of it was morphological, but past that we don’t know. Think about the now-defunct kingdom Protista: we thought that single-celled eukaryotes were all closely related, but now we know that they’re spread around the multicellular eukaryotes.

The real purport and spirit of the word “pairs” here, is the thesis and its anti-thesis.

e are avid bird watchers/feeders, and we do watch our birds out the window at the feeder often,” Shirley Caldwell said in email, noting that she and her spouse, Jeffrey, have maintained bird feeders for 25 years.

Miraculous fusion of the sexes, discovered in Pennsylvania in 2019 (Published in Medium)

A northern cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis, with a truly astounding color pattern. When the bird faced one direction, it was a male, cloaked in all his scarlet finery, but when it faced the opposite direction, it was a female, easily identified by her subdued tan plumage. But when this bird faced straight, it was half red and half tan; its colors divided lengthwise down its middle. It was almost as if two birds, one male and the other female, had been split in half and the halves had been neatly stitched together.

 

 

 

Read: Proof of the Originator/God.

Read:  Wahid 1 # 19  https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2019/01/03/quraan-a-divine-manifestation-confirmed-by-19/

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Lying and deception in Islam. 

February 27, 2019

Image result for Pinterest. Image of a tree bRANCHES showing several faces?

Lying is one of the greatest sins in Islam. Text and the corpus juris are quite explicit about this. Evils of lying are more dreadful than the evils of adultery. In one of the Ahadith lying is equated with committing adultery with one’s own mother. 

“Only they forge the lie who do not believe in Allah’s communications, and these are the liars.” (Q,16:105) 

“Surely Allah does not guide him aright who is a liar, ungrateful.” (Q, 39:3) 

A liar also invokes the curse of Allah (SWT) 

“… and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars.” (Q,  3:61) 

“… the curse of Allah be on him if he is one of the liars.” (Q, 24:8) 

Hadith: “When a believer speaks a lie, he becomes prone to committing every other sin; and when this happens, he commits kufr (disbelief) which then makes him liable to enter Hell.” 

Toriyyah (dissimulation) 

It means to say something, which could be interpreted in more than one way. One of the meanings should be the truth while the other ambiguous 

Example:  If a tyrant comes to one’s place seeking him out but he wants to remain in the safety of his home; a person from his family may answer the door and say, ‘He is not here’; with the intention that ‘He’ is not at the door’. 

Toriyyah (dissimulation) It is a dissimulation which is permissible and legitimate; when spoken in defense of oneself from cruelty or persecution, would not fall within the definition of a lie. Same would justify the three dissimulations uttered by Prophet Abraham (PBUH). 

1) Declaring that he is not feeling well/or is indisposed. 

2) Not acknowledging the Amputation of the arm of the big idol in Ka’aba and pointing instead to the big idol. 

3) Declaring his wife as his sister to protect against the evil intention of the king. 

                                                                  Also 

A statement in the nature of an assumption and a supposition which is contrary to facts is not a lie. It is a metaphoric attribution/assumption which does not belie an established fact. Example: [prophet saying] “If the Rahman (GOD) has a son I would be the first one to serve him” (Q, 43:81) 

 

Hila (Hiyal) [pl] is the avoidance of observing the Islamic law in (extremely) difficult situations while still obeying the letter of the law. 

Note: in Sunni schools it is still controversial while in Shia’a school by 15th century it was fully acceptable; by the force of fatawa issued by Ibn Hajar Al Asqalanibanning its criticism. Hanafites accepted it, Malikites still consider it illegal. There is however a growing debate about the purpose of Sharia’a; its increased interpretational flexibility; in view of the problems/issues faced, due to “Modernity” and “concrete-thinking”, hence revival/increased-employment of Hila as a legitimate tool. Sharia’a based Islamic finance industry is making greater use of it in developing “Riba-(interest)-free” products.  

Imam Bukhari (following the transmission-based juris) differed with Hanafites on the use of legal device “Hila” with vehemence. He condemned the use of Hiyal on the basis of hadith “All deeds are judged by their intentions” in tandem with Imam Hanbal and Iban Al Mubarak, who also vehemently rejected the use of Hiyal 

He also disagreed with Hanafite’s well-known laxity in defining; by employing the device of “hila”—an intoxicant—wine, as grape juice.  

Allah’s planning: (use of Hila) “when we revealed to your mother what was to be revealed” (Q20:38) [ Pharaoh having been told that; someone born in Bani Israel would ruin/kill you, ordered the killing of all male children]. Allah told the mother of Moses to put Moses in a basket and cast him into the river and not to entertain any apprehension about his safety. He will be picked up by the one who is his and My enemy. Your sister working for pharaoh’s family would guide him to you (Moses’s mother) as a sulking nurse, whereby she (Moses’s mother) will not be grieved. [Q, 20:38-39]. 

 Tentative Conclusion of Hiyal Doctrine 

Ḥiyal (sg. ḥīla) are “legal devices” or tools used in achieving certain objectives, lawful or not, through lawful means. Although it is generally agreed that ḥiyal are not a subterfuge for the “evasion of the law,” their exact nature and place within Islamic jurisprudence, however, remains an open question. To date, there have been only a few studies devoted to this doctrine and these have focused almost exclusively upon the Ḥanafītes, who developed ḥiyal into a special branch of the law, called makhārij, i.e. “exits” 

Examined here is the doctrine of the Ḥanafīte together with that of the Mālikīte/Medinaite jurists; who were early witnesses for and against ḥiyalas conceived by the Ḥanafītes. On the basis of their understanding of the law in terms of utility, Ḥanafītes employed makhārij (exits) to provide remedies for those who sought them. As a particular transmission of Ḥanafīte doctrine, the genre of makhārij sought to confirm the standard doctrine by discovering “exits” suggested therein. Ḥanafīte’s concern for the subject was shared by the Mālikītesalbeit from a different point of viewMālikītes discussed ḥiyal as jurisprudential materials; that convey the validity of their doctrine, prescribing appropriate solutions. Thus, it is concluded that both the Ḥanafītes and Mālikītes regarded ḥiyal as solutions drawn from the materials of jurisprudence in accordance with the spirit of the law as interpreted by the jurists of their respective schools. 

Taqiyyah(dissembling) It is termed as an outright lie in the Sunni school of thought. In Shia’a School, however, it is considered (based on the word [ittiqa]prudence, precaution or fear”. {A precautionary denial of the faith or its practices in the face of persecution. Kitman (covering)—by silence or omission}. Among the “Twelver-Shia’as it is politically legitimized to maintain unity among the Muslims in general and fraternity among the shia’a clerics in particular. 

Taqqiyah was developed by Imam Jafar Al Sadiq to protect against the oppression of Abbasid Caliph—Al Mansur—who was a Sunni Muslim.  Also, that esoterically, the Ilm–knowledge” given to Shia’a Imam has to be hidden from the uninitiated and adversaries until the descending of their “Twelfth-Imam”[Taqqiyah—This term is often used against Islam and Muslims indiscriminately by the Islamophobes and Anti-Islam polemicists]. 

Its authority is said to have been derived from the Qura’anic verse 3:28 although, there is not the slightest indication of permission for lying or deceivingexcept for exoteric stop-gap accommodation of the nonbelievers–in the face of extreme adversity. 

