Posts Tagged ‘history’

Riba (usury), prohibition vs dubious easements! 

March 13, 2020

“Those who devour riba will stand, on judgment day, like those driven to madness by a touch of the evil. That is because they say “trade is just like usury”. But Allah has permitted trade and forbidden usury. Whosoever, after receiving a warning from their lord, refrains may keep their previous gains, and their case is left to Allah. As for those who persist [in devouring riba], their abode will be hellfire. They will remain there forever. (Q, 2:275)

 

PREFACE.

In my view, in the above verse and other verses on the topic, there is no ambiguity; which may lead one to any confusion, that business transactions within the parameters delineated by the Prophet, are unequivocally permissible (except recent innovative/circumventive dubious transactions). Riba/usury, however, in whatever type or form (discussed in detail in the proceeding paras) is unequivocally forbidden. I strongly disagree with the currently in vogue innovative-easements; justifying the riba/interest drenched transactions, under the guise of “lease-purchase and loaning/financing in the name of murabaha”. 

I also disagree with the blatantly adduced assumption that “taking interest is forbidden but not giving” It contravenes an implied Qura’anic injunction; of not giving an increased amount on loaned money (Q, 30:39). This assumption is not only illogical but also negates the “duality of creation” (rule), affirmed in the Holy Qura’an.

DUALITY OCREATION

[and from all of the fruits He made therein two mates; He causes the night to cover the day. Indeed, in that are signs for a people who give thought. Q,13: 3]

[…and from all of the fruits He made therein two mates; He causes the night to cover the day. Indeed, in that are signs for a people who give thought. Q,13: 3]

[And a sign for them is the night. We remove from it [the light of] day, so they are [left] in darkness. Q,36:37] 

 

These innovatively crafted-distortions do not fit the doctrine of Maslahah” as well. Terms of the loans under Islamic financing OUGHT TO BE DICTATED by the “creditor”, not the “debtor” [Q, 2:282]

“And of everything We have created pairs: That ye may receive instruction” (Q, 51:49) {Pair may be ln a tangible form, in an intangible or conceptual form; such as—man/woman, day/night, taking/giving or good/bad, etc.}

“He to whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth: no son has He begotten, nor has a partner in His Kingdom. He created everything and ordered them in due proportions” (Q, 25:2)

{Singularity (Monotheism) is exclusively Allah’s attribute; nothing else, could/would exist in singularity} Nauzubillah! 

 

Notes: appearing at the end of certain points, in the proceeding paragraphs, is the point of view of the author.

 

Riba was prohibited gradually in four stages via                                                                Q, 30:39, 4:161, 130:132 & 2:282.

Kinds of riba

Islamic discourse identifies three different types of riba: 1) riba al-Fadl (primarily related to sales transactions), 2) riba al-Nasiya (sales or debt involving deferment) and a variation of the previous two, 3) riba al-Jahliyyah.

Riba Al-Fadl is the excess over and above the loan paid in kind.  It lies in the payment of an addition by the debtor to the creditor in exchange for commodities of the same kind. The Shari’ah wishes to eliminate not merely the exploitation that is intrinsic in the institution of interest, but also that which is inherent in all forms of unjust exchange in business transactions.

Riba Al-Nasi’ah refers to the interest on loans; its prohibition essentially implies that the fixing in advance of a positive return on a loan as a reward for waiting is not permitted in Islam.

Riba Al-Jahiliyyah when a buyer/borrower did not pay his due after the stipulated time, the seller/lender would increase the price, and thus a higher principal amount, sometimes doubled (or more), would be imposed.

According to Ibn Abbas, one of the major companions of the Prophet and earliest of the Islamic jurists, and few other companions (Usama ibn Zayd, ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’udUrwa ibn Zubayr, Zayd ibn Arqam) “considered that the only unlawful riba is riba al-jahiliyyah.” (No textual/hadithic authority/basis cited)

 

Muhammad Nezatullah Siddiqi. In his book Riba, Bank Interest, and The Rationale of Its Prohibition [p. 41], offers a thorough work explicating the rationales of the prohibition of bank interests, and lists the following reasons justifying its prohibition: 1. Riba corrupts society. 2. Riba implies the improper appropriation of other people’s property. 3. Riba’s ultimate effect is negative growth. 4. Riba demeans and diminishes human personality. 5. Riba is unjust.

{These arguments are objectively scrutinized hereunder}.

 1) Riba corrupts society! 

Corruption studies or corruption-related literature does not identify interest anywhere as one of the determinants of corruption. Indeed, most of the Muslim-majority countries rank high in the Corruption Perception Index (CPI).11 

Siddiqi’s flawed logic can be identified by simply examining his first point – that riba corrupts society. While riba-based transactions are unjust and thus may have corrupting influence on society, but the corruption studies or corruption-related literature does not identify interest anywhere as one of the determinants of corruption. Indeed, most of the Muslim-majority countries rank high in the Corruption Perception Index (CPI).11 But corruption-related studies relating to these countries done by either non-Muslims or Muslims have never identified interest as one such determinant of corruption.

As we will see, Siddiqi’s enumeration is generally not much different from the earlier ones by Abul Ala’ Mawdudi and Dr. Yousuf Ali-Qaradawi (using Al-Razi’s arguments ad verbatim) and is as polemical as well as empirically unsubstantiated and untestable as ever. Only one rationale is identifiable from the Qur’an: exploitation/injustice (zulm): “If you do it not, Take notice of war from Allah and His Messenger: But if you turn back, you shall have your capital sums: Deal not unjustly, and you shall not be dealt with unjustly.” [la tazlimoona wa la tuzlamoon; [Q, 2:279] Hadith: – (Prophetic narrations) also does not provide in this context any specific rationale other than what is identified in the Qur’an.

Note: – 1) It does not, by any mean, means that CPI index or corruption-related studies absolve “riba” of its implications or represents an Islamic perspective in any contextual sense. Riba simply was not taken into account as a consideration. 

2) Injunctive (hukmi) verses, at times, may not necessitate any explanations, for these are/maybe above and beyond the scope of human reasoning and logic.

 

[In terms of the use of riba, Sudan is the strictest and Malaysia the most liberal state]

 

2) Improper appropriation of other people’s property.

Charging/taking an interest, here, implies appropriating another person’s property without giving him anything in exchange because one who lends one dollar for two dollars gets the extra dollar for nothing. Now, a man’s property is for (the purpose of) fulfilling his needs and it has great sanctity. According to the hadith, ‘A man’s property is as sacred as his blood.’ This means that taking it from him without giving him something in exchange is haram. [p. 265]

One can argue that, in trade, taking something from someone without giving something in exchange is haram (prohibited). However, the argument is misleading and erroneous. When a non-charitable transaction is involved, both the parties know what the lending and borrowing entail. The borrower is borrowing for some commercial or personal benefit and the lender is lending for-profit motive. In such a non-charitable context, the lender is giving up or foregoing the purchasing power for a specific period. In other words, the lender is “renting out” the purchasing power of his/her capital for a specific period at a cost; interest here constitutes “rent” that is paid by the borrower. The lender is getting paid (interest) for foregoing something; it is not something for nothing but quid pro quo!

Note: {Islam, in the first place, does not espouse the concept of non-charitable-loaning but charitable one—Qarzhasanathat may be administered by the state from the “Sadaqat” collected. Allah will destroy Riba (usury) and will grant increase, for Sadaqat..}     (Q, 2:276)

 

Time-value of money in Islam!

Islamic economics/finance literature generally denies that Islam recognizes the time value of money. [El-Gamal 2000, quoting Mawdudi and Al-Sadr]. “[I] in Shari’ah, there is no concept of the time value of money.” [Usmani, p. xvi] Some authors think that the time value of money as relating to sales (deferred sales, to be specific) is allowed in Islam, but that it is not the same kind of time value of money as in case of loans. [Saadallah; M. Akram Khan cited in Vogel and Hayes, p. 202] Others even suggest that there should not be any profit-motive on the part of Muslims, seeking service from Islamic Banks. Although, its equivalent is found in Murabaha, cost-plus financing in purchase and resale. It has been conveniently ignored that accepting the time value of money logically leads to the acceptance of interest. [Saeed, p. 95]

Note; 1) -It may be due to the reason that; the time is created and determined (finite); relevant only to the temporal realm, whereas the recompense for use/misuse of money is indeterminable (at, this stage; i.e. temporal level) and relevant to the non-local domain only.  The time-value of money, in the charitable transactions, therefore, would render utterly irrelevant!

2) – The question of the distinction between the nominal-value and the real value of money, due to inflation, has also not been addressed in Islamic economic literature. At present, there is no economy “without-inflation” {Inflation, in my view, is a derivative of the flawed global economic system; whereby mostly the investors and/or the manufacturers benefit; reflected in different countries at different levels, representing overall state of economy} 

 

3 & 4) Riba’s ultimate effect is negative growth. & Riba demeans human personality.

Supporting arguments.

Dependence on interest prevents people from working to earn money, since the person with dollars can earn extra dollars through interest, either in advance or at a later date, without working for it. The value of work will consequently be reduced in his estimation, and he will not bother to take the trouble of running a business or risking his money in trade or industry. This will lead to depriving people of benefits, and the business of the world cannot go on without industries, trade and commerce, building and construction, all of which need capital at risk. (This, from an economic point of view, is unquestionably a weighty argument.) [p. 265]

Counter arguments.

In modern times, commercial lending and borrowing usually do not take place involving an individual lender at a personal level. Rather, there are lending institutions that mobilize savings from individual and institutional savers/depositors and channel such savings to the borrowers. The lending institutions have to work hard to solicit and pool the savings. They also employ people for the purpose.

The primary source of banks’ lending is savings and demand deposits of the depositors. Demand deposits come from people of all sorts, irrespective of their financial status. A good part of the savers; who use a bank as a source of quick and safe-return instead of risky and arduous stocks and bonds markets are usually risk-averse, older and/or retired people. They want quick access to their savings with a guaranteed return on it. This class of savers consists of people of all ages and financial backgrounds – wealthy and not-so-wealthy, young and older/retired. Indeed, these people can’t be expected/forced to engage in risky investments or laborious-works to seek “earned” income!

 

5) Riba is Unjust.

Supporting Arguments: –

Permitting the taking of interest discourages people from doing good to one another, as is required by Islam. If interest is prohibited in a society, people will lend to each other with goodwill, expecting back no more than what they have loaned, while if interest is made permissible the needy person will be required to pay back more on loans (than he has borrowed), weakening his feelings of goodwill and friendliness toward the lender. (This is the moral aspect of the prohibition of interest.). [p. 266] 

Counter-arguments: –

This whole argument is contrary to the profit-motive, recognized in Islam. Unless we are talking about charities, these arguments would be misplaced and erroneous. This would also imply that people in interest-based societies have lesser goodwill toward others and may not be engaged in enough charitable acts. Is there any empirical corroboration behind such comparative observation?

Note; – [ In my view both, the pro and against, arguments are flimsy at the best. Profit motive sanctioned in Islam is through business dealings not through money-lending for a pre-determined period and profit. Islam, as mentioned earlier, does not espouse non-charitable lending]

 

Some [al-maslaha-al-mursala based] opinions/fatawa; issued by earlier religious figures are being vehemently propagated by some present religious figures with unabashed assertiveness. 

