Archive for the ‘Sharia’a’ Category

Existential Amiss

September 30, 2018

Common sense, Reason, Logic, Causality, Imagination, Morality & Ethics!

 Image result for Pic of Existential amiss

I intended to write this piece in a secular fashion but the overwhelming relevance of the Divine wisdom kept piercing through my thought canvas, hence surrendered making it part of the discourse. Human discourse or argumentation, anyway, barely scratches the obvious externalities of the issues while the Divine wisdom put forth the internally woven realities in a succinct yet aptly simple manner. One may notice the examples of such Subtleties in the course of reading this treatise.

Had Common sense, reason and logic been potent enough to reach the absolute certainty of the conclusions drawn, there would have been no need for the Divine religions to barge in. All of these tools are perceptual or experiential outcomes of human endeavors which; given the deficient nature of human faculties; are incapable of coming even remotely close to the level of Divine Wisdom; Revelation, the only fait accompli. (A subtle hint/deduced from Q, 17; 37) Hence some of the precepts of the religion are above and beyond the realm of human commonsense, causality, reason and logic, exuding perfect certitude and submission. (A state of affairs enormously repugnant and conceptually unacceptable to the secularists, anti-religionists and non-believers)

Note:- similar debate has been going on for long. a brief excerpt is quoted here.

[The innovative Jahmiyyah and Their Relatives from Ahl al-Kalaam Asharis and Maturidis fought the greatest battle and contention between the followers of the revealed Books and the sent Messengers and between the followers of the Hellenized Jews, Christians and Sabeans. Those who contradict the revealed texts with their reason (aql), and think the reason is definitive over the revealed texts].

Common sense is really not as common as perceived. Variegated sense perceptions render it somewhat-common, partially-common, quasi-common or purely individualistic rather than really-common in the true sense of the word.

  Reason and Logic are even more disparate; propitious-reason and logic; sometimes referred to as rationality; are used to justify a conclusion, one is at home with. (Rational bias) A slightest dissension or differentiation would entail disapproval or divergence. Therefore, all these tools may create some sort of near or quasi-convergence but not an absolute or conclusive one. Logic is derived from the Greek word “logos”. In Muslim Philosophy another Grecian alternative “monads”*1 is used instead, to justify a position/stance by distinguishing a good reason from the bad one. It is only the Divine revelation (wisdom, word) which is flawless, absolute and ultimate-truth; authoritative in its perception, understanding and validity…worthy of even blind-Faith.

Kurt Gödel puts it succinctly as follow:- 

The logical axioms that underlie everyday things like arithmetic depend on us accepting as reasonable the notion that infinity comes in several different sizes.

In Islamic parlance, however “pristine-reason” (Haq al Yaqeen); in the absence of a human messenger; is considered to be potent enough for a rational being to come; at least, to the cognition of the existence and oneness of God, hence obviating disbelief. “Pristine-reason” here, is “elevated to the status of a “non-human-messenger” of God, for reason gains an edge when the logic fails rational being. (Deduced from Q, 17: 15)

Contemplative tools; human faculties, given the amiss, may help us reach the level of most probable/likely certainty (in the temporal, ancillary and ritualistic matters) but not that of an absolute certitude (in the core matters of belief/faith); which is only possible by Divine consent/intervention through the heart (Q, 10:100), as in the above case of cognition of God’s Oneness. Here the externality of this intervention cloaked in the garb of; “pristine-human-reason”, is upgraded to the status of “non-human-messenger”

Non-believer’s obstinate rejection of the Divine, religious injunctions and that of hereafter; though based on (tenuous and vitiated) reason, logic and common sense, amply explains their state of affairs.           (Q, 10:100)

*1 Universal Spirit, the first cause, singularity, Divine, Intermediary agent etc.

Imam Ghazali;- “With regard to sense-perception says; it made him very hesitant to accept the infallibility of reason. He believed in the testimony of sense till it was contradicted by the verdict of reason. Well, perhaps there is above reason another judge who; if appeared, would convict reason of falsity and if such a third arbiter is not yet apparent it does not follow that he does not exist.”

When Imam Ghazali could not reconcile the philosophical dispensations with the Divine wisdom, (Obviously there is no comparison between the two; one represents the mundaneness, while the other, word of the Divine) he turned to Sufism.

In quantum physics (Double-Slit) experiment, our act of observing something seems to change what’s observed – we are ourselves part of the experiment. Is this the ultimate problem of self-reference, one that suggests a limit to how much we can ever reason about—our surroundings—the universe?

 Role of the religion, therefore, becomes inevitable; for it presents us with flawless and absolute truth; which is perceptually-authoritative and practically valid, engendering “Taqwa”. [Innate reverential-fear (Awe) of Allah (SWT). Distinct from the usual fear of other (agencies)]

An incisive consideration and pondering, on just two of the aspects of the divine religion: 1) Belief in the hereafter. 2) The contentment would vouch for and warrant religion’s inevitability.

Belief in the hereafter is often considered a conceptual absurdity and theological fallacy hence rejected by the non-believers. Belief in the hereafter, however, is the source of immitigable hope and equity, which no atheistic belief/doctrine/philosophy may even, conceives to offer. Unbelief in the hereafter renders one scuttled of many realities. Such as; ultimate-reality; ultimate-hope; ultimate-triumph, and ultimate-Justice. One, without the belief in the hereafter, is like, latching onto the event-horizon of a black hole of hopelessness and despair. The statistics, available on depression/hopelessness resulting in suicide and homicide, is a vindication of this fact. Conversely, in the overwhelmingly religious affluent Middle East, there are hardly any such issues, hence NO mental hospitals needed.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2015/08/22/scuttling-the-mental-capacity/

Contentment is a huge blessing for a rational being. When someone (even a non-believer) is suffering; no relief in sight; distressed/desperate, resorts back to God, is blessed with His mercy. (Q, 27:62) Overwhelmed with gratitude, he takes a sigh of relief and the most joyous sense of contentment sets in. (One’s resorting back to God while distressed, means un-recalcitrant-submission; invigorating the innate impulses; meeting the pre-requisites; of belief in Him, His injunctions, including the belief in the hereafter).

Is He [not best] who responds to the distressed/desperate one when he calls upon Him and removes evil and makes you inheritors of the earth?” (Q, 27:62)

“Deprived is the one who has been deprived of the reward of enduring distress”  (Khidr–a.s)                                                                                                                                          Fasting in the month of Ramadan from dawn to dusk is a fine practical example of it; whereby one is patiently content (nafs-al-mutmai’nna) all day long, hoping the accrual of the temporal and divinely rewards at the end of the day.

Faculties of thinking and the exercise of Free-will (choice) are also signs of deficiency on the part of the creation. Allah does not think but intends; for He is omnipotent; causer of both, the cause and the effect. Nothing wrong/bad may emanate from His essence (Q, 48:23); but from His schematic creational activities, such as the creation of rational beings inseminated with good and bad. Indeed, Our word to a thing when We intend it is but that We say to it, “Be,” and it is” (Q, 16:40)   On the other hand; when rational beings would exercise the option of intention; in the similar fashion; (without thinking and deliberations) it is bound to be fraught with pitfalls, for rational beings are created with an existential amiss.