“Believers should not take disbelievers {where the interest of the deniers of the truth clashes with that of the believers} as guardians instead of the believers; and whosoever does so will have nothing to hope for from Allah (SWT), unless it is a precaution against their tyranny. {where there is a reason to fear from them something; which ought to be guarded against, for they are more powerful than the Muslims} And Allah warns you about Himself. And to Allah is the final return” (Q, 3:28) 

Scientific dimension of Divine injunction with respect to Lying, deception, and planning,  

Surah Al-Alaq # 96 verse, 15 & 16 exhibits; how scientifically structured are Islamic injunctions; as shown here, with respect to lying, deceiving and planning. 

No! If he does not desist, We will surely smite his forehead – (96:15) 

A lying sinning forehead (96:16) 

“And shun the false speech” (Q, 22:30) 

 Lying and deception are generated in the frontal lobe/cortex of the forehead, also known as the “The voice of reason” 

 (we will certainly smite his forehead),  ناصيته NAASIYAH is the forehead. 

Image result for pic of the brain frontal cortex
 Obvious questions would beWhy did the Quran describe the front of the head as being lying and sinful?  Why didn’t the Quran say that the person was lying and sinful?  What is the relationship between the front of the head and lying and sinfulness?  

 If we look into the skull at the front of the head, we will find that the prefrontal area of the cerebrum (left side of the figure) is what does the physiology tells us about the function of this area?  

 A book entitled Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology explains about this area that; “the motivation and the foresight to plan and initiate movements” occur in the anterior portion of the frontal lobes, the prefrontal area. This is a region of association cortex…” The book also explains, “In relation to its involvement in motivation, the prefrontal area is also thought to be the functional center for aggression 

So, this area of the cerebrum is responsible for planning, motivating, and initiating good and sinful behavior and is responsible for the telling of lies and the speaking of truth.  Thus, it is befittingly described in the Holy Qura’an; that it is the front of the head lying and sinful when someone lies or commits a sin. “...A lying, sinful naseyyah (front of the head)!” 

 

SAVE—-ROHINGYA, UGHER, PALESTINIAN AND KASHMIRI MUSLIM FROM STATE-SPONSORED GENOCIDE. RECLAIM—AFRICA— A MUSLIM CONTINENT.      

                           (Use and share this slogan as often as possible) 

 

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Proof of the Originator/God.

January 3, 2019

Image result for Pic of Al jahm bin safwan?

 

Al-Jahm bin Safwaan,(reportedly a deviant {mulhid} Muslim scholar of 7th Century). Kurt Godel (of 1906—1978)—A theist in the Christian traditions, believing in the afterlife, and God being personal, saying: “If the world is rationally constructed and has meaning, then there must be such a thing [as an afterlife].” He also said: “I like Islam: it is a consistent [or consequential] idea of religion and open-minded”   

 Worth Noticing is the conceptual proximity of two people; poles apart in times and ideological persuasions! 

 Stated that whatever we see around are, either bodies and their attributes or just the attributes. And their attributes (like colors, dimensions, tastes, smells and so on, whatever is perceived by the senses) cannot exist on their own, they have to exist in bodies. Because they need bodies to exist, then all these attributes must be originated. But, since bodies are never free of theses originated attributes (which can never exist on their own), then the bodies too must be originated. This now is a proof against those atheist Philosophers that the universe is originated and whatever is originated must have an originator, creator.  

Source. The Terminology of the Jahmiyyah.

http://www.asharis.com/creed/articles/ynxqc-uncovering-the-innovated-terminology-of-the-jahmiyyah-and-their-relatives-from-a.cfm 

 Without mathematics we cannot penetrate deeply into philosophy, without philosophy we cannot penetrate deeply into the mathematics. Without both, we cannot penetrate deeply into anything. Math is the language God wrote the universe in. (Leibniz) 

 Holy Qura’an is predominantly woven around specific numbers such as 19, 7, 27, 114 and some others –Investigated by Dr. Rashad Khalifa and some others. (Number 19, being the mathematical key of the Qura’an and sign of building block of the universe). 

Source. Kur Godel’s Incompleteness theorem.

Science originally came from the idea that God made an orderly universe which obeys fixed, discoverable laws. Therefore, nearly all scientific laws are based on inductive reasoning based on fixed and discoverable laws. In order to construct a rational, scientific model of the universe, belief in God is not just logical but 100% necessary. For science can never fill its own gaps, [Anything, one can draw a circle around, cannot explain itself without referring to something outside the circle—something assumed but not provable] one has no choice but to look outside of science for answers. Most people do not know that outside the science circle is a philosophy circle. Science is based on philosophical assumptions which cannot be proven scientifically-but inferred. 

For further reading:

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2019/01/03/quraan-a-divine-manifestation-confirmed-by-19/

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/02/03/scientific-elaboration-of-surah-at-tin-fig-95-verse-4/

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Existential Amiss

September 30, 2018

Common sense, Reason, Logic, Causality, Imagination, Morality & Ethics!

 Image result for Pic of Existential amiss

I intended to write this piece in a secular fashion but the overwhelming relevance of the Divine wisdom kept piercing through my thought canvas, hence surrendered making it part of the discourse. Human discourse or argumentation, anyway, barely scratches the obvious externalities of the issues while the Divine wisdom put forth the internally woven realities in a succinct yet aptly simple manner. One may notice the examples of such Subtleties in the course of reading this treatise.

Had Common sense, reason and logic been potent enough to reach the absolute certainty of the conclusions drawn, there would have been no need for the Divine religions to barge in. All of these tools are perceptual or experiential outcomes of human endeavors which; given the deficient nature of human faculties; are incapable of coming even remotely close to the level of Divine Wisdom; Revelation, the only fait accompli. (A subtle hint/deduced from Q, 17; 37) Hence some of the precepts of the religion are above and beyond the realm of human commonsense, causality, reason and logic, exuding perfect certitude and submission. (A state of affairs enormously repugnant and conceptually unacceptable to the secularists, anti-religionists and non-believers)

Note:- similar debate has been going on for long. a brief excerpt is quoted here.

[The innovative Jahmiyyah and Their Relatives from Ahl al-Kalaam Asharis and Maturidis fought the greatest battle and contention between the followers of the revealed Books and the sent Messengers and between the followers of the Hellenized Jews, Christians and Sabeans. Those who contradict the revealed texts with their reason (aql), and think the reason is definitive over the revealed texts].

Common sense is really not as common as perceived. Variegated sense perceptions render it somewhat-common, partially-common, quasi-common or purely individualistic rather than really-common in the true sense of the word.

  Reason and Logic are even more disparate; propitious-reason and logic; sometimes referred to as rationality; are used to justify a conclusion, one is at home with. (Rational bias) A slightest dissension or differentiation would entail disapproval or divergence. Therefore, all these tools may create some sort of near or quasi-convergence but not an absolute or conclusive one. Logic is derived from the Greek word “logos”. In Muslim Philosophy another Grecian alternative “monads”*1 is used instead, to justify a position/stance by distinguishing a good reason from the bad one. It is only the Divine revelation (wisdom, word) which is flawless, absolute and ultimate-truth; authoritative in its perception, understanding and validity…worthy of even blind-Faith.

Kurt Gödel puts it succinctly as follow:- 

The logical axioms that underlie everyday things like arithmetic depend on us accepting as reasonable the notion that infinity comes in several different sizes.

