Posts Tagged ‘Empirical evidence’

Do animals feel pain? [have intellect?]

December 24, 2017

Image result for Pic of an emotional reunion with an animal

“All living beings roaming/crawling/walking the earth and winged birds soaring in the sky are Peoples/communities like yourselves…” (Q, 6:38)

Animals, plants, everything created is endowed with consciousness, intellect and sense perception.

Pain is a complex experience involving sense and emotion. It is not simply how it feels, but how it makes one feel, be that a human or an animal? As far as domestic animals are concerned, we may, up to a certain extent, gauge their pain and feelings but that may not be so with the birds of prey. The Pain of the animals; who do not or cannot communicate, ought to be sensed/observed by an observer. Therefore, a rational being, who took responsibility, is responsible to do that and take care of the pain and suffering of the non-human sentient-beings.

In my opinion, things having been endowed with any level of consciousness (cognizable or not) ought to have a sense of joy and gloom. Empirically conclusive evidence of this is difficult to come by unless a sustained scientific study is carried out. This is a tedious process. Qura’an, on the other hand, however, categorically declares that the entire—non-human– creation is created with the sense of obedience/praying to its Creator, and they are people/communities like us, {endowed with certain level of consciousness, intellect, sense of feelings, obedience and worship} although their mode of expression/communication may not be understandable by us. 

Here is the scientific research; which will shed more light on the above assertions.

The report was published in Current Biology by researchers Dr. Sara Letzer and Prof Dr. Onur Gunturkun in collaboration with Prof Dr. Christian Beste. Cognitive ability was assumed to be the anatomical cause of cerebral cortex. In birdshowever, there is no presence of such cortical structures. Therefore, according to this assumption, birds are incapable of performing complex functions like multitasking.

(Future Planning).

To demonstrate how smart an octopus can be, an octopus will be pulling two halves of a coconut shell together to hide inside. Later the animal may also stack the shells together like nesting bowls — and carts them away. “It suggests that the octopus is carrying these tools around because it has some understanding they may be useful in the future,”

For decades, researchers have studied how certain animals evolved to be intelligent, among the apes, elephants, dolphins and even some birds, such as crows and parrots. But all the scientific theories fail when it comes to cephalopods, a group that includes octopuses, squid and cuttlefish. Intelligence comprises sophisticated cognitive skills that help an animal thrive. That may include the ability to come up with solutions to the problem of finding food, for example, or a knack for planning for some challenge in the future. Intelligent animals don’t rely on fixed responses to survive — they can invent new behaviors on the fly. To measure animal intelligence, scientists observe creatures in the wild — watching a dolphin stick a sponge on its beak to avoid getting cuts from sharp rocks and coral, for example. Or they bring animals into the lab and offer them puzzles to solve, such as rewarding crows when they learn to rip paper into strips of just the right size

Following examples would testify to their consciousness, sense perception and intellect.

“The seven heavens and the earth and whatever is in them exalt Him. And there is not a thing except that it exalts [Allah] by His praise, but you do not understand their [way of] exalting. Indeed, He is ever Forbearing and Forgiving”. (Q, 17:44)

“See you not that to Allah prostrates whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and “Ad-Dawab” (moving living creatures, beasts, etc.), and many of mankind? But there are many (men) on whom the punishment is justified. And whomsoever Allah disgraces, none can honor him. Verily! Allah does what He wills”.      (Q, 22:18)

Raven/Crow–Able and Cain–and his soul permitted to him the murder of his brother, so he killed him and became among the ­losers”. “Then Allah sent a crow searching in the ground to show him how to hide the disgrace of his brother. He said, ‘O woe to me! Have I failed to be like this crow and hide the body of my brother?’ And he became of the regretful.” (Quran 5:30-31)

“All living beings roaming/crawling/walking the earth and winged birds soaring in the sky are Peoples/communities like yourselves. We have left nothing out of the Record. Then to their Lord, they will be gathered all together” (Q, 6:38)

Ababil (Swallows)

Ababil (A bird أبابيل‎, translitabābīl) refers to the miraculous birds (identified as swallows) mentioned in Sura 105 of the Qura’an that protected the Ka’ba in Mecca from the Aksumite elephant army of Abraha, a self-styled governor of Himyar, by dropping small clay stones on them as they approached.

The bird (Hoopoe) informed Prophet Soloman about the people of Saba (Sheba of southern Arabia) and their Queen Sheeba, who used to worship Sun.