Imagination is of non-local (metaphysical/spiritual) origin; for it traverses both, the local and non-local domain. Therefore, those who accuse believers of worshipping an “imaginary God” are, unwittingly, admitting this reality. God inculcated, in the constitution of the rational beings, two-pronged sense of imagination (topical and non-topical); a schematic molding, hence the relevance and necessity of Divine and Divine religion becomes inevitable. God does not think but “Wills” whereas man’s will (choice) subsists in God’s will whereby He equilibrates it with the elements of hope and fear, (existential amiss) rendering it rationally operative. (Q, 17:57)

People need religion because it is the blueprint for the functioning of the “Soul” in the temporal realm. Voltaire, an archpriest of rationalism, alludes to this inevitability in a mundanely best possible way: “Man would have to invent God, even if He does not exist”

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/?s=inevitable+God

Religious Truth is multifaceted. It is comprised of science, logic, philosophy, history, ethics, and experience all mixed together. It is, in a sense, a different kind of knowing, not ignorant of the other kinds of truths (known and yet to be known), asserting the inevitability of the religion.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/02/03/scientific-elaboration-of-surah-at-tin-fig-95-verse-4/

 (Hadith) Every child is born on Nature— (his natural disposition/course. Resorting back to/linking with the Creator)

“It is asserted here that fitrah is the essential condition and state of existence in which God fashioned mankind; with innate impulses/urges including the sense of good and bad; fear and safety; pain and relief; cognition of God; submission, transgression and arrogance etc. (existential amiss–Imperfection, tendency/choice to swerve). It is present in the very essence of the creation and is inextricably kneaded into the very substance of the “rational beings” (Q) which is acutely elicited in the following verse.

 

إِنَّا عَرَضْنَا الاٌّمَانَةَ عَلَى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَالْجِبَالِ فَأبَيْنَ أَن يَحْمِلْنَهَا وَأَشْفَقْنَ مِنْهَا وَحَمَلَهَا الإِنْسَـنُ إِنَّهُ كَانَ
نَظَلُوماً جَهُولاً –

 “We did indeed offer the Trust to the Heavens and the Earth and the Mountains; but they refused to undertake it, being afraid thereof: but man undertook it;- He was indeed ignorant  and foolish” (Q, 33:72)

 

Ordinary beings, given their basic knowledge of the religious fundamentals, are tested for their weaknesses (existential amiss). The window of forgiveness is wide open for them; even if they have a mountain of mistakes/sins on their back; as long as they keep seeking forgiveness with utmost sincerity and a commitment not to repeat the same. (There is no numerical or time limitation)  This is an esoteric expression of the unbounded mercy of the Creator; for the people of knowledge and intellect who understand.

Men of knowledge (Aalim/Scholar), given the higher degree of knowledge, are tested for the equitable dissemination of the knowledge while acting upon it themselves as is due. Their test becomes harder and their failure attracts equally harsher punishment, for they are given the knowledge as the inheritors of the Prophet (PBUH).

Prophets; given the highest degree of knowledge and the duty of disseminating the message entrusted to them, often face the hardest of the tests for their perseverance, firmness, devotion and endurance instead. They are immunized of the mundanity (existential amiss) to a large extent due to their highest station/status. (Protected from major sins—Asmah/Masoom); which keeps them even from minor sins but some rare slips. (Q, 4:31)

“If you avoid the major sins which you are forbidden, We will remove from you your lesser sins and admit you to a noble entrance [into Paradise]” [Q, 4:31]

Hadith: when a companion asked the Prophet, despite being a Prophet of Allah why do you always keep asking for His forgiveness? He replied; “for any moment passed without His remembrance” This emphasizes the point that one, regardless of his station, should never be oblivious of the innate existential amiss and always keep asking for His forgiveness.

“Cause and effect” is a phenomenon of the sequential morphing of things/ideas in the space-time spectrum. It, however, can’t continue ad-infinitum. It also cannot fully transcend back into the metaphysical/spiritual realm. Therefore, becomes unhitched, regressive, and even ineffective. ‘Ex Nahilo’ is an outright negation of temporal phenomenon of “causality”. God (SWT); the very first (primal) cause, therefore, is the sole cause/causer of the Universe. (Creational activity in the space-time realm is known as “Khulq/Takhleeq” )

“When He decrees a matter, He only says to it, “Be,” and it is” (Q, 2:117)

In the absence of space-time spectrum, there is but an intention/will (ordinance {Amar}), of the primal cause, for the matter/idea to come into being. In the metaphysical/spiritual realm, contrary to the physical realm, no material/tangible cause has to exist to produce a material/tangible effect. Divine causality, therefore, is inimitable by the rational beings in the space-time spectrum. (Creational activity in the absence of space-time spectrum is known as “Takween”)

Takween is derived from the word “KUN” fayakun. It is beyond and above the physical laws of the universe and does not need the matter, time or space for a thing to come into existence. (Ex Nihilo=Out of Nothing). Bypassing the temporal physical laws or the temporal causality is also called Takween. {creation of Adam and Jesus Christ—PBUT}

 Temporal causality vs. Divine causality

Here are vivid differences.

In temporal causality, a causer may activate the cause but may not have the capability to determine the effect. He would also not have the capability to alter the effect (outcome) of a cause. A rational being may be dealing with a clear cause or INUS (insufficient but non-redundant parts of conditions; which in itself unnecessary, but sufficient for the occurrence of the effects). This distinction would not exist in the Divine causality.

In Divine causality, The Causer of the cause and effect is the same. The Causer is omnipotent to alter/determine the effect(s) as He wills. The Causer is also competent to produce an effect without cause (Ex-Nahilo). The Causer may pre-determine effects or causes in multiple, and then afford the medium (sentient beings) the application of Free-will (Choice) to commensurate effect(s).

“And when We would intend to destroy a township We had sent a commandment (warning) to its people of authority leading easy lives; who yet disobeyed and transgressed; so as a result of our Judgment passed, We annihilated it with complete annihilation” (Q, 17:16)

Note:- (Ghazali’s views on causality, read: http://www.ghazali.org/articles/gz-aylon2.pdf)

Morality, mortified by the psychology of innate fear, sprouts from the Divine religious injunctions. Although it lays the ground-rules for this word, the effects also transcend to the next.

Morality, based on reward and punishment, (retribution) works wonderfully due to the psychology of “innate-fear” of being monitored unimpeded and continuously by the “Invisible”. Religion (Islam) “submission” was enacted simultaneous to the Creation (forbidding Adam and Eve from eating the fruit) and the punishment for its violation was established by the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Heavens. Satan (Lucifer) was also expelled for his disobedience due to his avarice and pride. They were not simply expelled but with specifically (and schematically) mandated rights, roles, and responsibilities; which, in specifically Islamic parlance could be called “Sharia’a” and in everyday parlance “Morality”.