In Islamic parlance, however “pristine-reason” (Haq al Yaqeen); in the absence of a human messenger; is considered to be potent enough for a rational being to come; at least, to the cognition of the existence and oneness of God, hence obviating disbelief. “Pristine-reason” here, is “elevated to the status of a “non-human-messenger” of God, for reason gains an edge when the logic fails rational being. (Deduced from Q, 17: 15)

Contemplative tools; human faculties, given the amiss, may help us reach the level of most probable/likely certainty (in the temporal, ancillary and ritualistic matters) but not that of an absolute certitude (in the core matters of belief/faith); which is only possible by Divine consent/intervention through the heart (Q, 10:100), as in the above case of cognition of God’s Oneness. Here the externality of this intervention cloaked in the garb of; “pristine-human-reason”, is upgraded to the status of “non-human-messenger”

Non-believer’s obstinate rejection of the Divine, religious injunctions and that of hereafter; though based on (tenuous and vitiated) reason, logic and common sense, amply explains their state of affairs.           (Q, 10:100)

*1 Universal Spirit, the first cause, singularity, Divine, Intermediary agent etc.

Imam Ghazali;- “With regard to sense-perception says; it made him very hesitant to accept the infallibility of reason. He believed in the testimony of sense till it was contradicted by the verdict of reason. Well, perhaps there is above reason another judge who; if appeared, would convict reason of falsity and if such a third arbiter is not yet apparent it does not follow that he does not exist.”

When Imam Ghazali could not reconcile the philosophical dispensations with the Divine wisdom, (Obviously there is no comparison between the two; one represents the mundaneness, while the other, word of the Divine) he turned to Sufism.

In quantum physics (Double-Slit) experiment, our act of observing something seems to change what’s observed – we are ourselves part of the experiment. Is this the ultimate problem of self-reference, one that suggests a limit to how much we can ever reason about—our surroundings—the universe?

 Role of the religion, therefore, becomes inevitable; for it presents us with flawless and absolute truth; which is perceptually-authoritative and practically valid, engendering “Taqwa”. [Innate reverential-fear (Awe) of Allah (SWT). Distinct from the usual fear of other (agencies)]

An incisive consideration and pondering, on just two of the aspects of the divine religion: 1) Belief in the hereafter. 2) The contentment would vouch for and warrant religion’s inevitability.

Belief in the hereafter is often considered a conceptual absurdity and theological fallacy hence rejected by the non-believers. Belief in the hereafter, however, is the source of immitigable hope and equity, which no atheistic belief/doctrine/philosophy may even, conceives to offer. Unbelief in the hereafter renders one scuttled of many realities. Such as; ultimate-reality; ultimate-hope; ultimate-triumph, and ultimate-Justice. One, without the belief in the hereafter, is like, latching onto the event-horizon of a black hole of hopelessness and despair. The statistics, available on depression/hopelessness resulting in suicide and homicide, is a vindication of this fact. Conversely, in the overwhelmingly religious affluent Middle East, there are hardly any such issues, hence NO mental hospitals needed.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2015/08/22/scuttling-the-mental-capacity/

Contentment is a huge blessing for a rational being. When someone (even a non-believer) is suffering; no relief in sight; distressed/desperate, resorts back to God, is blessed with His mercy. (Q, 27:62) Overwhelmed with gratitude, he takes a sigh of relief and the most joyous sense of contentment sets in. (One’s resorting back to God while distressed, means un-recalcitrant-submission; invigorating the innate impulses; meeting the pre-requisites; of belief in Him, His injunctions, including the belief in the hereafter).

Is He [not best] who responds to the distressed/desperate one when he calls upon Him and removes evil and makes you inheritors of the earth?” (Q, 27:62)

“Deprived is the one who has been deprived of the reward of enduring distress”  (Khidr–a.s)                                                                                                                                          Fasting in the month of Ramadan from dawn to dusk is a fine practical example of it; whereby one is patiently content (nafs-al-mutmai’nna) all day long, hoping the accrual of the temporal and divinely rewards at the end of the day.

Faculties of thinking and the exercise of Free-will (choice) are also signs of deficiency on the part of the creation. Allah does not think but intends; for He is omnipotent; causer of both, the cause and the effect. Nothing wrong/bad may emanate from His essence (Q, 48:23); but from His schematic creational activities, such as the creation of rational beings inseminated with good and bad. Indeed, Our word to a thing when We intend it is but that We say to it, “Be,” and it is” (Q, 16:40)   On the other hand; when rational beings would exercise the option of intention; in the similar fashion; (without thinking and deliberations) it is bound to be fraught with pitfalls, for rational beings are created with an existential amiss.

Imagination is of non-local (metaphysical/spiritual) origin; for it traverses both, the local and non-local domain. Therefore, those who accuse believers of worshipping an “imaginary God” are, unwittingly, admitting this reality. God inculcated, in the constitution of the rational beings, two-pronged sense of imagination (topical and non-topical); a schematic molding, hence the relevance and necessity of Divine and Divine religion becomes inevitable. God does not think but “Wills” whereas man’s will (choice) subsists in God’s will whereby He equilibrates it with the elements of hope and fear, (existential amiss) rendering it rationally operative. (Q, 17:57)

People need religion because it is the blueprint for the functioning of the “Soul” in the temporal realm. Voltaire, an archpriest of rationalism, alludes to this inevitability in a mundanely best possible way: “Man would have to invent God, even if He does not exist”

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/?s=inevitable+God

Religious Truth is multifaceted. It is comprised of science, logic, philosophy, history, ethics, and experience all mixed together. It is, in a sense, a different kind of knowing, not ignorant of the other kinds of truths (known and yet to be known), asserting the inevitability of the religion.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/02/03/scientific-elaboration-of-surah-at-tin-fig-95-verse-4/

 (Hadith) Every child is born on Nature— (his natural disposition/course. Resorting back to/linking with the Creator)

“It is asserted here that fitrah is the essential condition and state of existence in which God fashioned mankind; with innate impulses/urges including the sense of good and bad; fear and safety; pain and relief; cognition of God; submission, transgression and arrogance etc. (existential amiss–Imperfection, tendency/choice to swerve). It is present in the very essence of the creation and is inextricably kneaded into the very substance of the “rational beings” (Q) which is acutely elicited in the following verse.

 

إِنَّا عَرَضْنَا الاٌّمَانَةَ عَلَى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَالْجِبَالِ فَأبَيْنَ أَن يَحْمِلْنَهَا وَأَشْفَقْنَ مِنْهَا وَحَمَلَهَا الإِنْسَـنُ إِنَّهُ كَانَ
نَظَلُوماً جَهُولاً –

 “We did indeed offer the Trust to the Heavens and the Earth and the Mountains; but they refused to undertake it, being afraid thereof: but man undertook it;- He was indeed ignorant  and foolish” (Q, 33:72)

 

Ordinary beings, given their basic knowledge of the religious fundamentals, are tested for their weaknesses (existential amiss). The window of forgiveness is wide open for them; even if they have a mountain of mistakes/sins on their back; as long as they keep seeking forgiveness with utmost sincerity and a commitment not to repeat the same. (There is no numerical or time limitation)  This is an esoteric expression of the unbounded mercy of the Creator; for the people of knowledge and intellect who understand.