 

The point, a bone of contention; that has divided Muslim scholars is, whether riba (usury) and bank interest are to be considered the same/equivalent or distinct?

 

Equivalence Proponents.

One body of scholarly opinion defines riba to include not only interest but also transactions involving speculation, capital gains, monopoly, hoarding, and absentee rents, in other words, any appropriation of value for which an acceptable counter value is not forthcoming. The reader can easily read through and conceptualize the implications of using more and more restrictive definitions, in the limit (to borrow a mathematic term) equating riba simply with interest.

 

“All the schools of thoughts of Muslim jurisprudence hold the unanimous view that riba, usury and interest are strictly prohibited.” [Siddiqui, p. 15] Also see, Mabid Ali Al-Jarhi and Munawar Iqbal. “Islamic Banking: Answers to Some Frequently Asked Questions,” Islamic Development Bank, Occasional Paper No. 4, 2001. http://irtipms.iskandertech.com/OpenSave.asp?pub=92.pdf; Tariq Talib al-Anjari. “Islamic Economics and Banking,” http://islamic-world.net/economics/economic_banking_01.htm;

“The renowned Islamic scholar Dr. Yusuf Ali Qaradawi holds that the question of prohibition of interest is a settled issue and that ‘there is no provision left in it for any reformist to re-interpret and provide an excuse for stating anything otherwise’. He states that it is ‘an issue which has withstood the test of consensus (Ijmah) of ummah of the present day as well as of the past’.” [ Syed Thanvir Ahmed. “Attempt to Justify Interest an Exercise in futility,” http://www.islamicvoice.com/april.99/economy.htm.]

Abul Ala’ Mauwdudi defines riba as the amount that a lender receives from the borrower at a fixed rate of interest. {for a fixed time and transaction contingent on the excess on the principal}. The transaction would be usurious whether it is for productive-investment or private needs.[Mawdudi, 1997;164] The most explicit report of the Council of Islamic ideology (CII) says: “There is complete unanimity in all schools of thoughts in Islam that the term “riba” stands for interest in all its types and forms”

 

Non-Equivalence Proponents

Those who have argued against this equation, the Non-Equivalence School [Ahmed, p. 28], have not made their arguments in clear and convincing terms so that the common Muslims can decide for themselves. Thus, this discourse needs to continue more vigorously and engagingly.

Note: In my view, as also enunciated in the preface, verse 30:39 categorically settles the issue of non-equivalence of usury, riba or interest by stating “whatever you give in addition to loan amount”, is riba. Supported by a hadith narrated by Jabir, mentioned in Muslim and Tirmazi“Prophet cursed the receiver and payer of the riba, recorder and witnesses to the transaction. And said they are all alike” (in sinfulness)

 

Interest-free economies

Since there has not been any true interest-free, modern Islamic economy and a few places where it is being attempted, the Islamic financial institutions (IFI hereafter), are moving rather closer to the conventional banking practices.

Note: – Use of Interest regime (to control the demand and supply of the funds/liquidity levels; which in turn determines the cost of borrowing; seldom yields the desired results, due to several other factors at play) is the chief catalyst in the volatility of the world’s, almost all, interest-based economies! [Although the man-made  economic management system has gained a high level of sophistication, yet lacks the precision]

 

The primary source of an Islamic Economic system is the Holy Qura’an and Sunnah. Secondary sources include the followings: –

Ijtihad: – True Ijtihad is both the source and the legal instrument that allows a dynamism to be set in motion at the heart of Islamic law and jurisprudence—closely linked with Qura’an and Sunnah.

Ijmaa (Consensus): In its technical dimension, Ijmaa means the agreement of all competent jurists in any particular generation, acting as representatives of the community on a point of law. In practice, the Ijmaa acts as proof if there is no element of the Qur’an or the Sunna that makes it possible to decide on a case, and could in principle elevate a ruling based on probable evidence to absolute certainty.

Qiyas (Analogical reasoning): this technique consists of assigning, based on a common underlying characteristic, the legal ruling of an existing case found in the texts of the Qur’an, Sunnah and/or Ijmaa, to a new case whose legal ruling could not be deduced directly from the scripture and/or Sunnah. This ruling nevertheless ought to remain within the confines and spirit of the primary sources of Islamic law.

 

Misuse of the concept “IJMA’A”

It has been a common practice among Muslim scholars and jurisprudents to claim consensus (ijma) about almost anything they have given their juristic opinion on. The very use of the word ijma inspires awe among faithful Muslims. However, the existence of multiple schools of jurisprudence (fiqh) is not evidence of consensus, but the lack of it.

The reality is that there is not even a consensus on the definition of ijma.  Indeed, it is reported that Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, founder of one of the four orthodox schools (madhab) made a general assertion: “Whoever claims consensus is a liar.

Note; – The concepts, of hire-purchase and lending under Murabaha, seem to fall in the same category; for there are many scholars and Islamic Financial institutions, voicing against these financing modes.

 

Foundational work; a springboard for the current deviant practices, under the guise of Islamic Financing!

 

In the 1930s, Syrian scholar Marouf al-Daoualibi suggested that the Qur’an bans interest only on consumption loans, not investment loans, and in the 1940s Egyptian jurist, Al-Sanhuri argued that the Qur’an sought chiefly to ban interest on interest. A more extreme and recent example is the opinion of the mufti of Egypt, Shaykh Muhammad Sayyid Tantawi, who in 1989 declared that interest on certain interest-based government investments was not forbidden riba (because the gain is little different from the sharing of the government’s profits from use of the funds or because the bank deposit contract is novel), thus joining the thin ranks of prominent religious figures who have issued fatawa declaring clear interest practices permissible. This fatwa aroused a storm of controversy, with opposition from nearly all traditional religious scholars and warm praise from secular modernizers. Later he went even further, saying that interest-bearing bank deposits are perfectly Islamic, and more so than ‘Islamic’ accounts that impose disadvantageous terms on the customer. Laws should change the legal terminology used for bank interest and bank accounts to clarify their freedom from the stigma of riba. [Vogel and Hayes, p. 46]

 

Fatwa for sale

Owen Matthews, “How the West Came to Run Islamic Banks”, Newsweek [October 31, 2005] While the evolved orthodox position about riba was not necessarily tainted by worldly considerations, the contemporary IBF discourse does note “the debate on ‘fatwas for sale” … fatwa wars”, etc. [Warde, p. 227] It is important to note that the classical orthodox position revolved around riba and the modern, contemporary discourse revolves around not merely riba, but a riba-interest equation. The contemporary Shari’ah experts serving the IBF industry hardly have anything to say about the political tyranny, or concentration of wealth, involving the patrons of the IBF movement. [IBF—Islamic Banking and Finance].

 

Islamic Financial Instruments include: MusharkahMudarabahMurabahaMusawamah, Salam,Istisna’aTawarruqIjarah and Qard Hasana.    [Only the relevant financial instruments are discussed in detail]

 

Arguments against lease-purchase/lending.

According to Yousef, “the predominance of the murabaha represents a challenge to the very notion that Islamic finance would provide an alternative to interest-based conventional financial systems.” [p. 64] Siddiqi went much further to warn the Islamic finance industry: … we cannot claim, for an interest-free alternative not based on sharing, the superiority which could be claimed based on profit-sharing. What is worse, if the alternative in practice is built around predetermined rates of return to investible funds, it would be exposed to the same criticism which was directed at interest as a fixed charge on capital. 

 

It so happens that the returns on finance provided in the modes of finance based on murabaha, bay’ salamleasing and lending with a service charge, are all predetermined as in the case of interest. Some of these modes of finance are said to contain some elements of risk, but all these risks are insurable and are insured against. The uncertainty or risk to which the business being so financed is exposed is fully passed over to the other party. A financial system built solely around these modes of financing can hardly claim superiority over an interest-based system on grounds of equity, efficiency, stability and growth. [Siddiqi, 1983, p. 52]

 

It is noteworthy that, contrary to the popular perception of the believing Muslims, Murabaha, (leasing and lending), may not be, as generally claimed, quite Shari’ah-compliant. It is heavily criticized or repudiated by many Islamic scholars and by some Islamic financial institutions.

 

Why Western Institutions are swarming Islamic Banking?

Western interest in “interest-free” banking, is not because the West is convinced about the claimed superiority of Islamic finance/banking in general, and Islamic financial products in particular; but because they don’t find any substantive difference between conventional banking and the current practices of Islamic banking, which have shifted away from profit-loss sharing (PLS)/Risk-sharing-based transactions to Murabaha. It is a vast untapped lucrative market for them, with a clear edge in terms of credibility, experience and capitalization. These banks have found Mudaraba and Musharaka to be inoperable in the modern context. [Saeed, chapter “Murabaha Financing Mechanism,” pp. 76-95; Aggarwal and Yousef, p. 106; Vogel and Hayes, p. 7] Thus, they quietly disengaged themselves from risk-sharing, Musharaka and Mudaraba modes and engaged in Murabaha, instead.

 

Application of the Doctrine of Maslaha.

Maslaha is a very specific concept—in its definition, its levels, its types, and its conditions require that the ulama (religious scholars) constantly refer back to the revealed sources to be able to formulate judgments in conformity with the Qura’an and Sunnah, even when there is no specifically relevant text available. They must try—by carrying out a thorough and detailed study–to provide Muslims with (common good) new banking and financial instruments, guided by Islamic principles and in conformity with Sharia’a.

Presently, this concept is being used and also abused to justify all sorts of new fatawaeven some manifestly in contradiction with obvious proofs from the Qura’an and the Sunna, as in the case of rules concerning interest (riba), inheritance and lending under Murabaha.

Note: [A glaring example of “Tufian” approach, appearing below]

Imam Malik referred to the notion of istislah, which meant “to seek the good.” In his legal research, he, therefore, used the example of the companions—who formulated numerous legal decisions in the light of the common good while respecting the corpus of the sources—to justify the fact that “to seek the good” (istislah) is one of the fundamentals of the Sharia and so is part of it.

It is, however, Abu Hamid al-Ghazali who, with his strict codification, provided the clearest framework for tackling this question from his time to the present. In his Al-mustasfa min ilm al-usul, he states very precisely: “In its essential meaning, al-maslaha is a term which means to seek something beneficial [manfaa] or avoid something harmful [madarra].

What we mean by maslaha is the preservation of the objective [maqasid] of the Law [shar], which consists of five things: the protection of religion, life, intellect, lineage, and property. Whatever ensures the protection of these five principles [usul] is maslahawhatever goes against their protection is mafsada, and to avoid it is maslaha”.

Al-Ghazali, still referring to the broad meaning of maslaha, mentions three different types: al-daruriyyat (the imperative), a category which has to do with the five elements of maqasid al-sharia (here in the sense of the objectives of the Law) listed earlier; al-hajiyyat (the necessary, the complimentary), which has to do with the prevention of anything that could be a source of difficulty in the life of the community, without leading to death or destruction; and finally al-tahsiniyyat and al-kamaliyyat (the enhancing and the perfecting)*1, which concern anything that may bring about an improvement in religious practice. These three levels cover all that can be considered as the masali (common good) of the human being considered as a person and as a worshipper of God, and this categorization was hardly ever questioned in debate and polemic.