Whale-Fish

Prophet Jonah was thrown into the sea and swallowed by a big fish (whale)who was instructed to keep the Prophet safe in her stomach for few days, so that he may reflect, learn to be patient and ­repent. He was then regurgitated onto the shore as ordered by God.

AHADITH.

Hungry Camel.

Muslim transmitted that one day the Prophet (PBUH) along with some of his companions, entered the gardens of al-Ansar. A camel approached the Prophet with eyes filled with tears. The Messenger of Allah caressed his back and wiped his eyes and the camel calmed down. The Messenger then asked about his owner. When he showed up the Messenger said, ‘Don’t you fear God? This animal you own has complained to me that it is hungry and tired because you abuse him and don’t feed well.

Grieving Palm Tree Trunk

Hadith narrated by Ibn Umar: The Prophet (PBUH) used to deliver sermons while standing beside or leaning against a Date Palm tree trunk. When he had the pulpit made and started using it instead, the Palm tree trunk started crying/weeping/grieving out of love for the prophet. So, Prophet approached rubbing it with his hand. It stopped crying/weeping/grieving. –Sahih al-Bukhari Volume 4, Book 56, Number 783-

Imam Qurtabi said: The person in whose house his cat is not fed and taken care of, whose caged birds are not attended to as due, cannot be counted amongst the–(Mohsinin)–doer of good.

Adultery by female-monkey

Sahih Bukhari] Vol, 5 – Book 58 – # 188                                                           

Narrated by Amr bin Maimun: During the pre-Islamic period of ignorance, I saw a she-monkey surrounded by a number of monkeys. They were all stoning it because it had committed illegal sexual intercourse. I too stoned it along with them.

guarding/companion Dod

The Islamic version of the story of “Seven sleepers of Pegasus” includes mention of a dog, who accompanied them into the cave and appears to keep watch. In Islam, these youths are referred to as the People of the Cave.

Research Finds That Pigeons Are Better at Multitasking Than Humans.

Honey-Bee

Honey-bee–Consider how your Lord has inspired Honey-bee “make your hives [geometrical masterpiece of the hexagonal honey-comb which is most economical, rational, as regards space and material] in the mountains, trees and higher places and in what people construct (for apiculture)” (Q, 16:68)

Mosquito Miracle! 

The mosquito, although weighing only one-thousandth of a gram, is a tiny creature with an extremely complex structure. It has about one hundred eyes, three complete hearts, a heat detector, a vaccine working as an anesthetic, an instrument for blood testing, a liquefying system, six knives in its nose, a digital X-ray machine to distinguish human skin in the dark, etc. Its development from egg to adult passes through three complicated stages with a change in color to avoid predators. It is a very good example of the complexity of some creatures. It is said in the Holy Qura’an: ”surely Allah is not disdainful to give an example of the smallest thing (such as Mosquito) or something above that,  and as for those who disbelieve, say: What is it that Allah means by this parable: By such a similitude Allah confounds many and enlightens many. He confounds none except the transgressors” (Q, 2:26) 

Plants

Prophet Jacob’s leprosy-ridden body was covered (for shadow) by a creeper and a goat used to come morning and evening to feed him, under the command of God (SWT).

Plants have a far greater ability to sense their world than appearances might suggest, has led to some remarkable claims about “plant Intelligence”, and even spawned a new discipline. Electrical signaling in plants was one of the key factors in the birth of “plant neurobiology” (a term used despite the lack of neurons in plants), and today there are plant researchers investigating such traditionally non-plant areas as memory, learning and problem-solving. These plants are moving with purpose, which means they must be aware of what is going on around them.

 Despite lacking eyes, plants such as Arabidopsis possess at least 11 types of photoreceptor, compared to our measly four. Plants seeing, smelling, feeling and, indeed, knowing to have echoes of The secret life of Plants.

 

Shakir2.wordpress.com

Note: originally published on Dec, 24th 2017 now updated and republished on 03/01/2019

Advertisements

May GOD be dispensed with ?

November 25, 2015

BThree Faiths One God compos

The idea of Supreme-Being suggests a continuum of non local intelligence, permeating space and time. This is however, in contrast with Newtonian view of a perceptive tissues locked inside the skull. The mystical scriptures of religions express the idea of a single underlying reality embodied in a Supreme Being (GOD), the absolute self. We however, delude ourselves with the thought that we know much about the science and materiality and so overestimate material (in the sense of physical/evidentiary/empirical) causation and believe that it alone can affords us a true explanation of life. Materiality, on the other hand, is as inscrutable as non-materiality. As to the ultimate thing we can know nothing, and only when we admit this, do we return to state of sensibility. Nature will reveal anything we are capable enough to handle and clever enough to seek sincerely. From materialistic point of view, the life is supernatural and from life’s point of view, mind’s realm is supernatural. Higher in these invariably permeates and influences the lower as if to perpetrate a miraculous—Divine–intervention. A Divine Order and command over the universe of matter, life and mind. Acknowledging this Order is EXACTLY the faith in UNSEEN.