Men of knowledge (Aalim/Scholar), given the higher degree of knowledge, are tested for the equitable dissemination of the knowledge while acting upon it themselves as is due. Their test becomes harder and their failure attracts equally harsher punishment, for they are given the knowledge as the inheritors of the Prophet (PBUH).

Prophets; given the highest degree of knowledge and the duty of disseminating the message entrusted to them, often face the hardest of the tests for their perseverance, firmness, devotion and endurance instead. They are immunized of the mundanity (existential amiss) to a large extent due to their highest station/status. (Protected from major sins—Asmah/Masoom); which keeps them even from minor sins but some rare slips. (Q, 4:31)

“If you avoid the major sins which you are forbidden, We will remove from you your lesser sins and admit you to a noble entrance [into Paradise]” [Q, 4:31]

Hadith: when a companion asked the Prophet, despite being a Prophet of Allah why do you always keep asking for His forgiveness? He replied; “for any moment passed without His remembrance” This emphasizes the point that one, regardless of his station, should never be oblivious of the innate existential amiss and always keep asking for His forgiveness.

“Cause and effect” is a phenomenon of the sequential morphing of things/ideas in the space-time spectrum. It, however, can’t continue ad-infinitum. It also cannot fully transcend back into the metaphysical/spiritual realm. Therefore, becomes unhitched, regressive, and even ineffective. ‘Ex Nahilo’ is an outright negation of temporal phenomenon of “causality”. God (SWT); the very first (primal) cause, therefore, is the sole cause/causer of the Universe. (Creational activity in the space-time realm is known as “Khulq/Takhleeq” )

“When He decrees a matter, He only says to it, “Be,” and it is” (Q, 2:117)

In the absence of space-time spectrum, there is but an intention/will (ordinance {Amar}), of the primal cause, for the matter/idea to come into being. In the metaphysical/spiritual realm, contrary to the physical realm, no material/tangible cause has to exist to produce a material/tangible effect. Divine causality, therefore, is inimitable by the rational beings in the space-time spectrum. (Creational activity in the absence of space-time spectrum is known as “Takween”)

Takween is derived from the word “KUN” fayakun. It is beyond and above the physical laws of the universe and does not need the matter, time or space for a thing to come into existence. (Ex Nihilo=Out of Nothing). Bypassing the temporal physical laws or the temporal causality is also called Takween. {creation of Adam and Jesus Christ—PBUT}

 Temporal causality vs. Divine causality

Here are vivid differences.

In temporal causality, a causer may activate the cause but may not have the capability to determine the effect. He would also not have the capability to alter the effect (outcome) of a cause. A rational being may be dealing with a clear cause or INUS (insufficient but non-redundant parts of conditions; which in itself unnecessary, but sufficient for the occurrence of the effects). This distinction would not exist in the Divine causality.

In Divine causality, The Causer of the cause and effect is the same. The Causer is omnipotent to alter/determine the effect(s) as He wills. The Causer is also competent to produce an effect without cause (Ex-Nahilo). The Causer may pre-determine effects or causes in multiple, and then afford the medium (sentient beings) the application of Free-will (Choice) to commensurate effect(s).

“And when We would intend to destroy a township We had sent a commandment (warning) to its people of authority leading easy lives; who yet disobeyed and transgressed; so as a result of our Judgment passed, We annihilated it with complete annihilation” (Q, 17:16)

Note:- (Ghazali’s views on causality, read: http://www.ghazali.org/articles/gz-aylon2.pdf)

Morality, mortified by the psychology of innate fear, sprouts from the Divine religious injunctions. Although it lays the ground-rules for this word, the effects also transcend to the next.

Morality, based on reward and punishment, (retribution) works wonderfully due to the psychology of “innate-fear” of being monitored unimpeded and continuously by the “Invisible”. Religion (Islam) “submission” was enacted simultaneous to the Creation (forbidding Adam and Eve from eating the fruit) and the punishment for its violation was established by the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Heavens. Satan (Lucifer) was also expelled for his disobedience due to his avarice and pride. They were not simply expelled but with specifically (and schematically) mandated rights, roles, and responsibilities; which, in specifically Islamic parlance could be called “Sharia’a” and in everyday parlance “Morality”.

Ethicality is developed by the rational beings, in the light of their past collective experiences. It regulates the immediate, contemporary cultural, societal or communal behavior. It is limited to temporality in scope, optional in its practicality; often floutingly by-passed without compunction. Needless to say that, the resourcefulness of Morality is unsurpassable by the man-made ethicality.

Ethics (Laws) are devised by the people for a community, society or culture; monitoring whereof is also done by people (an agency) employed for the purpose. The compliance would simply depend on either one’s call of the conscience or the fear of being caught by the monitoring agent. The physical absence of the monitoring agency would offer all kind of inducements to flout, as it cannot be established and no penalty would ensue.  This is the weakest aspect of the man-made ethicality.

A distinct difference between Divine law and the man-made law is that Divine Law compassionately seeks avenues to forgive while the man-made law is hell-bent on seeking evidence to punish.

Those who envisage morality, without religion, in fact, misconstrue ethics as morality.

After all, man is created with an existential amiss.

 Innate Fear, Psychology of fear is employed by the Divine to elicit the compliance of the religious injunctions without the presence of a physical watchdog.

  • An infant, when made to hold a bar, would continue clinging to it due to the innate fear of fall and hurt until made to feel safe to let it go.
  • In a situation of distress, “heightened state of fear/anxiety” (even in the case of a non-believer) all boundaries and impediments are dismantled; a connection between the Lord and the distressed-servant is immediately activated, and the call of the distressed is heard by the Almighty. (Q, 27:62)

Innate-fear, therefore, is not just a predicate of punishment, as often complained, but also that of an “SOS” signal, in the situation of distress.   

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Topics covered:- Logic, reason, pristine reason, common sense, causality, Temporal/Divine causality, revelation, Divine wisdom, Inevitability of religion, Non Human Messenger, Gazali’s falsity of reason, imagination, Imaginary God, belief in the hereafter, Contentment, Voltaire’s rationalism, Fitrah, khulq/takween, Ordinary,/ scholar/ prophet, Psychology of Innate fear, Morality, Ethics and  The-Distressed.

Why should you have Dates?

May 24, 2018

Palm Tree with date fruits

Dates often termed as the “fruit of paradise”, are considered as one of the most nutritious and delicious fruit. Mentioned in the Holy Quran 20 times, this fruit is of great importance for Muslims. During the holy month of Ramadan, Muslims around the world break their fasts with dates. Our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) used to break his fast with dates.

Muslims across the globe make sure that their kitchen cabinets are stocked with this wonderful fruit in Ramadan. Ever wondered why? Because, apart from being a powerhouse of various minerals and vitamins, dates have tremendous health benefits as well.

Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Prophet (PBUH) said:

“Indeed in dates, there is a cure.” Muslim (14/3)

Here are some nutritional and health values that this fruit has.

Improves Digestive Health

Dates are an excellent remedy for digestive problems. They contain soluble fibers, amino acids, and enzymes which are a must for good digestive health and also have a rich source of potassium which is known to treat diarrhea. So, if you are having any digestive problems, soak some dates overnight and have them in the morning, this will strengthen good bacteria in your stomach and relieve you from the discomfort in no time.