*1 {The only point which could be cited, while ignoring all other parameters, vaguely favoring financing under murabaha}

Ulama established a typology based on the degree of proximity of al-maslaha to the sources. If al-maslaha is based on textual evidence (i.e., a quotation from the Qur’an or the Sunna), it is called maslaha mutabara (accredited), and it must necessarily be taken into account. If, on the other hand, the maslaha invoked is contradictory to an undisputed text (nass qati), it is called mulgha (discredited) and cannot be taken into account. The third type occurs when there is no text: the Qura’an and the Sunna do neither confirm nor reject a maslaha that became apparent after the age of Revelation. A maslaha of this type is call mursala (undetermined), for it allows the “Ulama” to use their judgment and personal reasoning to formulate a legal decision in the light of the historical and geographical context; using their best efforts to remain faithful to the commandments and to the “ letter and spirit” of the law.

 

It is this last type that has given rise to much debate and polemic (the analysis is beyond the scope of this study). Suffice it to say here that the main cause of disagreement was the fear, on the part of those opposed to the very concept of al-maslaha al-mursala, that such a notion, with such broad scope, might then allow the ulama to formulate regulations without reference to the Qur’an and the Sunna based on exclusively rational and completely free reasoning, all in the name of a remote hardship or “an anticipated difficulty  Most ZahiriteShafaiite and Malikite ulema did not recognize al-maslaha-al-mursala, for it does not refer back to the sources—as a legal proof; they saw it as a specious (Wahmiyya) proof.

 

This was the very same instinctive fear in an approach that is although purely rational but disconnected with the Law; that pushed Al-Ghazali to restrict work on al-maslaha to the area of the application of qiyas (analogy), which, of its nature, requires a close link with the text for the deduction of the cause (illa) on which analogical reasoning rests.

Note: – Hire-purchase and lending under Murabaha, therefore, contravenes the second rule of maslaha as well as the third rule, by not fulfilling the “referring back to the source” requisite. Hence being spurious (whamiyya) in nature, becomes clearly impermissible!

 

Famous fourteenth-century Hanbali jurist–Najm al-Din al-Tufi– ended up giving al-maslaha priority over texts from the Qur’an and the Sunna; which, according to him, should be applied, according to Mahmasani, only–“to the extent that the common good does not require anything else” 

 

Currently, we see very strange “modern Islamic legal decisions” based on “modern maslaha-al-mursala” that are manifestly contradictory to the sources. The misuse of al-maslaha al-mursala thus sometimes seems to justify the strangest behavior, as well as the most obscure commercial dealings, financial commitments, and banking investments, under the pretext that they protect, or could or should protect, “the common good.”

 

Common good 

Famous 14th Century renowned scholar of Grenada, Al-Shitabi, first of the proponents of the doctrine of al-maslaha-al-mursal who stipulated the precise conditions for “common good” –to be considered as a reliable judicial source, restricting its application `preventing ulema from resorting to maslaha without justification. There is a general agreement of the scholars (both, for and against al-maslaha-al-mursala) on the precise definitions stipulated by Al-Shitabi for “common good”

Without going into too much detail, we may summarize the three generally recognized main conditions for situations when it is sure that no text has been enunciated:

  • The analysis and identification must be made with serious attention so that we may be sure that we have before us an authentic (haqiqiyya) and not an apparent or spurious (wahmiyya) The scholar must reach a high degree of certainty that the formulation of an injunction will avoid difficulty and not do the opposite and increase problems in the context of the Islamic legal structure.
  • The maslaha must be general (kulliyya) and be beneficial to the population and society as a whole, and not only to one group or class or individual.
  • The maslaha must not be in contradiction to or conflict with an authentic text from the Qur’an or the Sunna. If it were, it would no longer be a maslaha mursala but would be a maslaha mulgha.

 

What is clear from the above three conditions that it is the supremacy of the Qur’an and the Sunna over all other references and legal instruments. 

 

Dr. Yusuf Ali Qaradawi rightly recalls, taking up the ideas of al-GhazaliIbn al-Qayyim, and al-Shitabi, that everything found in the Qur’an and the Sunna is, in itself, in harmony with “the good of humankind” in general, for the Creator knows and wants what is best for human beings, and He shows them what they must do to achieve it. We find in the Qur’an, referring to the revealed message: “[the Prophet] who will enjoin upon them the doing of what is right and forbid them the doing of what is wrong, and make lawful for them the good things and forbid the bad things of life, and lift from them their burdens and the shackles that were upon them [aforetime]”

“They ask you about wine and gambling. Say, “In them is great sin and [yet, some] benefit for people. But their sin is greater than their benefit.” And they ask you what they should spend. Say, “The excess [beyond needs].” Thus, Allah makes clear to you the verses [of revelation] that you might give thought”. [Q, 2:219]

 

If the conditions stipulated for common good are, manifestly proclaimed (qati al-thubut wa-qati al-dalala) in the Qur’an and/or the Sunna, they must be respected and applied in the light of an understanding of the whole body of the objectives of Islamic teaching, maqasid al-Sharia.

 

“And We did not send before you any messenger or prophet except that when he spoke [or recited], Satan threw into it [some misunderstanding]. But Allah abolishes that which Satan throws in; then Allah makes precise His verses. And Allah is Knowing and Wise”. [Q, 22:52]

 

 

The author earnestly hopes and prays, that this piece will provide clarity to the people, on the issue of “RIBA” {as promised by Allah}, and help them choose the right path. InshaAllah.

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shakir2.wordpress.com

Mikhail Gorbachev of India!

September 23, 2019

Image result for Pic of balkanized India?

Modi—The Mikhail Gorbachev of India–has spurred the disintegration of Illegitimate, Fragile India by abrogating Article 370 for IO-Kashmir!

A Prominent Indian Newspaper, a few years back, reported that there are numerous active secessionist movements in 22, out of 29, Indian states. Some other sources present, a by names, list of 135 separatist movements including numerous insurgencies, raging in various states and union territories of India.

The difference between a state and a Union Territory

Kashmir will be a UT with a legislature like Delhi and Pondicherry, while Ladakh will be a UT without such a legislature. {UTs without legislature are more of an integral constituent of the federating Center than those with a legislature}

Up until recently, there were 29 states and 7 Union Territories of India. However, after the illegal bifurcation of Kashmir, [should India succeed by chance] there will be 28 states and 8 Union Territories.

Multiple states, many in the northeast, enjoy a special status/provisions, under the Article – 370 of the Indian constitution. Some of these states are Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra and Gujarat. After the illegal annexation of Jammu/Kashmir and Ladakh [should it be successful], there will be 8 UTs and 28 states. 

Under the Indian Constitution, states are having a quasi-autonomous, perforated-bonding (loosely federated with the Center) status thereunder the federal government cannot legislate on many of state’s internal matters; hence de jure empowering these states, to pass the laws to secede, from the botched Union, at will. The only way to stop them from seceding would be by the use of military muscles as is being witnessed in the (Disputed, Indian Occupied) Kashmir.

First Union Territories (administrative units) were, the-by-force-annexed, islands of Andaman and Nicobar. Most other territories; 552 Princely states, British suzerainty states, were coaxed to join Independent India. Simultaneously, through a combination of threats, blackmail, trickery and military mean. India acquired de facto control over the remaining colonial enclaves and the princely states. This is how all Independent territories were integrated into India. 

Around 1930 Indian National Congress termed the non-integration of independent princely states; for, the British Empire had no legal or constitutional rights to transfer their allegiances to Independent India, as the “Balkanization”. {Which seems a matter of time now, anyway!}

Lord MountbattenSardar Vallabhbhai Patel and V. P Menon were the three perpetrators; of the present illegitimate/fragile; botched union and insatiably expansionist India; which Modi has set on; the beginning of an inevitable end; accelerated disintegration, by illegally abrogating (Article 370) the protected status of Kashmir! 

Union territories without legislative bodies:

Union territories with legislative bodies:

Former union territories: [ given “Statehood” protection under article 370, but after its illegal abrogation and the annexation of Kashmir, are now worried about losing it]

Five of these states (marked with*) along with Meghalaya and Assam have, therefore, already demanded independence from India.

Any union territoryalready having legislative body in place. would render the Indian president incapable of mandating any law or rule, under Article 240 of the Indian constitution, for this UT.

India’s worsening financial straits.

According to the current deteriorating financial situation of the Indian economy, it seems like the repeat of the Soviet Union’s economic melt-down before its collapse. The Indian Navy Chief is complaining about the lack of funds. The Indian army chief is complaining about vintage [40 years old] aircraft. Soldiers, in general, complain about poor/insufficient food and clothing. Under such conditionsone must commend those, who call India, A Shining India?

Conclusion: Coaxing-tactics used in the integration of the princely states; administrative units; with all too OBVIOUS legal loopholes in botched Independent India; India became an illegitimate and highly fragile state, destined to disintegrate/balkanize, which Modi has unwittingly triggered by illegally abrogating (Article-370) the protected status of IO-Kashmir.   

For further readings on the topic: 

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2019/08/07/insatiably-expansionist-india/

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2017/09/25/balkanization-of-india/

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2016/04/02/ugly-face-of-western-darling-india/

Comment/feedback/share/like/follow.

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Who are Yazidi’s?

June 12, 2019

IRAQ-YAZIDI-RAPE-CONGO : News Photo

Yazidis: the Iraqi ethnic and religious minority descends from some of the region’s most ancient roots and face executions for a reputation as ‘devil worshippers’ Yazidis are predominantly ethnically Kurdish, and have kept alive their syncretic [more appropriately hodge-podge] religion for centuries, despite many years of oppression and threatened extermination. Yazidi people are a mostly Kurmanji–speaking ethnoreligious group, or an ethnic Kurdish minority indigenous to Iraq, Syria and Turkey who are strictly endogamous. Their so-called Syncretic-religious construction is influenced by pre-Islamic Assyrian traditions, Sufi and Shiite Islam, Nestorian Christianity, and Zoroastrianism. Their rich oral traditions [no written scripture] is their primary way of passing on their beliefs, which makes it complicated for scholars and historians to pin down the nuances of their religion. 

Yazidis believe that the world was created by God {Yazdanprobable source of the name “Yazidi’}, who entrusted it to seven angels led by one known as the Peacock Angel, also called Melek Taus. Melek Taus is the primary figure in the Yazidi belief system. Their religion is monotheistic and non-dualistic, and they do not believe in the concept of Hell. They believe in internal purification through metempsychosis, a term referring to the transmigration of souls. Yazidis believe that they are descended directly from Adam alone, while the rest of humanity comes from the lineage of both Adam and Eve. 

Though their belief system is rooted in the pre-Islamic tradition; the figure rumored as the founder of the Yazidi faith is an ‘Umayyad’ Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir; a Sufi preacher who died in 1162, considered to be an incarnation of Melek Taus. Sheikh Musafir’s tomb near Mosul, Iraq, is the Yazidi’s most important pilgrimage site.  [A highly improbable concoction; for, in that case, they would have been Muslim or at least a Sect within Islam, like many others!]  