Ethicality is developed by the rational beings, in the light of their past collective experiences. It regulates the immediate, contemporary cultural, societal or communal behavior. It is limited to temporality in scope, optional in its practicality; often floutingly by-passed without compunction. Needless to say that, the resourcefulness of Morality is unsurpassable by the man-made ethicality.

Ethics (Laws) are devised by the people for a community, society or culture; monitoring whereof is also done by people (an agency) employed for the purpose. The compliance would simply depend on either one’s call of the conscience or the fear of being caught by the monitoring agent. The physical absence of the monitoring agency would offer all kind of inducements to flout, as it cannot be established and no penalty would ensue.  This is the weakest aspect of the man-made ethicality.

A distinct difference between Divine law and the man-made law is that Divine Law compassionately seeks avenues to forgive while the man-made law is hell-bent on seeking evidence to punish.

Those who envisage morality, without religion, in fact, misconstrue ethics as morality.

After all, man is created with an existential amiss.

 Innate Fear, Psychology of fear is employed by the Divine to elicit the compliance of the religious injunctions without the presence of a physical watchdog.

  • An infant, when made to hold a bar, would continue clinging to it due to the innate fear of fall and hurt until made to feel safe to let it go.
  • In a situation of distress, “heightened state of fear/anxiety” (even in the case of a non-believer) all boundaries and impediments are dismantled; a connection between the Lord and the distressed-servant is immediately activated, and the call of the distressed is heard by the Almighty. (Q, 27:62)

Innate-fear, therefore, is not just a predicate of punishment, as often complained, but also that of an “SOS” signal, in the situation of distress.   

shakir2.wordpress.com

Topics covered:- Logic, reason, pristine reason, common sense, causality, Temporal/Divine causality, revelation, Divine wisdom, Inevitability of religion, Non Human Messenger, Gazali’s falsity of reason, imagination, Imaginary God, belief in the hereafter, Contentment, Voltaire’s rationalism, Fitrah, khulq/takween, Ordinary,/ scholar/ prophet, Psychology of Innate fear, Morality, Ethics and  The-Distressed.

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? (Suit your Own Caption)

June 24, 2018
Image result for Pic of Nikki Haley with Indian Israeli and US flags behind?
Unconsciously Nicky Haley spoke the truth when pulling out of the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) at the behest of three representing;  one by birth, second by choice and the third by association/implication, SAYING:–

“The world’s most inhumane regimes continue to escape its scrutiny” & “disproportionate focus and unending hostility towards Israel–In fact– Palestine”

shakir2.wordpress.com

Partial Belief in Islam

May 21, 2018

 

Image result for Pic of most unique mosque

Islam is not a “Belief by Implication”, but by absolute and total submission and certitude coupled with an oral attestation by uttering the “article of faith”—-”There is God but no god….”

One is either in it or out of it——there is no continuum of agnosticism in Islam.

Secondary, ancillary sources/matters (Ahadith & Sunan), may, however, be differed, debated or contemplated. (Though no outright denial or rejection is permitted)

“Those who wish to discriminate and say, we believe in some and disbelieve in others, and wish to adopt a way in between -Those are the disbelievers, truly. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment” (Q, 4:150-152)

Why Muslim should not eat the meat prepared* by the People of Book (POB)? *

March 5, 2018

 

Image result for still pic of beautiful bull from Pakistan

*(Word “prepared” has been used instead of “slaughtered” to avoid any misunderstanding which might be created)

Sounds Strange? Yes, it does, until one reads it all before making up his mind.

First of all, let us understand what is“Halal” and what is “Dabiha”?

Halal:- is a generic term for permissible animals/things, which may be slaughtered/consumed by Muslims.

Dabiha:- on the other hand, is the meat of a permissible (halal) animal slaughtered by meeting 4 conditions, namely:- Severance (by a sharp object) of Jugular veins, Cutting of Esophagus, while invoking the name (chanting-takbeer) of Allah (SWT) and then letting the blood be drained.

Now, according to the (Q, 5:5) “Today, all the good things of life have been made lawful to you. And the food of those who have been vouchsafed revelation aforetime is lawful to you, 14  and your food is lawful to them. And [lawful to you are], in wedlock, women from among those who believe [in this divine writ], and, in wedlock, women from among those who have been vouchsafed revelation before your time – provided that you give them their dowers, taking them in honest wedlock, not in fornication, nor as secret love-companions. 15  But as for him who rejects belief [in God] – in vain will be all his works: for in the life to come he shall be among the lost. 16 

Here I would like to draw attention to a very subtle hint. Muslims, in this verse, have been allowed to marry the chaste women* of the People of Book (POB) by paying them dower.(ensuring the legitimate relationship) On the other hand, POB has not been allowed to marry Muslim women, regardless. Food of each other, on the contrary, however, has been allowed to be consumed (Unconditionally). It is an excellent display of Divine wisdom; by granting a concession at this juncture; because the women who have been made lawful for Muslims (despite being Chaste) grew up on the food; which might not have been prepared as per Islamic rules; and the same would most likely be offered to Muslim-Husbands, refusing to eat whereof would sound offensive and insulting. (Muslim may take their women but refuse to eat their food!). {Explanations # 14 & 15 by Asad, in his translation of 5:5, alluding to this subtlety}

*(Can one, in the given circumstances, find a chaste woman easily amongst the POB? Hence, one ought to see the overall-condition of POB also in the same-vein; necessitating the application of conditional clauses 1 &2, mentioned below)

Here is, however, what has been categorically ordained before/after the concession allowed by Allah (SWT) in (Q, 5:3 & 6:118)

The conditional clause # 1 of “إِلَّا مَا ذَكَّيْتُمْ (unless you have properly slaughtered)” should be closely observed as it is used in the Qura’an as a distinguishing factor for the permissibility of meat. Linguistically Dhakah means to complete or perfect something.

Legality operates until proved Otherwise.

A ruling deduced from (Q,10:30) has been specified by Al Jassas in his “Ahkam Al Qura’an” that all edibles are permissible and Halal(lawful) unless the unlawfulness or prohibition of something particular stands proved through an evidence of shria’a. (Consider the current religious practices of the people of the book in the light of clause #1 &2).  A pertinent Hadith reported by Sahih Muslim, on the authority of Abu Hurairah, where Prophet (PBUH) said “By the one in whose hands rests my life, any Jew or Christian (POB) who hears my call and still does not believe in the teachings I have brought, then he/she will be of the people of Hell (Jahannam)” (the language employed in this Hadith expresses the continuity of its application until the end of the time).

Accentuation of the point of eating properly slaughtered meat.