Good for Heart

Dates have an impressive amount of potassium and fiber that reduces the levels of LDL cholesterol in the body, preventing heart-related diseases. It’s suggested to have dates twice a week for a strong and healthy heart.

Strengthens the Nervous System

Dates will give you nerves of steel. Literally! They are known to have 3 times the amount of potassium found in bananas. Potassium does wonders for our body by keeping all cardiac problems in check. The vitamin B found in dates is vital for mood balancing effects and proper nerve function.

Improves Bone Health

Osteoporosis is a disease we all have heard of since it’s very common among women. This is due to the weakening of bones with age. Dates contain the perfect amount of magnesium, manganese, and selenium to strengthen our bones and make them healthy.

Treats and Prevents Anemia

Anemia is caused due to the lack of iron which reduces the red blood cells in a person’s body, making them look all pale with additional dark circles. Dates not only boost up the iron level in your body but also increases strength and vitality.

Acts as a Natural Energy Booster

We all know how there comes a time of the day when we feel our sugar level drop and crave for something sweet. Dates are the natural and healthful energy boosters everyone needs to include in their daily diet as they contain just the right amount of glucose and fructose to get you going without providing the additional calories. Adios energy drinks!

Helps in Maintaining a Healthy Weight

Good things come in small packages. These tiny miracle workers can balance the sugar levels in your body and make you feel fuller than any junk food you’d cheat with on your diet. Dates are also a healthy supplement for someone who wants to gain weight or does not want to lose it too fast. For those folks who want to maintain a balanced weight, having cucumbers with dates would do wonders.

Relieves Allergies

Dates are the miracle food that can help reduce the awful symptoms of seasonal allergies. With high levels of organic sulfur present in it, they sure act as a tonic for allergic reactions.

Helps in Maintaining Healthy Skin and Hair

Consuming dates regularly gives a boost of Vitamin B5, C, and D which helps in repairing damaged skin cells and nourishes hair and its root. So, make sure to add dates to your diet for baby smooth skin and the shiny, strong hair you’ve always dreamed of.

Such a delicious food with tremendous nutritional values should not only be consumed during Ramadan but should also be included in the daily routine. This Ramadan, go easy on the sweets and reach for a date. In addition to satisfying your craving, you will get some health benefits as well! Have a healthy and happy Ramadan!

Sana Kamran (The author) For Islamicfinder.org

republished by…..shakir2.wordpress.com

Scientific Elaboration of Surah At-Tin (Fig) 95, verse 4

February 3, 2018

“We have indeed created man in the best of the moulds”

Image result for pic of microtubules

Sometimes back, I came across a scientific research about the evidence of God through the existence of design in molecular cell’s formation and functioning. The link to which is available below. This research mainly deals with the human development and functioning based on molecular activities. This research explains the above verse with amazing comprehensiveness.

“It is widely known that the DNA is a sophisticated information storage device; encoding complex specified information to make proteins, and directing many highly complex processes in the cell. What is less known, is that there are several other code systems as well, namely the histone*1 binding code, transcription factor binding code, the splicing code, and the RNA secondary structure code. And there is yet another astonishing code system, called the tubuline*2 code, which is being unraveled in recent scientific research. It is known so far that amongst other things, it directs and signals Kinesin*3 and Myosin*4 motor proteins precisely where and when to disengage from nanomolecular*5 superhighways and deliver their cargo. 

 Here is the link to the site to read through.

Molecular biology of the cell

http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t2096-the-astonishing-language-written-on-microtubules-amazing-evidence-of-design#3669

 

“We have indeed created man in the best of the moulds.”

The term “taqweem” means to form something into an appropriate shape and in a moderate regulation. The capaciousness of the meaning refers to the fact that Allah has created malt proportionately in all respects; from physical point of view; spiritual and rational point of view, because He has settled all faculties in him and prepared him appropriately to cover a great path towards a perfect development. Although man is a ‘microcosm’, He has set the ‘macrocosm’ in him and has promoted him to such a high position that it is said: “We have honored the sons of Adam…” (17:70)

This assertion has been aptly explained in another research paper which is as follows.

Dr. Francis Collins, director of the Human Genome Project (that mapped the human DNA structure) said that one can “think of DNA as an instructional script, a software program, sitting in the nucleus of the cell.”5

Perry Marshall, an information specialist, comments on the implications of this.

“There has never existed a computer program that wasn’t designed…[whether it is] a code, or a program, or a message given through a language, there is always an intelligent mind behind it.”6

Just as former atheist Dr. Antony Flew questioned, it is legitimate to ask oneself regarding this three billion letter code instructing the cell…who wrote this script? Who placed this working code, inside the cell?

It’s like walking along the beach and you see in the sand, “Mike loves Michelle.” You know the waves rolling up on the beach didn’t form that–a person wrote that. It is a precise message. It is clear communication. In the same way, the ing in our cells?

The reason why man is given such a coveted status and endowed with unparallel qualities is because the whole universe revolves around him. He is endowed with characteristics which are like that of the God Himself, such as knowledge, power, Hearing, sight, speaking, compassion and Wisdom. This has been elucidated in Surah Al Qiyamah,# 75, V-2 saying “Lo! We Created man from a drop of thickened fluid; so we made him hearing, and understanding” means endowed him with intellect and consciousness for the test. (The word “Taqweem” signifies setting something on the best of the foundations). Word “amshaj” (thickened fluid) in this verse expresses the combination of human cardinal humors/fluids, blood, phlegm, choler and melancholy, constituents of human semen (sperm).

Human beings rank higher than the Angels. A quote from my article “Mysteries of Creation” published on 02/04/2008. “There is very distinct and subtle difference between Human and Angels. The former bear the mysterious knowledge of the Creator and His Essence, along with the tendency to transgress. Whereas Angels have, only the knowledge of the entire spectrum of the creation with absolute servitude without any free will or desires” It is aptly summarized in Surah Bani-Israel 17, V-70 “And we bestowed dignity to the children of Adam (R.A)” “Dignity” in this verse implies the widest range of attributes and characteristics. Speech (with requisite eloquence for praising his lord) is one such attribute which distinguishes man from the rest of the creations. If a man knows God for thousands of years but does not confess would be virtually an infidel. (Not undertaking the pronouncement of the Article of faith). God has bidden all believers to give thanks and praise Him, rehearse His bounties, supplicate; He would answer the supplicants.

Yet another reason, which signifies man’s special position in the Universe, is his makeup:

Man is made of 10 constituents, 5 of which belongs to the Realm of the Divine-Ordinance (Aalame-Amar) and other 5 belongs to the Realm of Divine-Creation (Aalame Khalq).

These are Heart, Soul, Mystery, Secret, Secret of Secret—-&—–Dust, Water, Air, Fire and Self (Nafs).  This special formation of man endows him with the capacity to absorb the light of Divine Guidance; hence worthy of being vice regent of his Creator to whom angels were asked to prostrate in gratitude to their Lord, who created such a marvelous being.

It can be elaborated further by quoting parts of sufic interpretation of this verse.