 

The idea of world as an organism has been called “Gaia Hypothesis”—named after mythical Greek goddess of earth. Mass consciousness effects suggest that there is a mind of Gaia. Individual neurons in a brain would find it hard to believe, that they are participating in a complex dance called “mass consciousness”, which affects the mind of Gaia. Similarly individuals participating, through life activities, in a complex dance affect the mind of God. God affirmed this in Qura’an, “I am what My slaves perceive/imagine Me as”

 

Evidence of Existence of God

There is a small segment of society which not only disbelieves in God but refutes Him too. Some go to the extent of, I guess out of spite, declaring His non existence. In this treatise therefore, a wide range of avenues are explored to reach a tenable proclamation justifying His existence for, an overwhelming majority of human-race, one way or other believes in God.

 

Traditional theosophy presents three well recognized modes/arguments for God’s existence.

 

1) Cosmological   2) Teleological   3) Ontological

 

  • Cosmological-a

Dependent character of the universe argument concludes that a necessary, self subsistent, being must exist. Reason being that everything that moves in the universe needs a mover. Every effect needs a cause—there exists a chain of observable causes at the end of which has to be a–principal–unmoved mover, an uncaused cause, by necessity–In absence whereof this universe would have been reduced to inexplicable and unintelligible.

 

              Cosmological-b

Existence of physical/material universe; logically demands for a being, which is not just possible but “Necessary” to provide a ground and basis for its being—-That necessary being is God. (Contingency Doctrine)

 

First cosmological argument establishes that chronologically God pre-existed the universe as its “efficient Cause” Second argument established that God is Logically-prior reason of which universe is a “consequent” (popular philosophical arguments)

 

Both arguments put together compel us to acknowledge the God’s existence.

                   2) Teleological

Teleological argument or the design argument lays emphasis on Order, Harmony leading to Beauty and then moving onto Meaning and Purpose in creation. This sequential inter-dependent order in the creation demands of a conscious and intelligent being whose thoughts are being actualized with such a fine perfection.

 

Alternatively, if forms are analyzed from graduated or hierarchical scale of excellence, it would also demand a highest form/degree of perfection on the top to permeate to lesser degrees/forms to exist. Since everything is caused by the First cause, it must be par excellence (immaterial & uncaused).

 

 

        3) Ontological

Ontological argument proves the existence of God from the very basis of “perfection”

Since non existence is a sort of imperfection, therefore the “perfect Being—God” must necessarily exist.

 

Few more avenues are explored, which unwaveringly, leading to God’s Existence.

                           

                   

                    4) Law of causality

Universe was created in time. Time therefore, was created before the universe. The law of causality demands that what is created must, by necessity, have its Cause/Creator.

In Islamic parlance creation of time is crucial. It bifurcate the process in different categories. TAKWEEN (before the creation of time) –All the rules, physical, metaphysical were set and documented in Sacred Preserved Tablet (with God). This mode of Creation is sparingly used.  CREATION (after the creation of time)—this mode is continuous.

 

  •             5) Principle of Determination

Prior to the existence of the universe it was equally possible that it started existing (in the mind of its Creator-as “thought”) as Non-Entity. God being it’s determining principle—with respect to when to actualize it into form and with what governing rules.

 

  •                6) Priori Knowledge of God

I would consider belief in God as priori, and non empirical idea. Because I think experience here refers to the idea of measurement, and so the capacity of meditation as posteriori source, dependents on the idea that consciousness acts as a receptacle for information that cannot be taken in with any form through the senses—which is a priori claim. Therefore necessarily the proposition of God coming from mind must be founded on priori and non empirical statement. (Some may argue, this is true of all knowledge. maybe. But the case is more direct here).