Eat of that (meat) over which the name of Allah (SWT) has been pronounced—The conditional clause #2 (while slaughtering that animal/bird) if you are believers in His revelations (6:118)

And why should you not eat of that (meat) on which Allah’s Name has not been pronounced (at the time of slaughter), while He has explained to you in detail what is forbidden to you, except under extreme necessity? And, surely many do lead (mankind) astray by their own desires through lack of knowledge. Certainly, your Lord knows best the Transgressor (6:119)

Eat not (O believers) of that meat on which Allah’s Name has not been pronounced (at the time of slaughtering) for sure it is disobedience of Allah (a sinful conduct). And certainly, the Shayaatin (devils) do inspire their friends (from mankind) to dispute with you, and if you obey them [making al-Maytatah legal to eat (Maytatah – a dead animal or animal/bird slaughtered without taking the name of Allah during slaughter)], then you would indeed be a polytheists (i.e. doing shirk, ascribing partners to Allah) (6:121)

And such animals (cattle) upon which they mention not the Name of Allah (during slaughter) only to fabricate a lie against Him (6:138)

So eat of the lawful (Dabiha) and good food (Pure wholesome, Halal cattle slaughtered according to Islamic method) which Allah has provided for you. And be grateful for the Graces of Allah, if it is He Whom you worship (16:114)

And say not concerning that which your tongue says falsely: “This is Halal and this is Haram,” so as to invent lies against Allah. Verily, those who invent lies against Allah will never prosper…A passing brief enjoyment (will be theirs), but they will have a painful torment (16:116-117)

For every nation, We have appointed religious ceremonies so that they may mention the Name of Allah (SWT) upon the animals that He has given them for food (22:34)

So mention the Name of Allah (SWT) upon them (sheep, goat, cows, oxen, camels etc) as they line up (for sacrifice) (22:36)

Relevant Ahadith

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah (R.A) reports that the Prophet (PBUH) said, “A time will come upon the people wherein a man will not bother what he intakes; whether from a Halal source or Haram.”  (Bukhari 2059)

The Prophet (PBUH) said, “Avoid whatever you have doubts about in favor of what is not (doubtful).” (Tirmidhi)

 

Hanbalite, Shafai’ite, Malikite and Hanafite school, all adhere to the above position.

 

IMPORTANT NOTE

One should not pick and choose a verse to present his/her own (favorite) point of view. Instead, a collective outcome, of all the verses on the topic, should be the one guiding and binding. (Q, 2: 85 & 4: 150)

 

Opposite Points of views

Despite all the above quotes and the position emphasized upon in this treatise several Imams, such as Imam Ibn Katheer (RA) writes in famous commentary, “Ibn Abbas and Abu Umaamah and Mujaahid and Sa‘eed ibn Jubair and ‘Ikrimah and ‘Ataa’ and al-Hasan and Makhool and al-Suddi and Muqaatil ibn Hayyaan said that it (the food of the people of the book) means “what they slaughter”; in fact this is a matter on which there is agreement among the scholars that is what they [the People of the Book] slaughter is lawful for the Muslims because they believe that it is unlawful to slaughter to other than Allah and they mention nothing other than the name of Allah over what they slaughter even though they believe things about Him, exalted is He, that he transcends.”

 

The Validity of opposing views

 

These Imams; based on their ijtihad (juridical-contemplative-deduction); uphold the injunctions given in (Q, 5:5) as self-contained/ freestanding. In Islamic parlance; where a difference of opinion like this ensues; neither of the points of views is considered invalid or wrong.

 

(H) “Difference of opinion of Muhammad (PBUH)’s companions is a mercy for Allah’s slaves” Every difference of opinion, in juridical (Fiqhi) issues, is based on a sincerely deduced unique perspective hence become a basis/source of mercy.

 

 The Basis of a difference of opinion

 

A difference of opinion among the Imams normally stems from the state/understanding of the Evidence such as-(text or hadith);

Un-availability, abrogation, considered weak, forgetfulness of it, the unreliability of its narrator, misconstruing its meaning or thinking that the one in hand is stronger than the new one.

 

Here is how one may decide which “way” to follow:-

 

Those who know of the evidence should follow it (Qura’anic text or hadith Sahih) even if it goes against some of the Imams (but not against the consensus–Ijma’a–of the ummah). Shaykh Uthaymeen (R.A)

 

Those who are not well versed in such a knowledge should resort to a reputed scholar, for Allah (SWT) says:- “So ask those who know the scripture, if you know not”(Q,16:43)

 (I seek refuge in Allah (SWT) for my shortcomings. May Allah (SWT) guide us all on the right path).

 shakir2.wordpress.com

 

A WOMAN’S PLACE IN ISLAM

January 11, 2018

 

Image result for pic of woman in islam

 

Women’s position in Divine religions; is not as it is contemporaneously construed; on the basis of western social and cultural practices; rationalized in the hoopla of gender-equality, since it is based on Divine wisdom. It, therefore, demands an extensive contemplation to reach an understanding of the real role of a woman in Islam. It is somewhat supplementary and utilitarian graced with superlative* dignity and respect. (It may sound outlandish/non-apologetics but is the reality).

*(Islam stands out in conferring maximum rights, respect and dignity to women)

 

A Look at the Primal Divine Mode of the creation of man and woman

In support of this, two postulates need to be pondered upon. 1)-The woman was created out of the rib cage of man (Adam-PBUH) who was created by God with His own hands (Created by His own hands here signifies the preeminence of Man) and that; 2) – the woman was created for the service/comfort of “The Man”. She was created so, for she was to supplement, as a part and parcel of, man and NOT as his competitor or a distinct equal; which, is obviously counter-intuitive, cause for acrimony and antagonism, defeating the very purpose of her creation. Your wives are as a tilth unto you; so approach your tilth when or how ye will; but do some good act for your souls beforehand; and fear Allah. And know that ye are to meet Him (in the Hereafter), and give (these) good tidings to those who believe” (Q, 2:223)

(She has never been endowed with the responsibility of Prophet-hood, leading the prayer, or divorcing but rather asking for it when necessary). 

 

“O humanity, fear your Lord who created you from one soul, and created from it its mate…”(Q,4:1) Many Scholars and exegetes understood this to mean that Allah Most High first created Adam (PBUH), and then from him, i.e., from his rib cage, our mother Hawwa {Eve-PBUH}

 

Both Jewish and Christian traditions also maintain that Eve was created from Adam’s rib, although in a literal translation of the Jewish tradition, a rib is sometimes referred to as side.

 

Imam Razi and others mentioned that another interpretation is also possible, meaning; “Who created you from one soul” i.e., “starting from one soul” since “from” in Arabic could indicate the starting point of something [ibtida’ al-ghayab], and then “created from it its mate” i.e., “created from that same species, its mate.” [Mafatih al-Ghayb]

 

A scholar who pondered about this verse (4:1) states;“It is believed that there is no text, old or new, that deals with the humanity of women from all aspects with such an amazing brevity, eloquence, depth and originality as this divine decree”

 

Why man has a degree above woman?