“Mankind is the substance and the revolving (spheres are) his incidental (qualities).9

 “O you (man) (in regard to whom) reason, deliberations, and understanding (are) your slaves, why do you sell yourself (so) cheaply as this?1
“(Since) service toward you is an indispensable duty for all existence, how should a substance seek help from an incidental quality?” “You are the ocean of knowledge hidden in a dewdrop; you are the world hidden in a body three cubits long”
13 

  1. “We have honored [the sons of Adam]’: Qur’an 17:70. Here, the One God speaks in the “royal plural” tense– a verse interpreted by the Sufis to mean honored above all creation, including the angels, who did not know the “names” [the Names of God, according to the Sufic interpretation], which Adam knew, but the angels did not (Qur’an 2: 31-33). 
  2. “Primary aim [`araz](beseeching)… incidental (qualities) [gharaz](need): Nicholson translated, “Man is the substance, and the celestial sphere is his accident.” He explained the “celestial sphere” means “the world” [Footnote]. These two terms, which rhyme, refer to the philosophical difference between the essential substance of something and its “accidental” or external aspects which happen to manifest. Here, it means that the saintly man or woman is the primary end of creation,
  3. and the planets, stars, and the rest of the creation are secondary aspects”. 
  4.  “Why do you sell yourself (so) cheaply as this: Nicholson referred to another verse of the

Mathnawi (which he translated), “Man has sold himself cheaply: he was satin, he has sewn himself on (become attached) to a tattered cloak.” (III: 1001) And he explained that “a tattered cloak means “the body and the carnal nature.”.

At another place in Qura’an, in Surah Abas (Frowning) 80, V 16, 19 God questions man “Of what material have you been made, A drop of semen?” It is reminder of his humble beginning; then He declares how he destined him with attributes, faculties, and limbs and then made his way easy from that stage till his death. It is said that during the pregnancy a child is pre-destined of 4 things, sustenance, age, life style (sinful or pious) and his state of leading a happy or sad life. (H) The word “Qaddarahu” means everything granted to him was well calculated, measured, balanced and made to suit the purpose of his existence. A child is conceived and developed under three layers of darkness:  the belly, the womb and amniotic membrane.(whole process of conception revealed has been verified by medical science). 

 One of the wonders of man’s birth is that a few moments before the time of nativity the child is so located in the mother’s womb that usually its head is right side up, its face is to the mother’s back and its feet are toward the down side of the womb; but when the time of birth comes, the child turns upside down so that its head is downwards, and this very position makes the birth (process) easier for both the child and its mother. There are, of course, exceptions where some children are born under various complications therefore, their mothers encounter many difficulties.

 After studying the research presented and the above passages there should remain no doubt in any rational being’s mind about the God’s existence, His omnipotence, and Human-being being the most high in the chain of creation; which He has described as His vice-regent on the earth. (For, Man is not what eats, drinks, and suffers decays but a Divine mystery, of which body is the vesture, situated in the interfusion of natural humors and in the union of body and spirit). 

*Definitions of scientific terms used in this piece.   

Histones:–are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.

Tubulinin molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily.

kinesinis a protein belonging to a class of motor proteins found in eukaryotic cells.

myosin. (mī’ə-sĭn) A protein found in muscle tissue as a thick filament made up of an aggregate of similar proteins.

nanomolecular(not comparable) Describing any nanoscale process that involves the manipulation of individual molecules.

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Scientific rationalism, reason vs. Religious Faith

January 6, 2018

Related image

These are two different fields of knowledge and inquiry. It would be naïve to compare them on any logical basis, for they are not compatible and human logic and reasons, including scientific knowledge; restricted to tangibility, empiricism, and repeatability, cannot transcend into the realm of spirituality.

Such questions are generally raised by those who are staunch believers in the material/tangible world only. They fail to even imagine or entertain the idea that; there could exist another realm beyond their area of comprehension; despite the fact that they invariably acknowledge the limitation and fallibility of human knowledge, reason, and logic, including taken for guaranteed scientific knowledge. They also talk about many dimensions of the Universe but exclude the spiritual one due to ingrained anti-faith arrogance and rigidity.

Most often a misunderstanding of the earlier religious figures or even nonreligious figures; who laid some kind of claims in the name of religion; which turned out to be false are being exploited to justify the incorrigibility of reason, logic and scientific knowledge, which in itself is deceit and treachery. There are, on the other hand, numerous claims made by scientist community; being transient and tentative — as per the Pierce Doctrine of “Fallibilism”–turned out to be false, should they not then be used similarly to validate the religion/faith?

The good news, however, is that there is a growing breed of people; who have the capacity and will to traverse both the realms with equal ease and certainty. This approach is the only approach which will augment and extend, the understanding and the ensuing benefits of both the realms, to the human race.

Needless to stress the reality, that the Creator of the science is also the Creator of all the universe (s) dimensions including spiritual one. We cannot go too far by just acknowledging and depending only on one of the dimensions of—materiality, tangibility, empiricism and repeatability. We ought to learn to transcend and traverse both (and all) the realms to better understand and benefit fully.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2017/12/17/epistemological-theology/

For further reading:- May GOD be dispensed with?

shakir2.wordpress.com

Do animals feel pain? [have intellect?]

December 24, 2017

Image result for Pic of an emotional reunion with an animal

“All living beings roaming/crawling/walking the earth and winged birds soaring in the sky are Peoples/communities like yourselves…” (Q, 6:38)

Animals, plants, everything created is endowed with consciousness, intellect and sense perception.

Pain is a complex experience involving sense and emotion. It is not simply how it feels, but how it makes one feel, be that a human or an animal? As far as domestic animals are concerned, we may, up to a certain extent, gauge their pain and feelings but that may not be so with the birds of prey. The Pain of the animals; who do not or cannot communicate, ought to be sensed/observed by an observer. Therefore, a rational being, who took responsibility, is responsible to do that and take care of the pain and suffering of the non-human sentient-beings.

In my opinion, things having been endowed with any level of consciousness (cognizable or not) ought to have a sense of joy and gloom. Empirically conclusive evidence of this is difficult to come by unless a sustained scientific study is carried out. This is a tedious process. Qura’an, on the other hand, however, categorically declares that the entire—non-human– creation is created with the sense of obedience/praying to its Creator, and they are people/communities like us, {endowed with certain level of consciousness, intellect, sense of feelings, obedience and worship} although their mode of expression/communication may not be understandable by us. 

Here is the scientific research; which will shed more light on the above assertions.

The report was published in Current Biology by researchers Dr. Sara Letzer and Prof Dr. Onur Gunturkun in collaboration with Prof Dr. Christian Beste. Cognitive ability was assumed to be the anatomical cause of cerebral cortex. In birdshowever, there is no presence of such cortical structures. Therefore, according to this assumption, birds are incapable of performing complex functions like multitasking.

(Future Planning).

To demonstrate how smart an octopus can be, an octopus will be pulling two halves of a coconut shell together to hide inside. Later the animal may also stack the shells together like nesting bowls — and carts them away. “It suggests that the octopus is carrying these tools around because it has some understanding they may be useful in the future,”

For decades, researchers have studied how certain animals evolved to be intelligent, among the apes, elephants, dolphins and even some birds, such as crows and parrots. But all the scientific theories fail when it comes to cephalopods, a group that includes octopuses, squid and cuttlefish. Intelligence comprises sophisticated cognitive skills that help an animal thrive. That may include the ability to come up with solutions to the problem of finding food, for example, or a knack for planning for some challenge in the future. Intelligent animals don’t rely on fixed responses to survive — they can invent new behaviors on the fly. To measure animal intelligence, scientists observe creatures in the wild — watching a dolphin stick a sponge on its beak to avoid getting cuts from sharp rocks and coral, for example. Or they bring animals into the lab and offer them puzzles to solve, such as rewarding crows when they learn to rip paper into strips of just the right size

Following examples would testify to their consciousness, sense perception and intellect.