  •                   7) Posteriori knowledge of God

Existence of God, I have had one of those experiences, which could also be classified as “God feelings” instead of knowledge of existence of God. (Depending on how the knowledge of “God” is defined) In any case, I think the term “Belief” is more appropriate here than the “knowledge” if we accept this, then this is a straightforward example of a posteriori belief. The belief has been predicated upon the experience. We can keep the term knowledge if we simplify the initial claim to be knowledge of profound and ineffable spiritual feelings rather than knowledge of the existence of God. The latter is a little dodgy, but no one will deny that the former constitute truly valid knowledge, albeit of the subjective kind. So here too we have a posteriori, in this case posteriori knowledge of spiritual experience. No one knows what the spiritual experience truly is until,–one experiences it—a clear cut example of a posteriori knowledge.

 

 

  •                             8) Public (reasoning) Justification for knowledge of God

Existence of God could also be demonstrated through public (reasoning for cognition of the knowledge of God). The justification will be presented on the lines of established “CONSENT   THEORIES” of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau; who developed “Consent theories of legitimacy”, but these three theorists seemed to oscillate between an empirical standard of consent and something deeper, a normative standard of consent. On the empirical account, we have public justification for (God feelings) knowledge of God which an individual experiences and actually believes, desires, and values as tangible effectuation (transitioning from psychological/emotional to physical comfort on a consistent basis) cementing further his conviction for the knowledge (existence) of God. On the normative account, we have public justification for (God feelings) knowledge of God Which an individual experiences and ideally believes, desires, and values as tangible effectuation (transitioning from psychological/emotional to physical comfort on consistent basis) Cementing further his conviction for the Knowledge (existence) of God. In the latter case, they sometimes speak of hypothetical consent (For familial or community reasons) One reason these theorists may have had for transitioning from actual to hypothetical consent is that they hoped to identify a rational justification of a “religious order” consequent upon “knowledge of existence of God” which, in the absence of an absolute and all encompassing acceptance by any given community, is hoped to enjoy widespread support within the relevant community — imagining public possessing superior information and cognitive abilities (delineated above) despite their diverse interests and reasons, still have conviction to comply with revealed knowledge of God even if this adherence did not permit them to act as they would like to.

 

(Note: The mechanism of “CONSENT THEORY” developed by the named scholars has been adapted and applied to religious institution–consequent upon Knowledge of God—instead-Author).

 

 

  •                                    9) Empirical evidence

Evidence——Everything is evidence which the historian can use as evidence. But what can he so use? It must be something here and now perceptible  empirical connotation that ‘reason to believe’ lacks: it sounds more natural, at least to some ears, to describe a priori philosophical considerations as reasons to believe some philosophical thesis.

               

Charles Sanders Peirce—Mixed empiricism and rationalism.

 

Whatever we find in the intellect is also incipiently present in sense.

Charles Peirce (1839–1914) was highly influential in laying the groundwork for today’s empirical scientific method Although Peirce severely criticized many elements of Descartes’ peculiar brand of rationalism, he did not reject rationalism outright. Indeed, he concurred with the main ideas of rationalism, most importantly the idea that rational concepts can be meaningful and the idea that rational concepts necessarily go beyond the data given by empirical observation. In later years he even emphasized the concept-driven side of the then ongoing debate between strict empiricism and strict rationalism, in part to counterbalance the excesses to which some of his cohorts had taken pragmatism under the “data-driven” strict-empiricist view.

 

As a result of greater familiarity with scientific and empirical deduction, the human mind tends naturally to shy away somewhat from purely intellectual deduction, particularly if the matter under investigation is non-material and insensible

 

Since the specialists in the empirical sciences devote all their mental energy to the sensory sciences, they are alien to matters that lie beyond sense perception. One of the most destructive and misleading factors in thoughts concerning God is to restrict one’s thought to the logic of the empirical sciences and to fail to recognize the limits and boundaries of that logic. This alienation, this distance from non-sensory matters, this extraordinary trust in the data yielded by the empirical sciences, reaches such a point that testing and experimentation forms the whole mental structure and world view of such specialists. They regard experimentation as the only acceptable tool and means of cognition, as the sole criterion. They expect it to solve every problem.

The function of the sciences is to explain the relationships between phenomena; their aim is to establish the connection between events, not between God and events. In the experimental sciences, man is not at all concerned with God. One should not expect to be able to perceive supra-sensory realities by means of sensory criteria, or to see God in a laboratory. The sciences cannot carry out a laboratory experiment on the existence of God and then reach the verdict that if a thing is not physically observable and it cannot be established by means of laboratory experiment and mathematical calculation, it does not exist.

 

                      10) Denying God, Denying Reality

Does God exist? This is the question being constantly raised by Atheist. The question is often put forward in different guises but the premise is always the same; does God exist and what evidence (PROOF) is there to support this belief? In fact, I would argue that we don’t need any evidence of His existence. So the question itself needs debating.  It shouldn’t actually be “does God exist?”, but rather “what reasons do you have to reject His existence?”