We have created everything in pairs so that you may reflect (Q, 51:49) When observed carefully It is noticed that one of the pairs is always given/created with an edge over the other to make them befitting the purpose. For example, A lioness kills the pray but the lion devours the kill first–for he is the protector and head of the family. A hen, for the most part, sits on the eggs to hatch the chicks whereas cock, for the most part, is busy serenading other hens—to produce more eggs and chicks. This excellence (pre-eminence) of one over the other, as a norm in a couple; is always maintained. .“Because Allah has made one of them to excel the other” (Q, 4:34)

The western rationale for women’s conversion to Islam (improvised for this article)

A woman realizes that she is a pack animal and that packs are hierarchical. There is a chain of command. There are the pack leader and his followers. That understanding is built into her nature. She is hardwired to lead (when compelled by circumstances) or submits. Her psychological comfort will depend on a clear understanding of where she stands on the pecking order, and what her role is in the group in the given circumstances. For a pack animal, nothing is more stressful than uncertainty about his place in the hierarchy.

We, the westerners, have been born and raised in an environment where pathological concepts like democracy and gender equality are thought to be desirable and viable.  We embrace these concepts on a conscious level but not on a subconscious level, for they conflict with human nature. People, as pack animals, crave for clarity and moral absoluteness. They need a clear demarcation of good and evil, right and wrong, dos and don’ts and a sense of purpose. If they don’t have it, they’ll find one. Whom Allah guides turn to Islam else goes astray and the devil will find one for him. (added on 10/15/2018)

 

Human beings as the crown of the creation [most innovative, intelligent and beholden to the urges of free-will] may, however, alternate this edge or dispense with it altogether, due to circumstantial compulsions; falling victim to botched notion of gender-equality, hence have been told specifically of their assigned places/roles in tandem with Adam and Eve (PBUT). Allah knows well what He has created; which we humans cannot fathom, even at the prime of our intelligence. “Nature (framed) of Allah, in which He hath created, man. There is no altering (the laws of) Allah’s creation”. (Q, 30:30)

 

Spiritual Equivalence

Quran provides clear-cut verdict that a woman in the sight of God is equal to a man as far as her rights and responsibilities entailing retribution are concerned. “Every soul will be (held) in pledge for its deeds” (Q, 74:3)

(Responsibilities/deeds include obedience/fidelity to Husband–Q, 2: 223 & Ahadith quoted in forthcoming paragraphs)

 

One may accept it as “Divine Wisdom” —OR— exploit it as “Denigration of Women” It, however, does not mean, in any sense, that she is made either worthless or insignificant or should be treated as such. Both, man and woman have been assigned a specific role.

 

Her personality and contour, by design, is made attractive to the man. She has been endowed with femininity coupled with, an intense desire for a mate (man) to fulfill her role as an embodiment of procreation. All these factors result in complete harmony and synchronicity; between a man and a woman; (with the help of Allah, placing love and mercy between them-Q, 30; 21); providing a sound foundation, for an efficacious family unit.

 

Islam, to compensate for her; apparently—obsequious—but in reality; indispensably supportive role–accords her highly respectable status; with specific instructions to be treated with dignity and respect; even in worst of the situations, such as divorce.

 

Women not only used to help in wars and other matters but also were consulted by the Prophet (PBUH) in certain matters. Ayesha (Prophet’s wife) and Fatima, (Prophet’s daughter) are among the most revered women; describing and elaborating Prophet’s (PBUH) religious teachings, including those relating to women.

 

In Quran mother of the Jesus Christ Maryam (Marry) has been mentioned by name and characterized as the “Most PIOUS, PURIFIED” woman. The wives of the Prophet (PBUH) have been venerated as the mothers of the believers; hence no other man; after the prophet (PBUH), may dare marry them. Daughters in Islam are considered a sign of blessing and mercy of God. Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) used to adore his daughters.

 

Prophet (PBUH) said that “paradise lies under the feet of the mother”. With these instruction/sayings, it became a religious responsibility, a praiseworthy act, to respect and honor women.

 

The woman, according to Qura’an is not blamed for Adam’s first mistake (Original sin, in Christianity). Both were jointly held responsible for disobedience, both repented and both were forgiven.                           (Q, 2:36, 7:20-24)

 

In another verse, Adam alone was specifically held responsible.           (Q, 20:121). {An allusion to his {man’s} preeminence and leadership role}

 

Accolade lavished, by the prophet (PBUH), on those raising daughters.

“Whosoever has a daughter and does not bury her alive, does not insult her, and does not favor son over the daughter. God will enter him into Paradise” {Ibn Hanbal # 1957}

 

“Whosoever supports two daughters till they mature, he and I (Prophet-PBUH) will come in the Day of Judgment as this” (Prophet joined two fingers together). (Muslim & Tirmidhee)

 

The tender touch of Islam for women                           (Exceptions granted in religious duties)

 

A woman is exempted from fasting; during pregnancy; or while nursing a baby, if there is some risk to her or her baby’s well being. She does not have to make up for the missed prayers in the above cases. She is not obligated to go to the mosque for congregational prayers. Her physiological and psychological changes associated with her natural functions are also taken into account.

 

The traditions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) relate that Eve was created while Adam was sleeping from his shortest left rib and that, after some time, she was clothed with flesh.  He (Prophet Muhammad-PBUH) used the story of Eve’s creation from Adam’s rib as a basis for imploring people to be gentle and kind to women.  “O Muslims!  I advise you to be gentle with women, for they are created from a rib, and the most crooked portion of the rib is its upper part.  If you try to straighten it, it will break, and if you leave it, it will remain crooked; so I urge you to take care of the women.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari

          

Man on the other hand; right through the known history of mankind; has been beholden to the status of; the head of the family, rationality and reasoning

Quiwama—(Maintenance and Protection)

This alludes to the natural physical difference between the sexes which entitles the weaker/feminine sex to the protection (as a norm in a couple) of the stronger/masculine sex. Man’s leadership role in relation to his family does not mean the husband’s dictatorship. (Islam quashes any such misunderstanding by clear-cut advice issued by the prophet).

“The most perfect believers are the best in conduct and best of you are those who are the best to their wives” {Ibn Hanbal # 7396}

Here is how the scholars and renowned exegetes interpret the position of a woman in Islam.

 

“According to Qura’an women are created for men. Their existence is based on comfort for men”. “And of His signs is that He created for you from yourselves mates that you may find tranquility in them; and He placed between you affection and mercy Indeed, in that are signs for a people who give thought” (Q, 30:21) &

“He is the one who created you [man] from a single soul, and from him created his wife, so that he may find comfort in her. So when he covered her with himself, she carried a light burden and moved about with it, thereafter, when she grew heavy, they both prayed to their Lord, if you bless us with a perfect child, we shall be among the grateful”     (Q, 7:189)

The Creation of Hawa (Eve)

Adam knew the names of everything. Sometimes he talked to the angels, but they were preoccupied with worshipping Almighty Allah. Therefore Adam (PBUH) felt lonely. One day he slept and when he awoke he found near his head, a woman gazing at his face with beautiful tender eyes. The angels asked him her name. He replied: “Eve (Hawa).” (Means living things).They asked: “Why did you call her Eve?” Adam said: “Because she was created of me and I am a living being.”