The assemblage of Yazidi’s faith is derived from Zoroastrianism (an ancient Persian faith founded by a philosopher), Christianity and Islam. The religion has taken elements from each, ranging from baptism (Christianity) to circumcision (Islam) to reverence of fire as a manifestation from God (derived from Zoroastrianism) and yet remains distinctly non-Abrahamic. This derivative quality has often led the Yazidis to be referred to as a heretical-cult. 

At the core of the Yazidis’ marginalization is their worship of a fallen angel, Melek Tawwusor Peacock Angel, one of the seven angels that take primacy in their beliefs. Unlike the fall from grace of Satan, in the Judeo-Christian tradition, Melek Tawwus was forgiven and returned to heaven by God. {According to Islamic literature, he is not an angel but a “Gene—Jinn—made out of the smokeless flame of fire. (Q: 55:15) still lurking around in this world, misguiding people until the end to the time. He, due to his piety and worship before refusing to prostrate to Adam (PBUH), was titled as the “peacock of the Angels”} The importance of Melek Tawwus to the Yazidis has given them a reputation for being devil-[SATAN] worshippers – notoriety that, in the climate of extremism gripping Iraq, has turned life-threatening. 

 Yazidis pray facing the sun at sunrise, noon, and sunset. {Conversely Muslims are strictly forbidden to pray at these times} Wednesday is their holy day, and Saturday is their day of rest. 

An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (1137/1138–1193) born in Tikrit (Now in Iraq, the home-town of Saddam Hussain) known as Sultan Salahud-Din-Ayyubi (The Conqueror, in most of the Muslim world) or Saladin (in the west)the first sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen and the Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty. He Conquered Jerusalem on 2nd October 1187. He was A Sunni Muslim of Kurdish ethnicity [Not Yazidi] 

Shakir2.wordpress.com 

Reposing Hindu Identity in Requiem mass. 

December 3, 2018

Image result for Pic of Hindu extremism

In British India, Hindu Identity was a thing to hide. For India’s oldest living people, being Hindu was once a hidden affair. As colonial subjects, Hindus learned to accept—or at least to not publicly contest—the basic premise of the British civilizing mission, which saw Indian culture and Hindu religion as vastly inferior to its European counterpart. For much of the colonial era, Hindus held their religion back from the public eye, submerging it in private rituals.  Hinduism, after all, is a myth. 

In the early 20th century, Gandhi was the first one, who tried to bring it to public life, posing it at par with Islam, in the context of botched Hindu-Muslim unity. The attempt, however, was quashed due to the staunch secularist (Nehruvian) doctrine of the First Indian P.M. Jawahar Lal Nehru.  

For the next several decades, Nehruvian secularism dominated India’s intellectual life. Despite the vibrant practice of Hinduism in temples, daily life, and festivals, there was no appetite or courage shown by Hindus in public understanding of it. 

Nehruvian “Idea of India” “An Imagined secular, pluralist polity that belongs to all Indians and not to any one group” (i.e. Hindu majority). India was created as pluralist opposed to Hindu majoritarian (particularistic) nationalism. 

Indian secularism has gone down the drain due to the growing incidence of communal conflicts in various parts of India involving Hindu extremists; and particularly the occurrences of Godhra train burning and burning of thousands of Muslims alive in Gujrat; under the auspices of current P.M Modi, Hindu extremism has changed the Character of India forever to that of a Hinduterroriststate.  

Particularism of “Hindutva” transformed by RSS into violent extremism. 

BJP a subsidiary of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) for long has been calling on the Indian governments to recognize the special rights of the Hindu majority in a Hindu majority country. 

Now with the advent of BJP’s rise to become India’s governing party, the idea of India is being redefined to mean a Hindu polity. Through acts of violence as well as words and laws, Hindu Extremists are pressing not whether the country’s political system should recognize Hindu identity, but the precise way in which it should be recognized.   

This concept of Hindu majoritarianism or the pre-eminence of Hinduism has been in progress right from the time of Indira Gandhi down to Rajive, Vajpayee, Modi and is bound to perpetuate in more violence after the 2019 parliamentary elections, regardless of who wins or who loses. Muslims would, therefore, be naïve not to re-evaluate their position and prepare accordingly.    

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/04/02/indian-muslims-and-conquest-of-mecca/ 

A Burst of Hindu extremism; the rise of a Hindu Government espousing extremism; is a reactionary/retaliatory expression against centuries-old repression, caused by sustained, enduring and taxing dynastic subjugation by the kings, dukes, Rajas. It permeated through and through in Hindu psyche as an inferiority complex. They are now revolting against it by way of extremism.  

This is best expressed by Hyderabadis; where everyone claims to be the descendant of a Nizam; as if all the courtiers and the ordinary subjects just vanished into thin air, at the end of Asaf Jahi Dynasty! 

In an Indian concocted zeitgeist, a diverse collection of Indians, are now looking for an identity to arm themselves like that of an Anglicized elite. It simply expresses an ingrained psychological, cultural and religious inferiority, making them fit the famous proverbial expression: A Crow pretended to walk like a stark but forgot even his own.  

At one hand, an Indian woman would take pride in having an affair with a white man, acting like a white woman and awkwardly using western slangs to fit in. On the other hand, a Gujrati man would be, walking in the winter, wearing sleeveless sweater, socks and muffler but flip-flop underneath OR donned with a three-piece suit in a party but jogging shoes underneath. Come on, Give me a break! 

India to an extent, nevertheless, is the beneficiary of this psychologically inert state. Indian Muslims have been force-fed the goodness of botched “secular-India”, due to which; despite once having been considered to be the best Muslim, they vitiated their religion and took pride in being called Indian instead. Result; despite facing sustained and designed discrimination and humiliation; never mustered the courage to embark on a resistance or separatist movement, like many others in 22 of the Indian states.  

As stated earlier, firstly, Hindu’s psychological holdbacks would never allow them, despite, supposedly, having attained the Hindu majoritarian Identity, to equate with their counterparts in the global setting. Secondly, it is highly unlikely, given the internal and external dynamics, that India would ever become an economic power as wishfully hyped. Thirdly, Muslim-India sure had glorious past but it was neither Hindu-India nor Hinduism. Fourthly, Hindu majoritarian identity, admittedly, would prove to be elusive and imaginary for the winners and communal for the losers; at best, unless the balkanization of coerced-Indian-Union takes place. 

Equating Diwali with Christmas and Ramayana with Bible is albeit euphoric but delusional. 

Recognition of pre-eminence of Hindu majoritarian Identity, given the Punjab and Kashmir almost slipped out of Indian control, would simply spur the process of India’s balkanization. Many-other-among-the-equals would not allow the usurpation of their ancestral and birthrights to their land/country and assignment of it to Hindu-majority. They are already up in arms against the covert privileged Hinduism; the status being sought by Hindu extremist through the “citizenship amendment bill”, currently under consideration in the parliament. Passing it would justify forced conversion of non-Hindusespecially the Muslims to Hinduism. Hindu extremists’ rhetoric (foisted by RSS, BJP, Vishwa Hindu Parishad and Hindutva) has transformed into violent-activism. Godhra train burning and Burning-Muslims alive in Gujrat; under the auspices of Narendra Modi (P.M); and many subsequent lynching of Muslims and other minorities, all over India are barbaric examples of it. 

The proponents of the Hindu majoritarianism ought to bear in mind that Hinduism does not brace a prospering future. Because, after all, it is a mythology carved out of monotheistic persuasion. Vouchsafed in Puranas and Vedas. Hence “Ghar Wapsi (back to home) should be taken seriously by the Hindu majority, not by the Muslim and other minorities. Younger, educated generation, all across the world, is drifting away from the mythologies, philosophies and even interpolated (and abrogated) divine religions due to their human-adduced illogical and un-appealing contents. 

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2017/09/25/balkanization-of-india/ 

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2015/10/09/indian-hindu-mob-lynches-a-muslim-on-just-a-rumor-about-beaf/

SAVE—-ROHINGYA, UGHER, PALESTINIAN AND KASHMIRI MUSLIM FROM STATE-SPONSORED GENOCIDE. RECLAIM—AFRICA— A MUSLIM CONTINENT. (Use and share this slogan as often as possible) 

 

 

West, a trembling hive of Hypocrisy

August 28, 2018

Western,  especially the US’s, virtues are tailored to justify hegemonic policies, wars and covert activities.Where,

Attacking Blacks is Racism.

Attacking a country is Terrorism                                                                                                (Except when attacked by a western country or Israel)

Attacking Homosexuality is Homophobia

Attacking women is Gender discrimination

Attacking Jews is Semitism

Questioning holocaust is still forbidden in some countries.

But, attacking Islam, Qura’an, Muslims and the Prophet, is all a fair game, as it mysteriously, in a snap, changes to, FREEDOM OF SPEECH, EXPRESSION.

Recently a ray of hope, however, has surfaced on the barren wilderness of the west; 

ECtHR decision to uphold the decision of A Vienna court convicted her in 2011 of disparaging religious doctrines, to an Austrian woman in her late 40s where she was fined $547 plus legal costs, declaring that “The Strasbourg-based ECHR ruled that insulting Islamic prophet Muhammad “goes beyond the permissible limits of an objective debate” and “could stir up prejudice and put at risk religious peace.”

The ECHR said the Austrian court’s decision “served the legitimate aim of preserving religious peace.” The court also said the woman’s comments were not objective, failed to provide historical background and had no intention of promoting public debate.                        https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/FS_Hate_speech_ENG.pdf

The Dutch government has sought to distance itself from Wilders’ contest, with Prime Minister Mark Rutte calling it provocative, but saying that there were protections of freedom of speech in the Netherlands.

“The aim is to provoke rather than to force a debate about Islam,” Rutte said this week. “Wilders is a politician who provokes and he is free to do”

that.”https://www.dw.com/en/anti-islam-dutch-politician-geert-wilders-cancels-muhammad-cartoon-contest/a-45298935

Read related article:-

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2015/12/30/islamophobia-through-yougove-poll-pew-research-center-study/

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2015/04/29/hipocrisy/

shakir2.wordpress.com

Re-alignments in the Middle East, In the wake of, Receding West.

June 19, 2018

 

 

Image result for Receding shores ?

The Arab–Israeli conflict was primarily seen, for many decades, as a conflict between Arab-states and Israel, rather than between Muslims and Israel. Periphery doctrine; an Israeli foreign-policy strategy; was used by P.M Ben Gurion to develop close alliances with Non-Arab Muslim states in the Middle East, to counter the united opposition of Arab states to the illegitimate existence of the state of Israel.

 Contemporary politicking is characterized by uncertainties, low probabilities for good and high consequences in terms of deceit, destruction, and miseries.

 Strategic-interests of the Israeli government converged with those of the Turkish and Iranian governments of the time. Turkey’s (Military lead government) sought integration with the free-market economies and democracies of Europe, a member of NATO and the EU. The Shah of Iran, being a major ally of the United States, facilitated the dialogue between Israel, Iran and Turkey.