God is an axiomatic belief. In other words, God’s existence is self-evidently true. In the language of philosophy it is also known as “Basic-Belief”. The idea of self-evident truths is accepted by all. Take science for example: science takes the world’s reality as a self-evident truth; it believes that the world is real. In other words, the physical world is separate and external from our minds and our thoughts.

An Innate Belief: Properly basic beliefs, axiomatic beliefs, and self-evident truths, do not require information transfer.  For me to understand what a spaghetti monster is, I require information to be transferred to me. For example, I require knowledge of western cuisine and Italian culture. But when it comes to the idea of God’s existence as the creator of the universe, you do not require any information transfer, whether from culture, or education. This is why sociologists and anthropologists argue that even if atheist children were stranded on a desert island, they would come to believe that something created the desert island. Self-evident truths do not have to be universal: Self-evident truths, basic beliefs or axioms can be individualized and do not have to have universal appeal.

 

 

  •                                          11) Principle of Oneness

There are two kinds of Oneness we are conversant with (a) Number one and also (b) reference to characteristic of Simplicity.  In the first case it applies to the worldly objects as well as to God, whereas in the later it applies ONLY to God; since any singularity (oneness) referred to, other than that of God, would be composite until reduced to an absolute singular.  It could, therefore, logically be argued that that “ONENESS” is inevitable for the creation of the universe. Hence that inevitably indivisible ONENESS is GOD.

 

There are numerous Muslims scholars who have expounded on the subject. Few most prominent ones are; Al kindi, Ibn Tufail, Ibn Sina, Abu Rushd, and Farabi..

 

Abu Rushd was an eminent Spanish Muslim scholar known in the West as (Averroes) mostly for his Islamic-legal work, He also tried to establish the belief in the existence of God and His attributes, through Qura’anic approach, by presenting various point of views within Islam. Few are presented here in brief.

 

Asha’rites.

Thought God is known through reason. Abu Rushd agreed but did not agree with their dialectical approach rather than philosophical. Asha’rites based this on several presuppositions. —world is temporal, bodies are composite of atoms, God neither eternal nor temporal and so on.

 

 

According to Abu Rushd

Qura’an recommends two rational philosophical ways to God.

 

Teleologicalthrough proof of providence everything in the universe has been created for the benefit and service to human being. Therefore the way universe has been organized and planned necessitates that there be a willful planner/designer of this universe, with a purpose of service to human being. That designer/planner is God.

 

CosmologicalThrough proof of Creation If something comes to life out of nothing or something lifeless is endowed with life suddenly that would necessitate a Creator i.e God.

 

Sufi, on the other hand, hold that mystical experience is the only method through which God can be recognized. This experience however, needs an extensive exercise in self discipline for its eventualization. It also draws heavily on the grace of almighty God. Thus it becomes the prerogatives of the selected few. Qura’an being the book of guidance for all would not therefore, recommend Sufi way for the understanding of divine existence in general.

 

 

The belief in God is universal: In spite of the number of atheists in the world, the belief in God is universal. A universal belief does not mean every single person on the planet must believe in it. A cross cultural consensus is enough evidence to substantiate the claim that God’s existence is a universal claim. Evidently there are more theists than atheists in the world, and this has always been the case from the beginning of recorded history and most likely will always be.

 

Atheistic fallacy proven by Godel’s incompleteness theorem

In 1931, the young mathematician Kurt Gödel made a landmark discovery, as powerful as anything Albert Einstein developed. Gödel’s discovery not only applied to mathematics but literally to everything, to all branches of science, logic, math, language, philosophy and human knowledge. It has truly earth-shattering implications. And: If the universe is mathematical and logical, Incompleteness also applies to the universe.

OK, so what does this really mean? Why is this super-important, and not just an interesting geek factoid?