Ibn Abbas and a group of companions of the Prophet (PBUH) narrated that when Iblis (satan) was sent out of Paradise and Adam was accommodated therein, Adam was alone in Paradise and did not have a partner from whom he could get tranquility. He slept for some time and when he woke up, he saw a woman whom Allah had created from his ribs. So he asked her, “Who are you? She replied, “A woman,” He asked: “Why have you been created?”She said;”So that you could find tranquility in me” The angels, trying to find out the extent of his knowledge, asked him: “What is her name O Adam?” He replied, “Eve,” They asked, “Why was she so named?” He replied, “Because she was created from something living” (Based on Q, 2; 33 & Hadith narration).

 

 

“Men are in charge of women by [right of] what Allah has given one over the other and what they spend [for maintenance] from their wealth. So righteous women are devoutly obedient, guarding in [the husband’s] absence what Allah would have them, guard. But those [wives] from whom you fear arrogance – [first] advise them; [then if they persist], forsake them in bed; and [finally], strike them*3. But if they obey you [once more], seek no means against them. Indeed Allah is ever exalted and grand” (Nisa, 4:34)

*3 (with something like a handkerchief or a bunch of shrubs not leaving a mark on the skin).

Because Allah has made one of them excel the other, for they spend (t support them) from their means” (other here is the man) [Al Nisa’ 4:34]

 

 

{Explanation/Tafseer}

Al-Badawi said in his Tafseer (2/184): “Men are the protectors and maintainers of women’ means that they are in charge of them and responsible to take care of them. He gave two reasons for that, one that is inherent in them and one that is acquired subsequently, and said: ‘because Allah has made one of them to excel the other’, because Allah has favored men over women by making men more “Apt” in reasoning and running affairs, and has given them more (physical) strength (and endurance) with regard to work and acts of worship. Hence men are singled out when it comes to Prophet-hood, leadership, guardianship, establishing rituals, giving testimony in legal matters, the obligation to engage in jihad and praying Jumu’ah, and so on, and they are given a greater share of the inheritance, and divorce is in the man’s hand. ‘and because they spend (to support them) from their means’ refers to what they spend with regard to marriage, such as the “mahr” (man’s obligatory due committed to the wife) and maintenance, etc.”

{Note:-Firstly, Maintenance here is not limited to monetary or material support, it encompasses every tangible and intangible aspect attached to this relationship. Secondly, In Islam this obligation is not reversible despite the fact that a wife may be a woman of means or a breadwinner of the family—for injunctions are ordained for commonplace situations, not exceptions}

 

Mutuality of rights and obligations

“And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect) to what is reasonable, but men have a degree (of responsibility) over them. And Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise”

[Al-Baqarah 2:228]

 

Gender-equality in Islam exists insofar as all human beings are equal and that they shall be equally accountable for their good and bad deeds. There is nevertheless a marked divergence when it comes to the roles of the two; which is a schematic, innate and natural; evident from the episodic story of Adam and Eve, described in scriptures and Ahadith. Gender –equality in the western sense of the word is malevolent, contrary to the natural order of things. Its ill effects, unfortunately, are being portrayed as an epitome of women’s emancipation achieved by the western progress and liberalism. Women have been brainwashed to give up her most coveted position to be exploited willingly as a cheap sex object. Most abused partner in sexual nomadism.

 

Woman in Ahadith

“If I were to command anyone to prostrate to anyone other than Allah, I would have commanded women to prostrate to their husbands. By the One in whose hand is the soul of Muhammad, no woman can fulfill her duty towards Allah until she fulfills her duty towards her husband. If he asks her (for intimacy) even if she is on her camel saddle, she should not refuse.”

Note:- (Similitude of prostration to husband emphasizes the pre-eminence of man and importance of woman (wife)’s obedience to her husband; providing him comfort, which is the very foundation of a happy and tranquil family)

Narrated by Ibn Maajah, 1853; classed as “Saheeh” by al-Albaani in Saheeh Ibn Maajah.

 

Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said in his Tafseer (1/363):  “The phrase ‘but men have a degree (of responsibility) over them’ means that they are superior in physical nature, attitude, status, obedience to the commands of Allah, spending, taking care of interests, and virtue, in this world and in the Hereafter, as Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

 

“Because, Allah has made one of them to excel the other’ means because men are superior to women, and men are better (poised) than women. Hence Prophet-hood was given to men only, as is the highest position of authority (i.e., Khilaafah or the position of caliph) because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “No people will ever succeed who appoint a woman as their ruler.” Narrated by Al-Bukhaari, from the hadeeth of ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr, from his father. “The same applies to the position of judge etc. ‘and because they spend (to support them) from their means’ means, because of the “mahr”, spending and maintenance that Allah has enjoined upon men with regard to women in His Book and in the Sunnah of His Prophet (PBUH). So men are better (poised) than women in and of themselves, and they have the responsibility to spend on them and maintain them, so it is appropriate that the man should be the protector and maintainer of the woman”

 

Al-Baghawi said in his Tafseer (2/206):  “because Allah has made one of them to excel the other means, men excel women because they have more powers (apt) of reason and religious commitment and they are in charge of affairs. And it was said that this refers to giving testimony because Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): ‘And if there are not two men (available), then a man and two women’ [Al-Baqarah 2:282].  And it was said that it refers to jihad, to worship i.e., Jumu’ah and prayers in congregation, or that it refers to the fact that a man may marry four wives, (consent of the wife{ves} is not required) but a woman is not permitted to have more than one husband; or the fact that divorce is in the man’s hand; (though women may also resort to authorities, seeking the divorce from her husband, for legit reason) or with reference to inheritance, or Diyah (blood money), or to Prophet-hood.” 

 

Material Equivalence

One may appreciate that; where Allah (SWT); on the one hand; has created man with an edge; He on the other; has granted a favored status to woman affording her some exceptions, thereby maintaining “material equivalence” in their rights and responsibilities.

 

Social and Political Rights

There are many recorded historical references that at the beginning of Islam, at the time of the Prophet (PBUH), Muslim men or women chose to join the Prophet’s army to fight against his enemies, and leading wars after his passing. There are also occasions recorded in the history of Islam where men and women, would equally, take bayat (pledge) with the Prophet, voting and choosing him as a political leader”

Such positions, rights and equality among all were the results of the support and the teachings of the Prophet (PBUH). Women could take part in social, political, and military affairs. The result of his teachings was not only the promotion of human rights but also encouraging individuals to stand for their own rights.

Fatima, daughter of the Prophet (PBUH), was well learned and highly respected. It is reported that whenever Fatima entered the room, the Prophet would stand up and give his seat to her. Her sacrifices to protect and support human rights were among the most praiseworthy acts.