“The seven heavens and the earth and whatever is in them exalt Him. And there is not a thing except that it exalts [Allah] by His praise, but you do not understand their [way of] exalting. Indeed, He is ever Forbearing and Forgiving”. (Q, 17:44)

“See you not that to Allah prostrates whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and “Ad-Dawab” (moving living creatures, beasts, etc.), and many of mankind? But there are many (men) on whom the punishment is justified. And whomsoever Allah disgraces, none can honor him. Verily! Allah does what He wills”.      (Q, 22:18)

Raven/Crow–Able and Cain–and his soul permitted to him the murder of his brother, so he killed him and became among the ­losers”. “Then Allah sent a crow searching in the ground to show him how to hide the disgrace of his brother. He said, ‘O woe to me! Have I failed to be like this crow and hide the body of my brother?’ And he became of the regretful.” (Quran 5:30-31)

“All living beings roaming/crawling/walking the earth and winged birds soaring in the sky are Peoples/communities like yourselves. We have left nothing out of the Record. Then to their Lord, they will be gathered all together” (Q, 6:38)

Ababil (Swallows)

Ababil (A bird أبابيل‎, translitabābīl) refers to the miraculous birds (identified as swallows) mentioned in Sura 105 of the Qura’an that protected the Ka’ba in Mecca from the Aksumite elephant army of Abraha, a self-styled governor of Himyar, by dropping small clay stones on them as they approached.

The bird (Hoopoe) informed Prophet Soloman about the people of Saba (Sheba of southern Arabia) and their Queen Sheeba, who used to worship Sun.

Whale-Fish

Prophet Jonah was thrown into the sea and swallowed by a big fish (whale)who was instructed to keep the Prophet safe in her stomach for few days, so that he may reflect, learn to be patient and ­repent. He was then regurgitated onto the shore as ordered by God.

AHADITH.

Hungry Camel.

Muslim transmitted that one day the Prophet (PBUH) along with some of his companions, entered the gardens of al-Ansar. A camel approached the Prophet with eyes filled with tears. The Messenger of Allah caressed his back and wiped his eyes and the camel calmed down. The Messenger then asked about his owner. When he showed up the Messenger said, ‘Don’t you fear God? This animal you own has complained to me that it is hungry and tired because you abuse him and don’t feed well.

Grieving Palm Tree Trunk

Hadith narrated by Ibn Umar: The Prophet (PBUH) used to deliver sermons while standing beside or leaning against a Date Palm tree trunk. When he had the pulpit made and started using it instead, the Palm tree trunk started crying/weeping/grieving out of love for the prophet. So, Prophet approached rubbing it with his hand. It stopped crying/weeping/grieving. –Sahih al-Bukhari Volume 4, Book 56, Number 783-

Imam Qurtabi said: The person in whose house his cat is not fed and taken care of, whose caged birds are not attended to as due, cannot be counted amongst the–(Mohsinin)–doer of good.

Adultery by female-monkey

Sahih Bukhari] Vol, 5 – Book 58 – # 188                                                           

Narrated by Amr bin Maimun: During the pre-Islamic period of ignorance, I saw a she-monkey surrounded by a number of monkeys. They were all stoning it because it had committed illegal sexual intercourse. I too stoned it along with them.

guarding/companion Dod

The Islamic version of the story of “Seven sleepers of Pegasus” includes mention of a dog, who accompanied them into the cave and appears to keep watch. In Islam, these youths are referred to as the People of the Cave.

Research Finds That Pigeons Are Better at Multitasking Than Humans.

Honey-Bee

Honey-bee–Consider how your Lord has inspired Honey-bee “make your hives [geometrical masterpiece of the hexagonal honey-comb which is most economical, rational, as regards space and material] in the mountains, trees and higher places and in what people construct (for apiculture)” (Q, 16:68)

Mosquito Miracle! 

The mosquito, although weighing only one-thousandth of a gram, is a tiny creature with an extremely complex structure. It has about one hundred eyes, three complete hearts, a heat detector, a vaccine working as an anesthetic, an instrument for blood testing, a liquefying system, six knives in its nose, a digital X-ray machine to distinguish human skin in the dark, etc. Its development from egg to adult passes through three complicated stages with a change in color to avoid predators. It is a very good example of the complexity of some creatures. It is said in the Holy Qura’an: ”surely Allah is not disdainful to give an example of the smallest thing (such as Mosquito) or something above that,  and as for those who disbelieve, say: What is it that Allah means by this parable: By such a similitude Allah confounds many and enlightens many. He confounds none except the transgressors” (Q, 2:26) 

Plants

Prophet Jacob’s leprosy-ridden body was covered (for shadow) by a creeper and a goat used to come morning and evening to feed him, under the command of God (SWT).

Plants have a far greater ability to sense their world than appearances might suggest, has led to some remarkable claims about “plant Intelligence”, and even spawned a new discipline. Electrical signaling in plants was one of the key factors in the birth of “plant neurobiology” (a term used despite the lack of neurons in plants), and today there are plant researchers investigating such traditionally non-plant areas as memory, learning and problem-solving. These plants are moving with purpose, which means they must be aware of what is going on around them.

 Despite lacking eyes, plants such as Arabidopsis possess at least 11 types of photoreceptor, compared to our measly four. Plants seeing, smelling, feeling and, indeed, knowing to have echoes of The secret life of Plants.

 

Shakir2.wordpress.com

Note: originally published on Dec, 24th 2017 now updated and republished on 03/01/2019

Creationism Vs Evolutionism from Islamic perspective

October 1, 2017

 

Image result for free pics of human evolution

An up-close study of the Holy Qura’an and Science reveals that the systems, of evolution and creation, are at work simultaneously. Human in the first instance, for example, was created in its final form as “ADAM” (PBUH); so was Eve, fully developed to eventually co-habit with Adam (PBUH) and produce Children.(Q, 2:35, 36)  After that, in the second instance; however reproduction was subjected to an evolutionary process; in the womb of the mother, from clinging clot to the fully grown baby of 9 or so months old.  (Q, 23:13, 14)  {Embryology did not exist as a science at the time of the Prophet. Neither was special terminology yet.

“One modern scholar, Usaama al-Azami, suggested that both narratives of creation and of evolution, as understood by modern science, may be believed by modern Muslims as addressing two different kinds of truth, the revealed and the empirical” [3]

 

 

The story of the creation of Adam (A.S) and creationism as such, is scattered all over Qura’an in the following Surahs:  2, 4, 5, 7, 15, 20, 21, 38 and others.

Science, on the other hand, has failed to conclusively establish human evolution from other species.