In 1950, both Turkey and Iran became the first, and for a long time, the only Muslim states to have diplomatic relations with Israel. Both Turkey and Iran developed extensive military cooperation.  During the 1967 Six-Day War, Iran supplied Israel with essential oil and petroleum. Israel helped in the industrial and military development in Turkey and Iran.

With the rise of Arab nationalism under Nasser in the sixties the relationship between Iran and the Arab world started deteriorating (The Persian Gulf was dubbed as “Arabian” Gulf).  This further strengthened the relationship between Israel and Iran.

The overthrow of the Shah of Iran in 1979 was a major setback to Periphery Doctrine. The Islamic regime of Ruhollah Khomeini severed relations with Israel. Ironically, however, throughout the 1980s no one in Israel said anything about or considered Iran a threat—the word wasn’t even uttered.

During the peak of the Persian Empire, Jews are thought to have comprised as much as 20% of the population. Jews trace their heritage in Iran to the Babylonian Exile of the 6th century BC and have retained their ethnic, linguistic, and religious identity. Now their number, however, has dwindled to mere 9000.

Zionist Organization was first established in Persia by the Jewish elders and Rabbis. The Jews of Persia understood that “Zion” is the biblical name of Jerusalem and Zionism demonstrates the end of exile and the beginning of redemption.

Rumors, during the time of Hitler, cropped up in Iran that Hitler has secretly converted to Islam and has taken the name Heydar (the title of Imam Ali). What made, European and Jews, panic was that Hitler is planning to reveal his true religion after defeating the deceitful British, the godless Russians and the Jews.

Unfortunately, the Bible has a little good to say about Gentiles (and barely any about Jews) with the exception of Cyrus the Great; who was the first Zionist, yet exalted in the Bible. Persians and Medes, according to Old Testament, are the only people who hadn’t oppressed Jews or committed atrocities against them. There was Jewish royalty in Iran, including Queen Esther, buried there (as are Daniel and Mordecai). Iran, thus, logically, becomes the second holiest land in Judaism.  Israel, nevertheless, is Iran’s arch-enemy always conspiring to destroy or at least weaken it.

Is there any possibility of a raproshma between the two?

It seems too late. The chances, by far, are getting slimmer by every passing day; for the World’s naiveté, despite all the neo-conic, fascist and populist strategies employed by the retreating west, is eroding. Iran, despite being a pariah ( Shia’a state), is increasingly gaining acceptance in the comity of nations as a Muslim-dominated, relation-worthy sovereign state. Bedouin Pentagon, on the other hand, is losing its Shia’a-Sunni (sectarian) tug of war.

It would have been most probable if the Palestinian state was created and the West’s fosterage of Israel forsaken; to let it exist and grow on its own; cultivating relationships on mutuality, rather than arms twisting by its sugar daddy—the USA.

On the other hand, ironically, in the vein of strange realism, Western Intelligentsia and the Academia have already started contemplating and discussing the Post-Israel-Middle East.

After the Iranian revolution in 1979, the country set out to export its brand of revolutionary Islam. As Iran became an Islamic republic, Sunni Islamists were not only jealous of the triumph of the Shia’a Imamate (State) but became even more determined to establish their version of the Islamic state.

The relationship between Saudi Arabia and Iran has oscillated between indifference, hostility, rapprochement and tension over the decades. Prince MBS appears determined to intensify the rivalry with Iran as he continues to raise Riyadh’s concerns over Iranian expansion in the Arab world and beyond.

Saudi Arabia exported Wahhabi Islam, to counter Iranian revolutionary Islam, across Africa, Asia and even Europe. Saudis are notorious for stoking sectarianism. The two countries entered a fierce battle over the souls of Muslims with Saudi clerics augmenting their anti-Shiite rhetoric and the Iranian counterparts playing down their Shiism to appeal to Pan-Islamic, anti-imperial and anti-Western sentiments among Muslims. Saudi Arabia, despite President Obama’s realistic understanding of the Middle Eastern issues, continued pressing the USA to bomb Iran.

The Saudis see the resurgence of the Iranian influence as a revival of the Old Persian nationalism. Blowing-up the Iranian threat magnifies MBS’s role as the savior of Bedouin-Pentagon from Persianization and Shiification.

Saudis see the brutal war in Yemen, where the Shia’a-Houthis are supported by Iran, as a battle for survival for the Saudi nation and the hegemony of Arabness over Persianization. Prince MBS’s Vision 2030 for the Kingdom excludes Iran from the greater regional integration with the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Egypt and Israel.

Muta’a Doctrine (marriage of convenience) in Politics

During the Cold War, Saudi Arabia and Iran worked together with the United States against the Soviet Union. They accepted a division of labor: Iran provided military capabilities; Saudi Arabia provided theological ammunition and funding against the Soviet Union. Now Iran is replaced as a new enemy for the Soviet Union and Israel as a friend for Iran. A toxic nexus has emerged between the US, Saudi Arabia and Zionist Israel in the rapidly changing situation in the Muslim East. Saudis maintained discreet relations with the Zionist-Israel, hiding this illicit relationship from the Muslim World. Now, however, they arrogantly flaunt it as a badge of honor due to the changed political compulsions.

As is already well-known; the Saudi and Israeli common cause against perceived Iranian influence and expansion; in places like Syria, Lebanon and Iraq of late has forced the historic bitter enemies down a path of cooperation as both seem to have placed the breakup of the so-called “Shia’a crescent” as their primary policy goal in the region at any cost. For Israel, Hezbollah, seen as an Iranian proxy contingent, has long been its greatest foe, present right up against the Jewish state’s northern border.

This new arrangement, on the one hand, mitigates the Kingdom’s fear of losing its role as the “loyal regional villain”, while, strengthening the “Triangle of Hate” on the other. Saudis have presented the Islamic awakening, sweeping the Muslim East, an Iranian inspired plot.

Saudi Arabia, despite the huge reduction in its oil revenues, is trying to maintain its role as a “cash cow” and the “lynchpin of America’s Muslim East policy”. Saudi Arabia’s worst nightmare is the fear of American abandonment for a new regional partner. This will bring Saudi Arabia’s relevance, regionally and globally, to naught.

 

The rise of the  Justice Development Party of Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan in the 2000s led to a steady deterioration in Israel–Turkey relations. Unlike, previous Turkish governments, Erdogan’s government openly condemned Israel’s policies towards Palestine and blamed it for the conflict. Relations between Sunni-Turkey and Shia’a-Iran are on the rise.

shakir2.wordpress.com

 

 

 

 

Sorry state of Bangladesh

April 13, 2018

Image result for map of pakistan and bangladesh before break up

The way Bangladesh was created, being run and its resources plundered may not survive long from imploding.

That is exactly what India has planned when it helped Bengali traitors secede from Pakistan. It was blasphemous for Bengalis; to break away from a country which Allah (SWT) gave them as a sanctuary, just because their brethren in the Western part were unjust to them? They played in the hands of the Mushrekeen (Indian Hindus).

Their worldly reward is that; a “Mushrik-Modi” boasts about breaking PAKISTAN standing amongst them, right there on their land. Don’t Bengalese feel “ashamed”?

Mujeeb should have been given the reign of the country for he won the popular vote.

Bhutto and his cohorts fiendishly conspired to break the country to satiate the lust for power. Breaking the country into two halves was the only logical way to let both win and enjoy the power without any political duel.

Ironically some diehard ignorant still revere and call him “a great leader” and a “Shaheed”!

Bengalis ought to see what is happening to Indian Muslims– who rejected the call of the Divine and refused to migrate– and be ready for the same. They would not be able to escape Allah’s wrath.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/04/02/indian-muslims-and-conquest-of-mecca/

On the other hand, those who committed excesses, in any form or shape, from the Western part could not be absolved or pardoned for their crimes.

I have a strong conviction, nevertheless, that sooner or later there will be some sort of confederation between the two; which may flourish even(after the Balkanization of India) into a bigger one consisting of Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Afghanistan, and Turkey.

(it may sound wishful at the moment but the fast-paced changes on the political landscape of the world point to its real-time possibility).

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2017/09/25/balkanization-of-india/

shakir2.wordpress.com

Demonizing, Repressing a Religious Minority!

December 19, 2017

 

 

 

DEMONIZING AND REPRESSING A RELIGIOUS MINORITY BECAUSE IT HAS DIFFERENT MORAL VALUES THAN THE MAJORITY CAN HAVE UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES.
A classically American approach that protects the many religious streams running together to form the American cultural heritage rather than damming one in favor of another. As historian Denise Spellberg observes of Thomas Jefferson’s view of Islam, “In the formation of the American ideal and principles of what we consider to be exceptional American values, Muslims were, at the beginning, the litmus test for whether the reach of American constitutional principles would include every believer, every kind, or not.” Jefferson didn’t care for Islam (or any organized religion, for that matter). But he understood that America would be stronger if citizens favoring one stream of its heritage vigorously argued its merits without seeking to place legal limits on those arguing for the merits of a different stream.
Shakir2.wordpress.com

Denise A. Spellberg (born c. 1958) is an American scholar of Islamic history. She is an associate professor of history and Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Texas at Austin. Spellberg holds a BA from Smith College (1980) and a Ph.D. (1989) from Columbia University.

Books

Politics, Gender, and the Islamic Past: The Legacy of ‘A’isha Bint Abi Bakr. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.

Thomas Jefferson’s Qur’an: Islam and the Founders, New York: Knopf, October 1, 2013; ISBN 978-0307268228

Balkanization of India.

September 25, 2017

Image result for PIC OF INDIA IN PIECES

Originally Published in American Chronicle in March 2009

(Millions of Slum-dogs need be emancipated)

The idea of Balkanization of India is silently creeping to the fore from different quarters and schools of thought. Fast-changing regional and global dynamics also demanding serious and conscientious attention towards this crucial issue, which entails far and wide ramifications for the region and the world.

This is such an important issue that intellectuals, academicians, and policy strategists should treat it above any sentimentality, nationalistic or partisan attitudes to reach a purely logical and plausible conclusion.

First of all, let us shed some light on the history of the Indian Sub-Continent so that a rationally and logically sustainable ground could be established for this discussion.

Historically, about 72 % of the current Indian population is originated from the Aryan race. Prominent historians and Dravidians consider Aryans as foreign invaders to India. The Aryan Invasion Theory (AIT) was postulated by eminent Oxford scholar Max Muller in 1882 and later advanced by several western and Indian historians. According to the latest research, however, which repudiates the invasion theory, they seem to be the natives of the Northern region.

There is a consensus among various Historians that there was little known of Indian Continent or of its people before the Muslim conquest of the area. Muslims, therefore, being the first historians of the area. (Gustave Le Bon). Arabs like Mohammad bin Qasim. and Tariq bin Ziyad were the very first Muslims who conquered the area which brought Islam to the region. The Indian subcontinent was then invaded by the Russian Tatars like Ganges Khan and Kublai Khan, who later converted to Islam. Historically it had been a monotheistic society as per the Puranas and Vedas and Sanskrit literature. In nutshell, this area had been fairly developed with communal, social and political institutions. Al Bairuni (born in 973 in Uzbekistan and died in 1048 in Ghazna now Ghazni, Afghanistan) being the very first Muslim Prominent scholarly figure. The continent flourished to the optimum under Muslim rule and it used to be called the “Golden Sparrow” before it was robbed by the British.