Property Rights conferred on women

Under the laws of Islam, women have obtained the right to sell and buy property, own business, take legal action, vote, and participate in political affairs. Inheritance law was/is also among the most important rights. According to Islam, a woman inherits half the share of her brother. At the same time a daughter, can choose but has no obligation to support her parents or children, while her brother does. This right undergoes no changes whether she is single or married. She retains her full rights to buy, sell, mortgage or lease any or all her properties. A man, a brother, has the obligation, by the rules of Islam, to support his mother, wife, children, sisters, and the children of his sisters if necessary. If a woman, a mother, a sister did not have the wealth or the desire to support her children it would become the duty of her brother to support them. The Prophet (PBUH) has introduced the rules and the laws for humanity, some honor the rules and some chose not to. Under Islamic law, women also have control not only over their property but also dowry claims. Once she is married, she may demand her dowry from her husband at any time, and in the case of divorce, she would receive her share of the property.

 

A woman in Politics & Public life

During the Caliphate of Umar Ibn Al Khattab, a woman argued with him in the mosque, proved her point and caused him to declare in the presence of people, “A woman is right and Umar is wrong”

Women role in the early period of Islam had been significantly visible but seems to have been curtailed in the later period*1. Women excelled in the field of war, literature, oratory, public administration, music, theology (Kalam), jurisprudence (Fiqh), Hadith Studies (I’lmul Hadith), mysticism (Tasawwuf), poetry etc. Fatima Binte Abbas and Sikha Sayeeda, the two Islamic scholars, used to come to the mosque regularly to deliver lectures on Islamic theology.  Ayesha (R.A) is recorded to have been chanting Adhan and saying Aqama. History records the name of many female warriors who fought against the enemies in the battlefields. Even Hazrat Ayesha (R.A) took an active part in many battles. Umme Atyqah was a brave lady who accompanied the Prophet (PBUH) in seven battles. Wairyh, the sister of Muawia, led a contingent of women in the battle of Yarmuk.

*1 (Most logical reason seems to be the rationalization of the division of labor in the aftermath of an increased numerical strength of Muslims).

Woman as a Head of State

There is no verse in the Quran regarding the permission or prohibition of a woman being head of the state/ruler. The Quran is silent on this point but according to one Hadith Prophet (PBUH) rendered woman ineligible (not incapable) for the position of “Head of the State” in these words;”A people will not prosper if they let a woman be their leader”.*2 this limitation has nothing to do with the dignity of the woman, or with her rights. It is rather, related to the natural differences in the biological, physiological and psychological make-up of men and women.

*2–The reporter of this Hadith Abu Bakra; according to some sources, lacks the credibility.

 

Though the majority of Islamic scholars do not support the leadership role of a woman or woman as a head of the state, there are some eminent scholars who support it.

 

Apologetes for woman’s position.

Allama Syed Sulaiman Nadavi (R.A), in his book Seerat-i-Ayesha (R.A), recognized the practical considerations in this context:

This is correct that the natural tendencies of the women make her unfit for discharging the duties of Imamate (government or chieftainship) and it is not possible for the fair sex (Woman) to comply with the conditions which Islam has imposed for the governmental role. For this reason, the women are exempted from the assumption of the authority of the head of the state. But from this, it cannot be concluded that it is not lawful for a woman to ever lead the public politically or to assume the leadership of the army. (Hossain 1987:217).

 

Mohammad Elius, Lecturer, Department of World Religions, the University of Dhaka published in The Arts Faculty Journal, July 2010-June 2011

If we make a thorough examination and critical appreciation of the arguments advanced by both parties, we come to notice that none of these two parties has been able to carry their points. Arguments given in favor of the proposition and arguments given against the proposition are by and large indirect. There is no verse in the Quran which directly either permits the rule of women or prohibits it. The traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), mentioned in this article, against women as the head of the state are believed to be unreliable and unauthentic due to many reasons. As a result, we can say without contradiction that the Quran and Sunnah. Rather the silence of the Quran and the Hadith on this very important and vital issue is not without wisdom and sagacity.

(The author of this opinion is assuming the silence of Ahadith, against women being Head of State, due to their reported weaknesses)

(Translation of  4:32 by Yusuf Ali)

“And no wise covet those things in which Allah has bestowed His gift more freely on some than the others; to men is allotted what they earn and to women is allotted what they earn; but ask Allah of His bounty, for Allah has knowledge of all things” 

Explanation Note – 542

Men and women have gifts from Allah-some greater than others. They seem unequal, but we are assured that Allah has allotted them by a scheme by which people receive what they earn. If this does not appear clear in our sight (view), let us remember that we have no full knowledge but Allah has. We must not be jealous if other people have more than we have-in wealth or position or strength or honor or talent or happiness. Probably things are equalized in the aggregate or in the long run, or equated to needs and merits on a scale which we cannot appraise. If we want more, instead of being jealous or covetous, we should pray to Allah and place before Him our needs. Though He knows all and has no need of our prayer, our prayer may reveal to ourselves our shortcomings and enable us to deserve more of Allah’s bounty or make ourselves fit for it. (an apologetic contrivance by Yusuf Ali)

 

Imam Malik (R.A) is reported to have opined that a woman can become head of the state in all its affairs.

Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A) would have given an opinion in favor of their appointment as judges.

 

A rational, logical and cogent explanation

(It would make sense only, when looked at objectively, with an open mind and without being emotionally charged—especially by the women).

 

According to Islam, the head of the state is not merely a figurehead. He leads people in the prayers and festivities, decision making in times of war and peace, leading in Jihad as commander-in-chief. This demanding position or any other of a similar nature is generally inconsistent with the biological, psychological and physiological make-up of a woman. For example, during their menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth, rearing and weaning of children such demanding positions; which require maximum strength, rationality, composure and emotional stability, may put excessive strain/stress, thereby impairing their decision making capability thereby distracting them from fulfilling their leadership role.

Such a demanding position, therefore, is logically and rationally, inconsistent with the natural disposition/make-up of a woman.

 

 The Last word

Islam is a religion in which a Muslim’s temple is not limited to a building; instead it is the whole wide world; whereas the guidance always descends on his heart; a Muslim’s preacher/trainer is neither a priest nor a liberal teacher, but the intellect (Wisdom) descending on his unblemished heart (Fuwad–enlightened by Allah’s mercy through Qura’an, and the Prophet) by Allah (SWT). It’s a religion of preemption to stem the miscarriage of justice and obligation; and if one’s religion is founded upon mere (thoughtless) imitation, he enjoins blasphemy. In Islam, ignorance is an unforgivable sin; so is one’s evasion of responsibility, towards oneself as well as all the sentient beings.

(May Allah forgive and guide us all on the right path with true understanding)

shakir2.wordpress.com

Can an Unmarried Muslim Woman Adopt a Child?

November 17, 2017

The term adoption, in a religious sense, in an unmarried woman’s case would not apply. Moreover here the issue of lineage also does not arise, therefore, would obviate the issue of inheritance in the religious sense. Helping someone, without flunking out the religious boundaries, is reward-worthy in the sight of Allah (SWT).