A single-celled organism, however, was allowed/assigned a perpetual evolution, thereby culminating in many a species at different intervals on its evolutionary journey. Its mutation or selected mutation is still ongoing; according to the changing factors necessitating evolution, and many new species keep emerging. In human beings, however, this change seems to have been perfected (with the exception of external/cosmetic changes, such as skin color pigmentation etc). Confirmed in Holy Qura’an) as “We have created man in best of symmetry” (Q, 95:4)

 

Negation of the evolutionary process, in Human, except external/cosmetic adaptations (Q, 30:30)

 

Asad : AND SO, set thy face 25  steadfastly towards the [one ever-true] faith, turning away from all that is false, 26  in accordance with the natural disposition which God has instilled into man: 27  [for,] not to allow any change to corrupt what God has thus created 28  – this is the [purpose of the one] ever-true faith, but most people know it not.
Malik : Therefore, stand firm in your devotion to the upright faith – the nature made by Allah, the one on which mankind is created – and the laws of Nature ordained by Allah cannot be changed. That is the standard of true faith, but most among mankind do not know.

 

Pickthall : So set thy purpose (O Muhammad) for religion as a man by nature upright— nature (framed) of Allah, in which He hath created, man. There is no altering (the laws of) Allah’s creation. That is the right religion, but most men know not.
Yusuf Ali : So set thou thy face steadily and truly to the Faith: (Establish) Allah’s handiwork according to the pattern on which He has made mankind: no change (let there be) in the work (wrought) by Allah: that is the standard Religion: but most among mankind understand not.  3540   3541   3542 

 “O children of Adam (R.A)! We have descended for you raiment to conceal your shame, and splendid vesture (to adore yourself), but the covering of  TAQWA is the best” (Q, 7:26)  (dress would have not been sent to “Apes” but fully developed human being).

 

Qura’an affirms both the parallels—creationism (2:35 &36) & Evolutionism (23:13 &14).

Human-being, along with some other species as well, falls under creationism. Most, species, however, evolved from single cell organism to complex organisms. (Selective, ordained Mutation).

“In the 19th century, a scholar of Islamic revivalJamal-al-Din al-Afghānī agreed with Darwin that life will compete with other life in order to succeed. He also believed that there was competition in the realm of ideas similar to that of nature. However, he believed explicitly that life was created by God;[19] Darwin did not discuss the origin of life, saying only “Probably all the organic beings which have ever lived on this earth have descended from some primordial form, into which life was first breathed”.[20] A contemporary of Al-Afghani, Shia scholar Hussein al-Jisr, declared that there is no contradiction between evolution and the Islamic scriptures. He stated that “there is no evidence in the Quran to suggest whether all species, each of which exists by the grace of God, were created all at once or gradually,” and referred to the aforementioned story of creation in Sūrat al-Anbiyā.[21] In Turkey, important scholars strove to accommodate the theory of evolution in Islamic scripture during the first decades of the Turkish Republic; their approach to the theory defended Islamic belief in the face of scientific theories of their times” [23] 

 

Immunological Time Scale for Homonid Evolution

  1. Vincent M. Sarich1
  2. Allan C. Wilson2                                     Science  01 Dec 1967:
    158, Issue 3805, pp. 1200-1203
    DOI: 10.1126/science.158.3805.1200

 Several workers have observed that there is an extremely close immunological resemblance between the serum (pale yellow liquid that separates from the clot in the coagulation of the blood) albumins (sulfur-containing water-soluble proteins which coagulates when heated) of apes and man. Our studies with the quantitative micro-complement fixation method confirm this observation. To explain the closeness of the resemblance, previous workers suggested that there has been a slowing down of albumin evolution since the time of divergence of apes and man. Recent evidence, however, indicates that the albumin molecule has evolved at a steady rate. Hence, we suggest that apes and man have a more recent common ancestry than is usually supposed. Our calculations lead to the suggestion that, if man and old world monkeys last shared a common ancestor 30 million years ago, then man and African apes shared a common ancestor 5 million years ago, that is, in the Pliocene era

Refutation

Above work/experiment clearly shows a focused/targeted experiment on apes, (most probably due to ape’s close proximity with a man) ignoring the possibility of serum and albumins being a commonplace amongst many other species. (Q, 30:30; apparently negates the evolution in human).

The place of the australopithecines in human evolution: grounds for doubt?  C. E. OXNARD*

“Although most studies emphasise the similarity of the australopithecines to modern man, and suggest, therefore, that these creatures were bipedal tool-makers at least one form of which (Australopithecus africanus—“Homo habilis”, “Homo Africanus”) was almost directly ancestral to man, a series of multivariate statistical studies of various postcranial fragments suggests other conclusions. Their locomotion may not have been like that of modern man, and may, though including a form or forms of bipedality, have been different enough to allow marked abilities for climbing. Bipedality may have arisen more than once, the Australopithecinae displaying one or more experiments in bipedality that failed. The genus Homo may, in fact, be so ancient as to parallel entirely the genus Australopithecus thus denying the latter a direct place in the human lineage”

 

UPDATE

Over 500 Scientists Proclaim Their Doubts About Darwin’s Theory of Evolution.

Robert L. Crowther, II | @RLCrowther

https://evolutionnews.org/2006/02/over_500_scientists_proclaim_t/

Drift, Admixture, and selection in human evolution: study with DNA Polymorphisms

A M BowcockJ R KiddJ L MountainJ M HebertL CarotenutoK K Kidd, and L L Cavalli-Sforza

Department of Genetics, Stanford University, CA 94305.

Abstract

“Accuracy of evolutionary analysis of populations within a species requires the testing of a large number of genetic polymorphisms belonging to many loci. We report here a reconstruction of human differentiation based on 100 DNA polymorphisms tested in five populations from four continents. The results agree with earlier conclusions based on other classes of genetic markers but reveal that Europeans do not fit a simple model of independently evolving populations with equal evolutionary rates. Evolutionary models involving early admixture are compatible with the data. Taking one such model into account, we examined through simulation whether random genetic drift alone might explain the variation among gene frequencies across populations and genes. A measure of the variation among populations was calculated for each polymorphism, and its distribution for the 100 polymorphisms was compared with that expected for a drift-only hypothesis. At least two-thirds of the polymorphisms appear to be selectively neutral, but there are significant deviations at the two ends of the observed distribution of the measure of variation: a slight excess of polymorphisms with low variation and a greater excess with high variation. This indicates that a few DNA polymorphisms are affected by natural selection, rarely heterotic, and more often disruptive, while most are selectively neutral”

 

Evolution was an Islamic Theory Before Darwin was Even Born!

“O thou man! Verily thou art ever toiling on towards thy Lord-
Painfully toiling, -but thou shalt meet Him… So I do call
to witness the ruddy glow Of Sunset; the Night and its Homing;
And the Moon In her Fullness:
Ye shall surely travel From stage to stage.”

Q: Surah 84 Inshiqaq verses 6, 16-19

 

Muslim Scholars wrote about evolution 900 years before Darwin was born.

Al-Jahiz (776-868)

Nasir ad-Din Tusi (1201-1274)

Muhammad al-Nakhshabi (10th century)

 

Ghazali.

“With regard to sense-perception made him very hesitant to accept the infallibility of reason. He believed in the testimony of sense till it was contradicted by the verdict of reason. Well, perhaps there is above reason another judge who if he appeared would convict reason of falsity and if such a third arbiter is not yet apparent it does not follow that he does not exist.”

With this quote from Ghazali (R.A) the discussion is left to be concluded according to one’s level of understanding and intellect.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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