To discern the reality of India as a country it would not be out of place to quote here the noted author Mr. William Dalrymple, who has done much work on the area and authored many books.

“In the world’s media, never has the contrast between the two countries appeared so stark: one is widely perceived as the next great superpower; the other written off as a failed state ….He further adds, On the ground, of course, the reality is different and first-time visitors to Pakistan are almost always surprised by the country’s visible prosperity. There is far less poverty on show in Pakistan than in India, fewer beggars, and much less desperation. In many ways the infrastructure of Pakistan is much more advanced: there are better roads and airports, and more reliable electricity. Middle-class Pakistani houses are often bigger and better appointed than their equivalents in India. Moreover, the Pakistani economy is undergoing a construction and consumer boom similar to India’s, with growth rates of 7%, and what is currently the fastest-rising stock market in Asia”.

Anyone with common sense can see the direction towards which India is headed. Far from being the next superpower or the sole ruler of the entire Indian Ocean, India is a country at the brink of disintegration. The reason for that is not only because she has earned enemies due to its hostile foreign policy towards neighboring countries, and its desire to create hegemony in the region with the hope to expand her boundaries to include countries like Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Ceylon, Burma, Nepal and more to create a huge Indian empire, or Vishal Bharat. Most importantly, It´s her internal fractures that are most likely to drive India towards a fate similar to that of the Soviet Union.

On the onset of the decline of Ottoman Empire, East India Co barges in as a trading co and manipulates acting on behest of the emperor.

In August 1858 the British Parliament abolished the English East India Company and transferred the company´s responsibilities to the British crown. This launched a period of direct rule in India, ending the fiction of company rule as an agent of the Mughal emperor (who was tried for treason and exiled to Burma). In November 1858, in her proclamation to the “Princes, Chiefs, and Peoples of India,” Queen Victoria pledged to preserve the rule of Indian princes in return for loyalty to the crown. More than 560 such enclaves, taking in one-fourth of India´s area and one-fifth of its people were preserved until Indian independence in 1947. India started out as more than 500 states.

The British Indian Empire, informally, the British Raj (rāj, lit. “rule” in Hindi) or simply British India, internationally and contemporaneously, India, was the term used synonymously for the region, the rule, and the period, from 1858 to 1947, of the British Empire on the Indian subcontinent. The region included areas of British India directly administered by the United Kingdom (contemporaneously, “British India”) as well as the princely states ruled by individual rulers under the paramountcy of the British Crown. The princely states, which had all entered into treaty arrangements with the British Crown, were allowed a degree of local autonomy in exchange for protection and representation in international affairs by Great Britain. The British Indian Empire included the regions of present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, and, in addition, at various times, Aden (from 1839 to 1937), Lower Burma (from 1852) and Upper Burma (from 1886) until 1937, British Somaliland (briefly from 1884 to 1898), and the Straits Settlements (briefly from 1819 to 1867). The British Indian Empire had some ties with British possessions in the Middle East; the Indian rupee served as the currency in many parts of that region. What is now Iraq was, immediately after World War I, administered by the India Office of the British government. The British Indian Empire is said to have begun in May 1858 when the British exiled Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar II to Rangoon in then independent Konbaung Burma after executing most of his family, thus formally liquidating the Mughal Empire. At the same time, the British abolished the British East India Company and replaced it with the direct rule under the British Crown. In proclaiming the new direct-rule policy to “the Princes, Chiefs, and Peoples of India”… The Viceroy of India announced in 1858 that the government would honor former treaties with princely states and renounced the “Doctrine of Lapse”, whereby the East India Company had annexed territories of rulers who died without male heirs. About 40 percent of Indian Territory and 20–25 percent of the population remained under the control of 562 princes

INTERNAL “INDIAN” CAVITIES:

India is no more a country than the Equator´. Winston Churchill

“We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light.” Plato

Balkanizing Cracks in “India”: Naxalite insurrection shows severe cavities in India. Why is the press silent about the rebellion in 100 districts of India?–this constitutes about 40% of the country. The swathe of land from Nepal all the way down to Andhra Pradesh is under rebel control. The seven sisters in the Northeast are almost totally out of control of the center which does not seriously challenge the writ of the local leaders.

The central government is weak, corrupt, ineffective and impotent. Kashmir is on fire, as is Assam and Bihar. 250 million Dalits do not feel “Indian”. The 150 million Muslims have been so mistreated that they are in abject generational penury. It will take more than 3 centuries to pull the poverty-stricken out of destitute living. The media focuses on “Incredible India”, a figment of the imagination of the West.

Is India is a failed state? The maps show more than 89 insurgencies that are raging in India.

The Naxalites have a force of approximately 15,000 cadres spread across 160 districts in the states of Orissa, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka and West Bengal. They operate primarily in the lawless, dense forested areas of India´s interior, with some estimates saying Naxalites control approximately 10.03 million hectares (about 25 million acres) of forests nationwide. They also have an active campaign to recruit students and other youths to help spread their left-wing extremism into India´s towns and cities. Thus far, however, the Naxalites have not demonstrated the ability to operate in urban areas.

File:India Naxal affected districts map.svg

Kashmir: 100,000 civilians killed

White Widows: 50, million women ostracized from society and incarcerated in temples

East Punjab: Brutal suppression of Punjabi insurrection. Thousands killed

Tamil Nadu and Mizoram are in flames seeking independence

Tamil insurrection in Sri Lanka led by Tamils Terrorists in India

Bihar: Major suppression of Biharis and problems with Bangladesh

West Bengal in Communist hands fueling Naxalites.

Gujrat: Serious Hindu Muslim riots perpetrated by Mr. Moodi. 3000 burned.

200 -300 million Untouchables have little or no rights

150 million Muslims are at the lowest rung of the ladder:

India the only island of penury in Asia keeps the Subcontinent poor More than 560 states were forced into the union they did not want to be part of.

Tamil Nadu and Mizoram secessionist movement are live and hot.

THE SEVEN SISTERS: June 29, 2008, a bomb rips through a marketplace in a village located in the northeastern state of Assam. According to initial reports, eight killed and 45 injured, some critically. So was reported in the media. But the mess in Assam and other regions in the northeastern part of India have a much more violent history than the blast on June, 29, the most recent of many since the conception of India as an independent country.

The responsibility for the blast was taken by ULFA, United Liberation Front of Assam, one of more than two dozen militant groups, fighting for either an independent homeland. In the past 25 years, as many as 10,000 people have lost their lives in the violence. Thousands more have been displaced; now living in refugee camps.

The tensions have never seemed to subside; while certain militia groups did make deals with the government which brought some calm in the region; other armed groups have continued with their separatist activities. The year 2006 saw a spate of bombings by ULFA until August when the government agreed to stop its military operations in the region. The truce only lasted until September, and in November the military operation resumed. There have been constant attacks on politicians, security forces and railway construction workers ever since. Like Assam, there are six other states with equally fierce movements calling for more autonomy, known as the Seven Sister States of India. They are situated in the northeastern part of the country, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura states. The states are joined to rest of India by a narrow piece of land, called the chicken´s neck.

The region is marked by the multiplicity of tribes, ethnicities, cultures, and religion. it is home to around 400 tribes or sub-tribes. The whole of northeast India is marred with conflicts, including infighting amongst various villages, tribes and other warring factions, all for secession for their districts, villages, and tribes. Violence is also pitted against migrants from Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Nepal.

Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, and Meghalaya are relatively more peaceful than the rest. Nagaland is the oldest of insurgencies of India and is believed to have inspired almost all the ethnic groups in the region. More than 20,000 have been killed before a ceasefire was announced in 1997. They demand a separate homeland comprising of mainly Christian dominated areas of Nagaland along with certain areas in Manipur, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh.

The region is endowed with oil reserves worth billions. A state-owned company – Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) was forced out of the area until 2006 when it was allowed back in.

The government has been trying to ease tension in the region by striking deals with the rebel groups but no real breakthrough has been made to ensure long-term peace in the area. Manipur has been fighting for an independent country since 1974. The Indian army took control of the state in 1980. Lack of education and job opportunities has forced many to join separatists groups. Army has been carrying out operations to tackle the insurgency but that has only added to the sufferings of the locals. Some 6000 people have been displaced because of the operations and rebel fighting

The last of the seven states Tripura has been a refuge for many Bengalis after the war of 1971 when Bangladesh was carved by India and USSR out of West Pakistan. The influx of refugees and the building of a fence by the government along the border of Bangladesh have prompted attacks by the two major rebel groups, the National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT) and the All Tripura Tiger Force (ATTF). With thousands of homeless and harsh living conditions, life is miserable for the local population.

The Naxal movement of India was inspired by the revolutionary ideology of Mao Zedong. The movement feeds on a similar philosophy to that of Nepal´s. It first originated in the 1960s in a remote area of West Bengal, Naxalbari. Today it has under its influence eastern Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, eastern Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Bihar, popularly known as the Red Corridor. Naxalites (also known as Maoists and Marxist-Leninist revolutionaries) pose a serious ideological threat to the state of India. Earlier this year, Indian PM Manmohan Singh, described the rebels as “the single biggest internal security challenge ever faced by our country.”

The PM had good reasons to grant Naxalites the title of the single biggest internal security challenge ever. They have been involved in ruthless train hijacking, jailbreaks and murder of local politicians. They have refused to accept anything other than independence, a Naxalite leader has been found saying on record Talks are a part of our tactical line. Naxalism is not a problem, it is a solution.’ With a strong army of 15,000 soldiers, the Naxalites control one-fifth of India´s total forests. They have grown into 160 out of 604 administrative districts of India.

“India´s single biggest internal security challenge ever faced” – Indian PM on Naxal rebellion

Hinduism, as an extremist dogma.

The present form of Hindu religion is basically an evolved (one can also argue distorted) version of the initial monotheistic religion which prevailed here. As the class system progressed, from North-South divide; where Northerner seems to be having an edge over their Southerner counterparts, the poor were kept from the religious teachings. The recitations and meditations were performed in separated setting barring the lower class from having access to teachings. The fear of the poor or untouchables “Shuders” still, somehow, getting access to the teachings forced the upper “Brahmin” class to adopt “signs” (which is translated in Arabic “Surahs”) for the teachings and thus developed thousands of gods and present form of Hindu religion.

Abraham Lincoln had illustrated the spirit of democracy in the words, of the people, by the people, and for the people.

The authenticity of any country´s democratic status is measured against this set criterion. That said it is not difficult to determine that there is nothing democratic, or even secular for that matter, about India.

One of the leading political parties in India is the Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP]. The party was in power between 1998 and 2004. It is widely accepted as a radical right-wing political party. Those who share similar radical ideologies with this political party include the nationalist organization which goes by the name of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh [RSS] and Sangh Parivar. Another such political party is the Shiv Sena of Maharashtra headed by Bal Thackeray. What´s common between all these political and nationalist outfits is the radical doctrine of Hindutva, which dictates (as mentioned in the “The Struggle for India’s Soul,” World Policy Journal, fall 2002) that India is “not only the [Hindu] fatherland but also … their Punyabhumi, their holy land.” To Hindu extremists, all others on this land are viewed as “aliens” who do not belong there.