  • Faith and Reason are not enemies.In fact, the exact opposite is true. One is absolutely necessary for the other to exist. All reasoning ultimately traces back to faith in something that you cannot prove.
  • All closed systems depend on something outside the system.
  • You can always draw a bigger circle but there will still be something outside the circle.
  • It cannot be PROVED that gravity will always be consistent at all times. It can only be observed that it’s consistently true every time. It cannot be proved that the universe is rational. It can only be observed that mathematical formulas like E=MC^2 do seem to perfectly describe what the universe does. It also can’t be proved that the sun will come up tomorrow morning either. It literally has to be taken on faith. In fact most people don’t know that outside the science circle is a philosophy circle. Science is based on philosophical assumptions that could not be scientifically proven. Actually, the scientific method cannot prove, but only infer. (Science originally came from the idea that God made an orderly universe which obeys fixed, discoverable laws.)
  • Now please consider what happens when we draw the biggest circle possibly can – around the whole universe.(If there are multiple universes, we’re drawing a circle around all of them too) There has to be something outside that circle. Something which we have to assume but can not prove) will give you the right answer every time.)
  • The universe(all matter, energy, space and time) cannot explain itself
  • Whatever is outside the biggest circle is boundless. By definition it is not possible to draw a circle around it. If we draw a circle around all matter, energy, space and time and apply Gödel’s theorem, then we know what is outside that circle is not matter, is not energy, is not space and is not time. It’s immaterial.
  • Whatever is outside the biggest circle is not a system – i.e. is not an assemblage of parts. Otherwise we could draw a circle around them. The thing outside the biggest circle is indivisible.
  • Whatever is outside the biggest circle is an uncaused cause,because you can always draw a circle around an effect.
  • In the history of the universe we also see the introduction of information,some 3.5 billion years ago. It came in the form of the Genetic code, which is symbolic and immaterial
  • The information appears to have come from the outside, since information is not known to be an inherent property of matter, energy, space or time
  • All codes we know the origin of are designedby conscious beings.
  • Therefore whatever is outside the largest circle is a conscious being.
  • In breaking the deadlock between Darwin and Design and exploring the question of origin of information in depth, we add the information to the equation, we therefore conclude that not only is the thing outside the biggest circle infinite, immaterial but also conscious.
  • Isn’t it interesting how all these things sound suspiciously similar to how theologians have described God for thousands of years?
  • So it’s hardly surprising that 80-90% of the people in the world believe in some concept of God. Yes, it’s intuitive to most folks. But Gödel’s theorem indicates it’s also supremely logical. In fact it’s the only position one can take and stay in the realm of reason and logic.
  • The person who proudly proclaims, “You’re a man of faith, but I’m a man of science” doesn’t understand the roots of science or the nature of knowledge!
  • That high school geometry book is built on Euclid’s five postulates. Everyone knows the postulates are true, but in 2500 years nobody’s figured out a way to prove them.
  • Euclid’s 5 postulates aren’t formally provable and God is not formally provable either. But… just as you cannot build a coherent system of geometry without Euclid’s 5 postulates, neither can you build a coherent description of the universe without a First Cause and a Source of order.
  • Thus faith and science are not enemies, but allies. It’s been true for hundreds of years, but in 1931 this skinny young Austrian mathematician named Kurt Gödel proved
  • Godels two theorem acknowledges another concept of “Dualism” in the Creation. It is confirmed in Qura’an that everything has been created in pairs Even Muslim Article of faith starts by confirming this concept—“There is God but no god” Likewise matter and anti matter, However since matter is fractionally more than the anti-matter, therefore pervades.(adapted by the author as addendum to Godel’s theorem).
  • No time in the history of mankind has faith in “God” been more reasonable, more logical, or more thoroughly supported by science and mathematics.
  • Assumption to the contrary?

The mainstream secularization thesis states that as societies become more modernized, the authority and influence of religious beliefs and institutions will eventually disappear from public life and will only be relevant to individuals on a private level, if at all. As William Swatos, Jr and Kevin Christiano (2) argue.* (adapted as addendum to the Godel’s theore by the author)

Conclusion

Faith in the “unseen” is man’s conviction that there is an order of existence beyond the visible order which we confront here and now, a metaphysical, supernatural order that is seriously to be reckoned with.

Qura’an recognizes iman bil ghaib (Faith in the Unseen) as the source and ground of man’s conviction in the Ultimate Existence. In order to achieve the awareness of metaphysical realities Faith in the Unseen must preside over all recognized sources of knowledge although they are relevant in their own ways and capacities.

Mystics, as a consequence of their efforts towards the purification of soul and concentration on the Might and Majesty of God achieve an “I- Thou” encounter with Him. This is living assurance of His existence leaving absolutely no room for doubt or misgiving. This “I-Thou” experience becomes objectivized  “I” subsumes “Thou” and “Thou”— Yazid Bastami (famous mystic)  declares— “I am the Reality”  Since God sys  “I become his (the seeker’s) hearing, his seeing, his hands, his feet—so much so whatever he does, does through me. ( Hadith Qudsi)


%d bloggers like this: