Archive for the ‘Sharia’a’ Category

Can an Unmarried Muslim Woman Adopt a Child?

November 17, 2017

The term adoption, in a religious sense, in an unmarried woman’s case would not apply. Moreover here the issue of lineage also does not arise, therefore, would obviate the issue of inheritance in the religious sense. Helping someone, without flunking out the religious boundaries, is reward-worthy in the sight of Allah (SWT).

[An unmarried woman, in religious sense, would be a guardian/sponsor of the child]

Textual injunction/position on the topic

“…nor does He make your adopted sons into real sons. These are only words from your mouths, while God speaks the truth and guides people to the right path. Name your adopted sons after their real fathers; this is more equitable in God’s eyes—if you do not know who their real fathers are [they are your] ‘brothers-in-religion’ and protégés.”
[Qur`an 33:4-5]

(I seek refuge in Allah (SWT) for any inadvertent misstatement).

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Saudi Turmoil.

November 7, 2017

 

 

 

Image result for pic of saudi crown prince mohammed bin salman

 

Is it really a crackdown on corruption or coup-d’etat? There seems to be a tug of war unleashed after the appointment of the Current Crown Prince Mohammad Bin Salman. Those who have been rounded up have their own strong clout and may cause the collapse of the kingdom. People should not ignore the engulfing quietness in the Middle East; people despite lavish lifestyle are not happy with their ruling elites; who they consider as the usurpers of the power and resources of their countries, a strong motive to rebel once a strong possibility of success presents itself. Saudi Arabian Collapse would provide them this opportunity hence a huge Geo-political change in the Gulf specifically and the Middle East, in general, could not be ruled out. I can envision a single hybrid (Sharia’a and Democratic principles based)  Muslim State. Which may be a harbinger of enormous change in the Muslim World.

The world as a whole is changing, adapting to the inevitable changes in the socio-economic, politico-psychologic and theosophic realms. KSA, being a constituent of the changing world cannot stay aloof or immune from these dynamics. Though resisted for a long time.

Wahabbism has always been a minority followed sect, never achieving a widespread acceptance. Saudi Arabia’s reforms are in essence under duress in the aftermath of 9/11. These are being promulgated despite conservative clerical opposition yet condescending to the West.

Reforms always have to be organic, endogenous and gradual. This complacent adventurism, however, may prove to be detrimental.

 

 

My concerns and thoughts were echoed by Bruce Reidel of Brooking Institue in his article, published on 11/07/17, “Trump’s bet on Saudis looks increasingly dangerous”

 

Also Echoed by — Joschka Fischer was German Foreign Minister and Vice-Chancellor from 1998-2005.

SAUDI ARABIA’S REVOLUTION FROM ABOVE–Published on Nov16, 2017“Saudi Arabia’s revolution from above is a high-risk endeavor that neutral observers must regard with ambivalence. Although it cannot be allowed to fail, given what that would entail, its success is likely to be accompanied by a dramatic increase in regional tensions and the possibility of war”.

shakir2.wordpress.com

Burqa

October 29, 2017

 

Image of Woman in Burka

 

 

 

The burqa is more of a traditional garb than the religious covering. It nevertheless, serves as a religious requirement of Hijab.

A Muslim woman is not supposed to get involved with opposite sex unnecessarily; especially when there is no third person (Chaperon like) or people around, for it leads to evil due to the presence of, on the prowl, SATAN.

Islam instinctively is a pre-emptive religion to prevent its adherents from getting involved into sinfulness.

They, however, are not prevented from going to work as long as it does not conflict with the religious requirements.

shakir2.wordpress.com

Does one have to believe/agree with everything in Islam to be a Muslim?

October 27, 2017

First and foremost things is the pronouncement of—article of faith—-Shahadah.

Thereafter, in general, Islam demands for a “Blind Faith” in Unseen Allah, Angels, and the Hereafter; retribution, Hell and Heaven; along with the Prophet Muhammad as the last of the Prophets and Qura’an the Last Divine Un-Interpolated Scripture; a source of guidance and mercy, for the entire Human beings and Gene beings. One also has to believe in all the Prophets as and the Scriptures descended on them. Anyone falling short on any of these would not be considered a Muslim. (Q, 4: 150, 151, 152)

Indeed, those who disbelieve in Allah and His messengers and wish to discriminate between Allah and His messengers and say, “We believe in some and disbelieve in others,” and wish to adopt a way in between “

“Those are the disbelievers, truly. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment”

“But they who believe in Allah and His messengers and do not discriminate between any of them – to those He is going to give their rewards. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful”

Note: Jews and Christians who have already passed away before Islam would be judged on the basis of their Belief in Allah (His oneness) and Hereafter.

shakir2.wordpress.com

Ease of performance in the religion Islam.