Recently The Hindu, a national daily carried comments of Bal Thackeray which invited Hindus to organize suicide squads in response to the Islamic terror threat to India. The plea was made after a bomb planted in a movie theatre by Hindu terrorists had failed to explode. Thackeray was pushing them to make more powerful bombs.

Sociologist Dipankar Gupta explains the mindset of the members of the Shiv Sena club:

“A good Hindu for the Shiv Sena is not necessarily a person well versed in Hindu scriptures, but one who is ready and willing to go out and attack Muslims … To be a good Hindu is to hate Muslims and nothing else.”

(Citizens versus People: the Politics of Majoritarianism and Marginalization in Democratic India, Sociology of Religion, Spring 2007)

John Dayal while commenting on the book titled “Religious Demography of India” disrobes the Indian propaganda (forwarded by the said political parties) of inciting public opinion against Muslim and Christian minorities of India. Much has been said about such schemes in this commentary and the one that preceded it. Selective pieces from Dayal´s observations only reaffirm all that has been said.

The 2002 Gujarat attacks against Muslims were appalling, to say the least; they generated a strong reaction from around the globe. The stories of violence and bloodshed were so dreadful that even the international media, which otherwise maintains silence over such issues, couldn´t turn a blind eye to the occurrences in Gujarat.

A human rights watchdog reports the events in a manner all too well known to the Muslims who survived the atrocities of 1947- The looting and burning of Muslim homes, businesses, and places of worship was also widespread. Muslim girls and women were brutally raped. Mass graves have been dug throughout the state. Gravediggers told Human Rights Watch that bodies keep arriving, burnt and mutilated beyond recognition.

The investigation also brought out the fact that those involved were the members of the Sangh Parivar. The BJP tried to erase traces that bore marks of their involvement in this mass murder. But their sins were so ghastly no amount of cover-up could hide the truth. So much so that some within the country was forced to speak against the then government and their heinous criminal activities.

Muslims are not the only targets. Christian minorities also have had a taste of this vicious campaign which is bent on cleansing India of its Non-Hindu) population. Attacks have been made against priests and nuns, also including institutions like churches, hospitals and even charitable organizations associated with Christians. Such assaults occurred most frequently under the BJP regime. More than 40 churches have been burned and Christian priests and nuns lynched. The assurance by the PM Vajpayee, that these attacks were isolated incidents and not an indication of an ethnic war against Christians, convinced but only a few. For these attacks were simultaneously accompanied by hate literature that was widely distributed. The compilation included not just quotations, which wrongly established Christianity as a religion that encourages violence against non-Christians but also carried suggestions as to how to harass them.

In Tamil Nadu alone, 45 special types of “untouchability” are practiced by the higher caste Hindus. Translated, in other words, the high-class Hindus deem themselves too high to share their temples, cremation grounds, river bathing points or even their barbers with Dalits and when these boundaries are transgressed, the punishment is severe.

As quoted in a report prepared for the Washington Post by Emily Wax; Anup Srivastava is a researcher with the People’s Vigilance Commission on Human Rights in Varanasi. His job requires him to investigate complaints filed by Dalits about discrimination among neighbors, in schools, at hospitals, and at work. He says, “India is not a true democracy. The country is independent. But people aren’t. How can there be a democracy when there are still people known as untouchables who face daily discrimination?”

To cite references from another article authored by an Indian named, V.B.Rawat, he protests, “All those who talk of “great democratic” India and nonviolent and tolerant Hindu community must address to this issue as to where was it when Dalits were being butchered by the Hindu upper castes. Also, “The Hinduism that is being preached these days is, in fact, Varnashram dharma, a belief in caste hierarchy…. And this caste system makes India as world’s biggest practicing racist country, worst than the South Africa of the apartheid period.”

Desperate, most Dalits are forced to convert to other religions, hundreds every year. But now the silence is being broken. The nobodies of India are taking on the government, be it through an interview to a foreign magazine or protest on the streets. They have also found strength in the aphorism majority is an authority.

But of all, violence against women is the most brutal practice justified as a religious duty in accordance with the teachings of the Hindu Holy Scriptures. The Hindu texts sanctify the killing of infant girls, by parents who deem themselves not capable of shouldering the responsibility of having a girl child. The Hindu holy book Bhagavad Gita clearly calls women embodiment of the worst desires and justifies the killing of women.

Here is an excerpt from Hindu book which allows the killing of women;

“Killing of a woman, a Shudra or an atheist is not sinful. A woman is an embodiment of the worst desires, hatred, deceit, jealousy and bad character. Women should never be given freedom.” Bhagavad Gita (Manu IX. 17 and V. 47, 147)”

Similarly, another holy script of Hindu religious book preaches looking down upon women by terming a woman equal to a dog, crow, and shudra (a low cast poor Hindu who has no rights in Hindu society).

“And whilst not coming into contact with Sudras and remains of food; for this Gharma is he that shines yonder, and he is excellence, truth, and light; but woman, the Sudra, the dog, and the blackbird (the crow), are untruth: he should not look at these, lest he should mingle excellence and sin, light and darkness, truth and untruth.” – Satapatha Brahmana 14:1:1:31.

In ancient Hindu society, newborn girls were buried alive while the practice is very much prevalent in the so-called secular, democratic India even today. The killing of newborn babies and the abortion of women fetuses in India is a common practice. In all cases, specifically female infanticide reflects the low status accorded to women in most parts of India.

India has had wars with all her neighbors

India has the lowest per capita GNP in the Subcontinent

Indian poor are poorer than Sub Saharan Africa.

More than 1000 districts in the hands of the Naxalites

India has more people living under the poverty line than those living in the whole of Africa and the Americas together.

INDIA AS A FAILED STATE: India is a failed state for failing to provide food shelter and clothing for her citizens. India has bloody borders. By harping on the “failed state” mantra the bigoted Indian commentariat wants to surround “Akhand Bharat” with small Balkanized mini-states like Sikkim, Bhutan, Sri Lanka. Any hegemonic power achieves its goal in the region by sabotaging the integrity and sovereignty of the neighbors. India wants to surround itself with a “Warsaw pact” type of string of obsequies and subservient states. Pakistan is a big hurdle in India´s hegemonistic policy of Westward expansion. Since the West never faced “India” in combat, they are unaware of the (South) Indian aggression that was encountered by Southeast Asia (Laos, Cambodia, and even Indonesia). China and Pakistan working together have arrested the advance of the sepoys of Delhi.

UNTOUCHABLE DALITS EEK OUT A SUBHUMAN LIVING IN INDIA:

Between 150 to 250 million Dalits or Untouchables live in utterly sub-human conditions. A population, as large as that of the United States, lives in conditions that are below and worse off than that of Sub Saharan Africa. The Dalit websites shed some light on the plight of the Dalits. EU says “India is being ruled by castes, not laws”-Indian state machinery supports License to kill Dalits

East Punjab: Brutal suppression of Punjabi insurrection. Thousands killed

Tamil Nadu and Mizoram are in flames seeking independence

Tamil insurrection in Sri Lanka fled by Tamils in India

Bihar: Major issues in Bihar and problems with Bangladesh

West Bengal in Communist hands.

Gujrat: Serious Hindu Muslim riots perpetrated by Mr. Modi

200 -300 million Untouchables have little or no rights

150 million Muslims are at the lowest rung of the ladder:

Goa remained Portuguese enclave until 1987, and even after Indian annexation, it was called Federally administered Area. In 1961 a resolution was tabled in the United Nations by USA and UK against the Indian aggression which was vetoed by USSR. Goans, even while under Indian hegemony, went to referendum and demanded the autonomy, never accepted to be an integral part of India.

Economic straits of India.

A brief look will abundantly expose the facade of the Indian economy; which will collapse at the first signs of uncertainty or instability. In 2008, its external debts increased to around $221 billion. In 2007, Indian exports stood around $145 billion, while imports were around $217 billion; a deficit of $72 billion in a single year. Its factory output accounts for 27.6% of the GDP and employs 17% of the total workforce. Rest of the workforce is largely dedicated to the agriculture sector. According to a 2008 World Bank report, 75.6% Indians live on less than $2 per day. It suffers from higher rates of malnutrition than Sub-Saharan Africa. Over 70% of its population is either illiterate or educated below the primary level. The Indian tourism industry is 1/6 of Las Vegas. Recently, Standard & Poor´s announced, India risks a downgrade from BBB-minus rating to the lowest investment-grade rating. Clearly, Indians are hardly in a financially sound shape to even contemplate on waging a war.

A brief look will abundantly expose the facade of the Indian economy; which will collapse at the first signs of uncertainty or instability. In 2008, its external debts increased to around $221 billion. In 2007, Indian exports stood around $145 billion, while imports were around $217 billion; a deficit of $72 billion in a single year.

Its factory output accounts for 27.6% of the GDP and employs 17% of the total workforce. Rest of the workforce is largely dedicated to the agriculture sector. According to a 2008 World Bank report, 75.6% Indians live on less than $2 per day. It suffers from higher rates of malnutrition than Sub-Saharan Africa. Over 70% of its population is either illiterate or educated below the primary level. The Indian tourism industry is 1/6 of Las Vegas. Recently, Standard & Poor´s announced India´s risk rating by a downgrade from BBB-minus rating to the lowest investment-grade. Clearly, Indians are hardly in a financially tenable situation to even contemplate waging a war.

Sudra Holocaust: Genocide of 1 million Dalits in India since 1947: About three million Dalit women have been raped and around one million Dalits killed from the time of Independence. This is 25 times more than the number of soldiers killed during the wars fought after independence. That is why Dalits do not need Aryan culture or Hindu Dharma based on caste anymore. …” [Dr. Tulsiram]

India: More than 75% live below Sub Saharan poverty line India: 3500-yrs of massacres of Dalit-Sudra Blacks by Arya-Brahmins Eat Rats: Indian officials ask starving Indians to eat rodents (BBC) Indian girl Infanticide-Female Foeticide: 1 million girls killed before or after birth per year

Mr. Paragh Khanna says that India has missed the boat of becoming a World Power soon, and China has left the penury stricken island of poverty in Asia (Bharat) in the dust. India is the poorest country in Asia and in terms of GNP, the poorest in South Asia. More than 150 million Dalits live is abject destituteness. India has poorer than Sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas together. It will take more than three centuries to pull these poor out of sub-human existence.

Minorities.

About 20 %, or 200 million, are religious minorities. Muslims constitutes 138 million or 13.4 5, Christians 24 million or 2.3 %, Sikhs 19 million or 2 %, Buddhists 8 million or 0.8 % and Jains 4 million or 0.4 %. “Others” numbered 6.6 million or 0.6 %. According to Mr. Tahir Mahmood, an Indian Muslim journalist, “The 2.3 % Christians in the Indian population cater to 20 % of all primary education in India, 10 % of all the literacy and community health care, 25 % of all existing care of destitute and orphans, 30 % of all the handicapped, lepers and AIDS patients etc”.