[An unmarried woman, in religious sense, would be a guardian/sponsor of the child]

Textual injunction/position on the topic

“…nor does He make your adopted sons into real sons. These are only words from your mouths, while God speaks the truth and guides people to the right path. Name your adopted sons after their real fathers; this is more equitable in God’s eyes—if you do not know who their real fathers are [they are your] ‘brothers-in-religion’ and protégés.”
[Qur`an 33:4-5]

(I seek refuge in Allah (SWT) for any inadvertent misstatement).

Saudi Turmoil.

November 7, 2017

 

 

 

Image result for pic of saudi crown prince mohammed bin salman

 

Is it really a crackdown on corruption or coup-d’etat? There seems to be a tug of war unleashed after the appointment of the Current Crown Prince Mohammad Bin Salman. Those who have been rounded up have their own strong clout and may cause the collapse of the kingdom. People should not ignore the engulfing quietness in the Middle East; people despite lavish lifestyle are not happy with their ruling elites; who they consider as the usurpers of the power and resources of their countries, a strong motive to rebel once a strong possibility of success presents itself. Saudi Arabian Collapse would provide them this opportunity hence a huge Geo-political change in the Gulf specifically and the Middle East, in general, could not be ruled out. I can envision a single hybrid (Sharia’a and Democratic principles based)  Muslim State. Which may be a harbinger of enormous change in the Muslim World.

The world as a whole is changing, adapting to the inevitable changes in the socio-economic, politico-psychologic and theosophic realms. KSA, being a constituent of the changing world cannot stay aloof or immune from these dynamics. Though resisted for a long time.

Wahabbism has always been a minority followed sect, never achieving a widespread acceptance. Saudi Arabia’s reforms are in essence under duress in the aftermath of 9/11. These are being promulgated despite conservative clerical opposition yet condescending to the West.

Reforms always have to be organic, endogenous and gradual. This complacent adventurism, however, may prove to be detrimental.

 

 

My concerns and thoughts were echoed by Bruce Reidel of Brooking Institue in his article, published on 11/07/17, “Trump’s bet on Saudis looks increasingly dangerous”

 

Also Echoed by — Joschka Fischer was German Foreign Minister and Vice-Chancellor from 1998-2005.

SAUDI ARABIA’S REVOLUTION FROM ABOVE–Published on Nov16, 2017“Saudi Arabia’s revolution from above is a high-risk endeavor that neutral observers must regard with ambivalence. Although it cannot be allowed to fail, given what that would entail, its success is likely to be accompanied by a dramatic increase in regional tensions and the possibility of war”.

shakir2.wordpress.com

Burqa

October 29, 2017

 

Image of Woman in Burka

 

 

 

The burqa is more of a traditional garb than the religious covering. It nevertheless, serves as a religious requirement of Hijab.

A Muslim woman is not supposed to get involved with opposite sex unnecessarily; especially when there is no third person (Chaperon like) or people around, for it leads to evil due to the presence of, on the prowl, SATAN.

Islam instinctively is a pre-emptive religion to prevent its adherents from getting involved into sinfulness.

They, however, are not prevented from going to work as long as it does not conflict with the religious requirements.

shakir2.wordpress.com

Does one have to believe/agree with everything in Islam to be a Muslim?

October 27, 2017

First and foremost things is the pronouncement of—article of faith—-Shahadah.

Thereafter, in general, Islam demands for a “Blind Faith” in Unseen Allah, Angels, and the Hereafter; retribution, Hell and Heaven; along with the Prophet Muhammad as the last of the Prophets and Qura’an the Last Divine Un-Interpolated Scripture; a source of guidance and mercy, for the entire Human beings and Gene beings. One also has to believe in all the Prophets as and the Scriptures descended on them. Anyone falling short on any of these would not be considered a Muslim. (Q, 4: 150, 151, 152)

Indeed, those who disbelieve in Allah and His messengers and wish to discriminate between Allah and His messengers and say, “We believe in some and disbelieve in others,” and wish to adopt a way in between “

“Those are the disbelievers, truly. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment”

“But they who believe in Allah and His messengers and do not discriminate between any of them – to those He is going to give their rewards. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful”

Note: Jews and Christians who have already passed away before Islam would be judged on the basis of their Belief in Allah (His oneness) and Hereafter.

shakir2.wordpress.com

Ease of performance in the religion Islam.

October 21, 2017

 

 

 

 

Image result for pic of ablution

Allah says in Surah Al Mo’menoon. Verse # 78. “He has chosen you and has (yet) not laid upon you in religion any hardship”. At another place in Surah Al Arraf Verse # 199 Prophet was instructed to “Accept what people can do easily” which means he should not be expecting too strict a compliance in religious matters. The Prophet then said (Hadith) “ I have been commanded by Allah to accept common or unexceptional obedience from people in their worship and behavior—I, therefore, have decided to do the same as long as I am in their company”
Then there is a very brief Hadith of the Prophet. “Ad Din Yusr” which is regarding religious obligations and Sharia and said – “He is leaving with us an easy and practicable law; which is neither cumbersome not susceptible to going astray” Allah also says in verse 78 “strive towards me with efforts which is my due” and in return you will be the owners of the Paradise forever. The point to ponder is,
“It is His due anyway” and we can comply without any hardship. Then why Not!

Addendum:

Prayer can be offered as due on time (Ada 

Given the legitimate compulsions; one can perform Zuhr and Asar, Maghrib and Isha together. (even in reverse order) these would be Ada prayers as due on time. 

When you feel composed (at peace/contented), then keep up the prayer; surely the prayer has been a timed prescription (Literally: book) for the believers. (Q, 4:103) 

 

One can shorten/curtail either of the prayers in case of a time-related emergency, except Fajar, to 2 Rakah. (-Kasar/jama) 

If one gets overwhelmed by the urgency of circumstances, such as sleep, forgetfulness, duress etc. one should offer the missed prayer immediately or at the first available chance.  In this case, any of the above prayers offered will not be Qaza but Ada; As due on time. (H)  

One, if and when compelled/in danger, can offer the prayer even walking, riding an animal or a vehicle.  

“In an emergency, you may say your prayers while walking or riding” (Q, 2:239) 

Neglect or sin is committed when one is awake, in senses and free to act on his own volition. Not when sleeping, out of senses (mistaken due to wrong understanding) or under duress. 

Wasting/defaulting the prayer. 

In the exegeses of verse 19:59 exegetes have tried to stretch the words/views of several companions (without any acceptable authority or apparent logical reasoning) to fit their own, making the prayers performed after the time as wasted/lost. 

In my humble understanding, it contradicts the Sunnah and Hadith. Prophet mixed Zuhr and Asar, Maghrib and Isha; which discounts the above offered exegetical view. Quoted hereunder is an abridged Hadith also to highlight the point. 

Hadith narrated by Abu Mas’ud Ansari, quoted in Tirmazi. 

“A prayer is lost when “Aqamah/Qiyam”(standing upright) is not observed; before and after the “ruku’u” bowing down and “Sujda” prostration and sitting properly and adequately in between the “suju’ud” prostrations. Improper Ablution may also nullify one’s prayer.

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