October 21, 2017

 

 

 

 

Image result for pic of ablution

Allah says in Surah Al Mo’menoon. Verse # 78. “He has chosen you and has (yet) not laid upon you in religion any hardship”. At another place in Surah Al Arraf Verse # 199 Prophet was instructed to “Accept what people can do easily” which means he should not be expecting too strict a compliance in religious matters. The Prophet then said (Hadith) “ I have been commanded by Allah to accept common or unexceptional obedience from people in their worship and behavior—I, therefore, have decided to do the same as long as I am in their company”
Then there is a very brief Hadith of the Prophet. “Ad Din Yusr” which is regarding religious obligations and Sharia and said – “He is leaving with us an easy and practicable law; which is neither cumbersome not susceptible to going astray” Allah also says in verse 78 “strive towards me with efforts which is my due” and in return you will be the owners of the Paradise forever. The point to ponder is,
“It is His due anyway” and we can comply without any hardship. Then why Not!

shakir2.wordpress.com

Interpersonal relationship between Muslim and Non-Muslim

August 31, 2017

“Let not the believers take those who deny the truth for their allies in preference to the believers since he who does this cuts himself off from God in everything – unless it is to protect one against them in this way. But God warns you to beware of Him: for with God is all journeys’ end.” (Q, 3:28) 

 

Muslim seem oblivious to or Ignorant of this important aspect of Islamic teachings. Befriending Non-Muslim has become cursorial; Muslim are dealing and even living with them (in a relationship) like with their fellow Muslim. {Muslim women marrying Non-Muslim men is strictly forbidden and Haram) Read: – https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2015/06/22/muslim-women-marrying-non-muslim-men/

 

Although, it can be easily understood from the Qura’anic text that dealing with the Non-Muslims, despite the requisite cordiality, compassion and empathy, ought to be within defined limitations. Non-Muslim should be helped and dealt with on purely humanitarian/empathetic grounds, but without, any emotional attachment. Such attachment is permissible only with fellow Muslim. The obviating reason is that they do not subscribe to Islamic faith/religion and are rather against it. Disbelievers (in Islam) are described in Qura’an as the enemies of Allah (SWT)(Q, 8: 59,60) {Despite the fact that, they may express nothing of the sort, or may even offer a favorable opinion—which would tantamount to a lip service in the face of their disbelief}.

Note:- From the Psychological point of view, such contents of words may be fallacious, due to their (Non-Muslim) long ingrained and sustained experiences otherwise, for their body language would be sending a (true but) contrary messages.  

A formal friendship at the level of mutual dealing is, no doubt, permissible; but, that too is not favored if Unnecessary.

In Qura’an it has been declared repeatedly that– they would like to see you adopting their faith and way of life. (Psychological truth)  From everyday experiences; it is clearly evident that most often; Muslims who befriend with Non-Muslims; imitate and emulate them, compromising their distinct identity and religion. So called liberal/secularist/modernist Muslim even talk in their language, temerariously criticizing Islam, Qura’an and the Prophet (PBUH). It has therefore been sternly warned that such people cut off any bond with Allah (SWT), for they become one of them (disbelievers)          (Q, 3:28).

Allah (SWT) in Qura’an, used the word “Zalimun” instead of “Kafiroon”; Likely widening the scope, to include such people.  Allah therefore clearly forbids a true Muslim from keeping the company of not only the Non-Muslims but also of those, acting like them. It has been said in (Q, 6:70) that “unbelievers; are the people, who have been detained in the punishment of their evil deeds”. Which is further articulated in verse (Q, 47:15) by declaring that “their entrails will be shattered apart” (due to drinking boiling water as the punishment for their denial and disbelief). This verse also informs that their disbelief is harmful to those who like to sit in their company hence would be caught up in the same punishment as the disbelievers. (Ma’araful Qura’an Pg. 393, vol 3). As the wrong environment affects its surrounding so does the bad company by pushing human beings into the abyss of sinfulness. “This is how Allah (SWT) brings disgrace, damnation upon those who do not believe, for their hearts are not open for the truth but dash for the evil”. (Q, 6:125).

 

 

Several verses, with varying shades of meanings, against the FRIENDSHIP WITH NON-MUSLIMS are presented in the Holy Qura’an. Some of which are:-

IMPORTANT NOTICE

 One should not pick and choose a verse to present his/her own (skewed) point of view instead a collective outcome, of all the verses on the topic, should be the one guiding and binding. (Q, 2: 85 & 4: 150)

 

Allah’s enemy is your enemy.

“O those who believe do not take my enemy and your enemy as friends having love for them and whosoever from among you do that have gone astray” (Q, 60:1)

 A friend with them is one of them.

“O those who believe do not take Jews or Christian as friends, for they are friends among themselves. And whosoever has friendship with them is one of them” (Q, 5:51)

 Believers shouldn’t befriend with unbelievers, even if kinfolk.