Discrimination against Minority Muslims.

Recently, Justice Rajinder Sachar Committee report admitted that 138 Million Muslims across India are severely under-represented in government employment, including Public Sector Units. Ironically, West Bengal, a communist-ruled state reported 0 (zero) percent of Muslims in higher positions in its PSUs! It has found that the share of Muslims in government jobs and in the lower judiciary in any state simply does not come anywhere close to their population share. The only place where Muslims can claim a share in proportion to their population is in prison! (Number of Muslims convicts in India is 19.1%, while the number of those under trials is 22.5%, which exceed their population ratio). A note sent on January 9 by the army to the defense ministry in 2004 says that only 29,093 Muslims among a total of 1.1 million personnel – a ratio of 2.6 %, which compares poorly with the Muslims´ 13.8 % share in the Indian population. Officially, the Indian Army doesn´t allow headcount based on religion.

Amnesty International (AI) 2008 report on issues within India: Amnesty Int 2008 report excoriates Horrid “India” RUPEE NEWS: Recording History, Narrating Archives, Strategic Intellibrief Analysis: Noticias de Rupia | Nouvelles de Roupie | Rupiennachrichten | ??????? ????? | ????

It may surprise many, but the one of highest concern is not Kashmir, but the rising tide of communalism, Anti-Christian, Anti-Dalit, and Anti-Muslim. The Naxalite insurrection led by Dalits and Maoists spreads over more than 40% of the landmass of the country. Three major groups – Maoist Communist Center, People´s War Group and CPI (ML) – have merged to form a united outfit called CPI (Maoist). It affirmed: The revolution will be carried out and completed through armed agrarian revolutionary war; that is, protracted people´s war with the armed seizure of power remaining as its central and principal task, encircling the cities from the countryside and thereby finally capturing them.”

Kashmir was concerned as the biggest threat to the country´s unity but in recent years, many in New Delhi thought that they had swallowed Srinagar. Kashmir is at the fever pitch. This year´s insurrection caught them by surprise. The Divide between Jammu and Kashmir is now impossible and even the puppet Farooq Abdullah who sold his soul to Delhi for a few Dollars and a title, says “Kashmir will go on a platter to Pakistan.” Paper Tigers: Indian tenuous “hold” on Kashmir is slipping fast

The third area of security concern for New Delhi is open rebellion in the Northeast. These insurrections do not make it to the daily headlines on CNN, but the fact is the New Delhi has very little control of Assam and the seven sisters that lay East of Bangladesh. Even Chinese occupied territory mislabeled “Arunachal Pradesh” has a huge body of rebels that want nothing to do with Delhi.

Communalism is a big threat to the so-called “secular” country. Brahmans in Jammu in 2008 led a boycott of Kashmir forcing the Kashmiris to strive to trade directly with Pakistan. Church burning in Orissa is problem exacerbated by the separatists who strive for freedom from Delhi. Gujarat´s Hinduvata massacred 3000 Muslims and hundreds of thousands are scared to go back to their homes.

The land of Gandhi, the secular state is falling apart.

95 % of the women in Madhya Pradesh in commercial sex are due to family traditions. So are 51.79 % in Bihar,´ said the study. While 43 % of the total women trafficked are minors, 44 percent of the women are into flesh trade due to poverty. Of the total women who are into sex work in the country, 60 % are from the lower and backward class, which indicates the pathetic living conditions of the communities. In Madhya Pradesh, a political bastion of Hindu right-wing party, 96.7 % of the women sex workers are from the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.

India has 4 million prostitutes nationwide and 60% of the prostitutes are from the Scheduled Castes and Tribes or other backward castes.

End of Indian daydreaming.

The relationship between the “world´s largest democracies” -India and USA- has been sacrificed once again for the sake of financial assistance and the other small irritant in West Asia–aka “defeat in Afghanistan”. India finds itself on the wrong side of history once again. For the first half-century of its existence, India supported the Evil Empire-USSR. Then in the 80s when the USSR imploded and Yugoslavia imploded, the Indian policymakers worked overtime to come up with a strategy of survival on this third planet from the sun. Egged on by a Democratic Congress, Mr. Clinton encouraged India to explode a nuclear device. The Pokhran explosions had an effect on India like the world has never seen. It allowed the youthful nation to begin thinking big–beyond the confines of reality and beyond the realm of imagination. Within a decade of meager growth, Indian had not only proclaimed them a Superpower but also convinced themselves of the death of Pakistan, the subservience of Bangladesh, the destruction of Sri Lanka and the erosion of Nepal as a political entity. In this dream world, Bollywood stopped filming movies in India and brought world capitals, skyscrapers, and modern amenities into the theatres and homes of ordinary Indians. Pretty soon a fog enveloped the nation–they actually started believing the Bollywood baloney and got swollen heads. Like the Michelin´s man full of air, the Superpower began to think of its borders beyond Uzbekistan and it´s Navy beyond the Pacific and Atlantic. Obama has taken a page from Richard Nixon´s policy of developing relations with China at the cost of India.

India´s faltering $41 Billion IT economy cannot salvage a lot of the poor. While a triumphalist media discusses the “growth of the Indian middle class”, the reality of India´s penury stricken population is very different. The higher the number the worse off the country. India ranks below Cambodia and Burkina Faso in terms of hunger. It is slightly better off than Haiti, Zimbabwe, and Bangladesh. Pakistan´s fares much better and is not listed on this chart. Cuba has taken care of its population and eliminated malnutrition, hunger and child mortality. It has done more with less and is the example that needs to be followed. Cuba produces more doctors for less and offers free medical education to citizens of the world. 1000 Cuban doctors served in cold Azad Kashmir and helped the victims of the earthquake.

India scored worse than nearly 25 sub-Saharan African countries and all of South Asia, except Bangladesh,” the report says.

When Indian states are compared to countries in the Global Hunger Index, [the central Indian state of] Madhya Pradesh ranks between Ethiopia and Chad,” it says.

India is long known to have some of the highest rates of child malnutrition and mortality in under-fives in the world.

According to the Indian government statistics two years ago, around 60% of more than 10 million children in the state were malnourished (International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) along with Welthungerhlife and the University of California)

2009 is perhaps the time when China finally has started to speak softly, though may have prevaricated its real intentions in pious homilies. Now the Chinese have spoken softly on Afghanistan asking Ms. Clinton four things. Stop destabilizing Pakistan. Resolve Kashmir. Stop the war in Afghanistan and work with Russia. These few requests made at a time when Ms. Clinton was visiting China asking for huge favors from Beijing have a very strong effect on world affairs. Of course, the US cannot refuse its banker.

Obama´s China policy renders obsolete the Indian strategic calculus built around the US containment strategy. Hardly two to three years ago, the Bush administration encouraged India to put faith in a quadrilateral alliance of Asian democracies – the US, Japan, Australia, and India – that would strive to set the rules for China´s behavior in the region.

According to reports, State Department officials had originally proposed that India is included in the itinerary of Clinton´s current first official tour abroad, but she struck it out. As things stand, Clinton meant every word of what she wrote last year in her Foreign Affairs article that “our [US] relationship with China will be the most important bilateral relationship in the world in this century”. Asia Times. India grapples with the Obama era By M K Bhadrakumar. M K Bhadrakumar was a career diplomat in the Indian Foreign Service.

The US cannot ignore the Chinese. The battle between the dragon and the elephant has come to head. There is a tectonic shift in international relations. China has woken up and for the first time in a couple of centuries can dictate terms. Khrushchev is probably sitting up in his grave to take notice. He once said, “We will bury you”. Karl Marx predicted that “capitalism would be sent to the dustbin of history”. Mao Ze Dung called the US “a paper tiger”. The British once said referring to China with the prodigious warning “Don´t wake the sleeping giant”. Well according to the signal—the Red Dragon in Beijing has woken. Those who thought that Communism was dead and Capitalism is kicking butt take a look at four cities–Beijing, Moscow, New York and London. There is a celebration in two and malaise in two. The World takes note.

Dennis Blair, the newly appointed director of national intelligence, in his testimony before the US Senate intelligence committee on January 22, struck a fine balance when he said,

While the United States must understand China´s military buildup – its extent, its technological sophistication and its vulnerabilities – in order to offset it, the intelligence community also needs to support policymakers who are looking for opportunities to work with Chinese leaders who believe that Asia is big enough for both of us and can be an Asia in which both countries can benefit as well as contribute to the common good.

However, this is precisely where a serious problem arises for India. In the Indian perception, South Asia and the Indian Ocean just aren´t “big enough” for India and China. Asia Times.

The possible federation or unity, which possibly could be envisioned, is between Pakistan, Afghanistan, mainly Muslims concentrated areas, up to Delhi. Bengal merged with Bangladesh which would quell the insurgencies in the area. Balkanization would settle the Kashmir´s independence issue for good. Smaller independent states thus emerged shall be safer in the absence of Indian state bullying them. There could also develop a Block of the Muslim states on the pattern of the European Union.

There is a sheer abundance of facts and figures which justify the Balkanization of India for a better world and emancipation of about 1/5th of the people of the world, with A huge dividend for the west also in terms of its security and prosperity.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2019/08/07/insatiably-expansionist-india/

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2019/09/23/mikhail-gorbachev-of-india/

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/12/03/reposing-hindu-identity-in-requiem-mass/

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The article was published on March 2009 and should be an eye-opener for Indians, Poor of India will only benefit if they get out of the control of the center, the locals shall then benefit from the economic activities in the region…

Declare–Rakhine–an Independent Rohingya Muslims State.

September 11, 2017

 

Rohingyas are living in Myanmar since 8th Century. A most persecuted Muslim minority since 2013 UN.The Rohingya faced Military crackdown in 1978,1991,1992, 2012, 2015 and NOW in 2016–2017. UN officials and HRW have described Myanmar’s persecution of the Rohingya as ethnic cleansing, while there have been warnings of an unfolding genocide.

 

Accession into Pakistan.

During the Pakistan Movement in the 1940s, Rohingya Muslims in western Burma organized a separatist movement to merge the region into East Pakistan. Before the Independence of Burma in January 1948, Muslim leaders from Arakan addressed themselves to Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, and asked his assistance in incorporating the Mayu region to Pakistan considering their religious affinity and geographical proximity with East Pakistan. The North Arakan Muslim League was founded in Akyab (modern Sittwe) two months later. The proposal never materialized since it was reportedly turned down by Jinnah, saying that he was not in a position to interfere into Burmese matters. After Jinnah’s refusal to accept northern Arakan into the Dominion of Pakistan, some Rohingya elders who supported a Jihad movement founded the Mujahid party in northern Arakan in 1947. The aim of the Mujahid party was to create an autonomous Muslim state in Arakan.

There are 1.3 million in and around Myanmar and about 1.5 million spread in other countries.

Yanghee Lee, the UN special investigator on Myanmar, believes the country wants to expel its entire Rohingya population.

 If UN can declare—East Taimour—& —South Sudan— for Christians, why not –Rakhine— for Rohingya Muslims?


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