“You shall not find those who believe in Allah and in the hereafter having friendship with those who have enmity with Allah and His Messenger, even though they may be their fathers or sons or brothers or members of their tribes” (Q, 58:22)

 

Feeling honored/proud by having Non-believers as friend

Those, who take disbelievers as their allies instead of the believers, Do they seek with them honor {through power}? But indeed, honor belongs to Allah (SWT) entirely. (Q, 4:139)

 

Sitting in the company of Non-believers

And it has already come down to you in the Book that when you hear the verses of Allah (SWT) (recited), they are denied (by them) and ridiculed; so do not sit with them until they enter into another conversation. Indeed you would then be like them. Indeed Allah (SWT) will gather the hypocrites and disbelievers in Hell all together, (Q, 4:140)

 

The only friends

Your friends can only be Allah (SWT), His Prophet (PBUH) and those who believe” (Q, 5:55)

 

Social interaction with Non-Muslims, for clear understanding and exercising due restraint, has been described, under four (4) categories.

Mawalat. (Affairs of the Heart) –For Allah knows what is in your hearts–(3:29) (Relations involving Love or Emotional attachment).

This is specifically What all these verses vehemently prevent a Muslim from.

 

Psychological reasoning

 Need to belong

According to the hierarchy of needs, humans need to feel love (sexual/non-sexual) and acceptance from others. In fact, the need to belong is so innately ingrained that it may be strong enough to overcome physiological, safety needs, as well as religious restraints, such as children’s attachment to abusive parents or staying in abusive romantic relationships or a Muslim woman marrying a Non-Muslim man. Such examples illustrate the extent to which the psychobiological drive to belong is entrenched hence harmful (one may, therefore, appreciate the rationale and vehemence with which Islam prohibits such a bond between the two with clashing/contradicting religious beliefs.

 

 Attachment Theory

Social acts that reinforce feelings of attachment also stimulate the release of neurotransmitters such as oxytocin and endorphin, which alleviate stress and create feelings of contentment. Such contentment, however, may prove to be fleeting due to ingrained religious disparity and even if it is fictitiously presumed to be there, in the beginning, may evade soon.

 

Prophetic injunctions

Apart from the above cited psychological reasons, there is a logically reasoned Injunction issued by the Prophet (PBUH) which lays the ground rules for an association (particularly the marriage as any other type of association is out of the question in Islam).

 

In Islam, there is a concept of “Kuf” which means —equal, alike or matching. Under this Principal, there are two sub clauses which need to be considered when accepting/rejecting the marriage proposals. (or contemplating an association for that matter).

 

These are “Lineal Homogeneity” & “Familial Homogeneity” Prophet has instructed that girls should be married in their”Kuf” which means—equality(compatibility)—rather than equalness. The likeness of spouses in their religion is incumbent and necessary for the validity of the marriage. The marriage of a Muslim girl with a disbeliever is not valid; even if the girl agrees to it. (So is not the interpersonal relationship). (religio-legal verdict—hukme-tashriee).

 The rationale here is that it is not simply the matter of “right of woman”; which may be dropped at her pleasure, Instead, it is the “right of God” –a Divine- injunction, under the clause of Familial Homogeneity. 

 A question or doubt may be raised about the whole religio-legal-verdict stated above. The validity of it has very eloquently and in unequivocal terms been stated in Qur’an as– “Prophet has more right to men and women of his (Ummah) community than their own selves” and also that “And it becomes not a believing man or woman, when Allah and His prophet have decided an affair (for them) that they should claim any “say” in that matter”      Surah Al Ahzab 33, V 6 & 36

 Finally, Allah forbade such relationship in categorical terms in Surah “Mumtahinah”–(She who is examined) #60, V – 10–in the following words “Neither these (Muslim women) are lawful for them, Nor are those (unbelievers) lawful for these (believing) women” All such relationships which existed at the time of revelation of this verse were ipso-facto severed.

 Muwasat. (Concern)

Non-Muslims ought to be dealt with favor, generosity, compassion, sympathy, and concern. It also includes charitable help and support, condolence, consolation or any other well-intentioned attitude of wishing them well.  Confirmed in the following verse:

“Allah does not forbid you from treating those, who have not fought with you because of your faith, nor have they driven you out of your homes, with benevolence and equity” (Q, 60:8)

 Mudarat. (Cordiality)

This category of dealings involves customary cordiality, adequacy in courtesy, pleasant and mannerly politeness.

Muamalat. (Dealings)

This category involves things such as employment, wages, industry, technology, business dealings, benevolence, and human-interests.  

Note: Most of the permissible interactions, however, would become impermissible if it becomes harmful to the interest of the general body of Muslims such as arms sales to a group fighting against Muslims.(war situation exemptions to older folks, Non belligerent folks, children, religious folks(priests/monks etc), places of worship, livestock and crops/orchards etc nevertheless, would apply).

Exception

An exception; under the category of MAWALAT; where there is a severe threat to one’ life or overarching-interest, is allowed. “Unless you guard yourselves against an apprehension from them” in such a case an (outwardly) expression of affection and love is permissible (Q, 3:28). This position is also supported by the Hadith, “Allah (SWT) has forgiven my people from, mistakes, forgetfulness, and acts done under compulsion/duress” (*1)

 Concealment of feelings of affection and love for Non-believers                           (Do not incline towards unjust, lest Hell fire catches you) (Q, 11:113)

At times it happens that people emotionally attached to Non-Muslims verbally deny it in the presence of fellow Muslims. Such people have been warned by Allah in the following words, “whether you conceal what is in your heart or disclose it, Allah knows it” (Q, 3:29)

 A superficial look at the inhibitive verses might generate an intolerant view of Islam which is dispelled in various verses of the Holy Qura’an, Ahadith, Sunnah and the dealings of the revered Companions.

 How Prophet (PBUH), Sahabah & Khulafa’a dealt with Non-Muslims?

Examples

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), at the time of famine in Mecca, personally went out to help his enemies who drove him out of Mecca earlier.

Then after the conquest of Mecca, he gave general amnesty to all those who fought against him.

Caliph Umer Farooq allowed stipends and allowance to needy Non-Muslims living under his rule.

 An Obvious question, however, may arise here, why Allah (SWT) has warned against the friendship with Non-Muslims so sternly?

The answer is given through a Qura’anic verse and a Hadith (Bukhari and Muslim).  “My Prayer, my sacrifice, my life, my death all are for Allah, the Lord of the worlds” (Q. 6:162) Prophet (PBUH) has been reported to have said “Whoever loves for the sake of Allah (SWT) and whoever hates for the sake of Allah (SWT), has perfected his faith”(*2) It means that Iman/Faith remains incomplete unless a Muslim’s love, friendship, hate and enmity all are subordinated to Allah Almighty. That is why at the end of verse 3:28, for the ones who defy this injunction, it is said that “you are one of them”.

The premise on which the edifice of—“No-intimate relationship with Non-Believers”— is based is the primal purport of the temporal life of a Muslim.

The primal-purport of a Muslim’s life is to remember and serve Allah (SWT). Everything else including all affairs of life, politics, business, Government and social relationships ought to be subservient to this primal purport.

Conclusion

(Allah (SWT) therefore has strongly forbidden an intimate friendship/relationship with any Nonbelievers under any circumstances).

*1–An-Nawawi’s Hadith No.39 (On the authority of Ibn Abbas). A  Hasan (fair)  Hadith related by Ibn Majah, Al-Baihaqi and others.

*2–Sunan Abu Dawud 4681, Grade: Sahih (authentic) according to Al-Albani.

 

AUTHOR’S PRAYER.

It is hoped that this treatise would help men and women of understanding in tackling the endemic of the entrenched interpersonal relationship between Muslims and Non-Muslims with Divine guidance; provided through Qura’an and Hadith, while applying human logic and reasoning as well rather than succumbing to the reflexes of sentimentality.

Note:        An abridged form of this topic.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2017/05/07/can-muslims-be-friends-with-non-muslims-especially-jews-and-christians/

 

How Scholars view Sharia’a?

June 11, 2017
 (First published on FB).

Although It is an anathema mainly for most Non-Muslims and few modernist, secularist Muslims but ironically they forget that it is not Muslims exclusive. Moses had his Shari’a and so did many other Prophets. Successful Propaganda, labeling it antiquated, draconian and too Harsh is the reason.
Here is, however, how the Muslim scholars see and categorize it.
“God made this Blessed righteous Shari’a accommodating and convenient and thus won the hearts of human beings and invoked in them love and respect for the law. Had they had to act against convenience they could not have honestly fulfilled their obligations”
ABU ISHAQ AL-SHITABI (A Muslim religious Scholar)
“The Shari’a is all Justice, Kindness, Common Good and Wisdom. Any rule that departs from Justice to injustice…..or departs from common good (maslaha) to harm (mafsada) ….is not part of Shari’a even if it is arrived at by literal interpretation”
IBN QAYYIM.(A Muslim religious Scholar)
“Take to forbearance, and bid the Fair and ignore the ignorant”
Qura’an (7:199)
Prophet was asked by God to “accept what people can do easily” not demanding a high standard of deeds.
Holy Prophet (PBUH) has referred to this aspect of sharia’a saying:-
“Ad Dino Yusrun”…..I am leaving among them an easy and practicable law; which is neither cumbersome nor susceptible to going astray


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