Posts Tagged ‘Nature’

Existential Amiss

September 30, 2018

Common sense, Reason, Logic, Causality, Imagination, Morality & Ethics!

 Image result for Pic of Existential amiss

I intended to write this piece in a secular fashion but the overwhelming relevance of the Divine wisdom kept piercing through my thought canvas, hence surrendered making it part of the discourse. Human discourse or argumentation, anyway, barely scratches the obvious externalities of the issues while the Divine wisdom put forth the internally woven realities in a succinct yet aptly simple manner. One may notice the examples of such Subtleties in the course of reading this treatise.

Had Common sense, reason and logic been potent enough to reach the absolute certainty of the conclusions drawn, there would have been no need for the Divine religions to barge in. All of these tools are perceptual or experiential outcomes of human endeavors which; given the deficient nature of human faculties; are incapable of coming even remotely close to the level of Divine Wisdom; Revelation, the only fait accompli. (A subtle hint/deduced from Q, 17; 37) Hence some of the precepts of the religion are above and beyond the realm of human commonsense, causality, reason and logic, exuding perfect certitude and submission. (A state of affairs enormously repugnant and conceptually unacceptable to the secularists, anti-religionists and non-believers)

 Common sense is really not as common as perceived. Variegated sense perceptions render it somewhat-common, partially-common, quasi-common or purely individualistic rather than really-common in the true sense of the word.

  Reason and Logic are even more disparate; propitious-reason and logic; sometimes referred to as rationality; are used to justify a conclusion, one is at home with. (Rational bias) A slightest dissension or differentiation would entail disapproval or divergence. Therefore, all these tools may create some sort of near or quasi-convergence but not an absolute or conclusive one. Logic is derived from the Greek word “logos”. In Muslim Philosophy another Grecian alternative “monads”*1 is used instead, to justify a position/stance by distinguishing a good reason from the bad one. It is only the Divine revelation (wisdom, word) which is flawless, absolute and ultimate-truth; authoritative in its perception, understanding and validity…worthy of even blind-Faith.

Kurt Gödel puts it succinctly as follow:- 

The logical axioms that underlie everyday things like arithmetic depend on us accepting as reasonable the notion that infinity comes in several different sizes.

In Islamic parlance, however “pristine-reason” (Haq al Yaqeen); in the absence of a human messenger; is considered to be potent enough for a rational being to come; at least, to the cognition of the existence and oneness of God, hence obviating disbelief. “Pristine-reason” here, is “elevated to the status of a “non-human-messenger” of God, for reason gains an edge when the logic fails rational being. (Deduced from Q, 17: 15)

Contemplative tools; human faculties, given the amiss, may help us reach the level of most probable/likely certainty (in the temporal, ancillary and ritualistic matters) but not that of an absolute certitude (in the core matters of belief/faith); which is only possible by Divine consent/intervention through the heart (Q, 10:100), as in the above case of cognition of God’s Oneness. Here the externality of this intervention cloaked in the garb of; “pristine-human-reason”, is upgraded to the status of “non-human-messenger”

Non-believer’s obstinate rejection of the Divine, religious injunctions and that of hereafter; though based on (tenuous and vitiated) reason, logic and common sense, amply explains their state of affairs.           (Q, 10:100)

*1 Universal Spirit, the first cause, singularity, Divine, Intermediary agent etc.

Imam Ghazali;- “With regard to sense-perception says; it made him very hesitant to accept the infallibility of reason. He believed in the testimony of sense till it was contradicted by the verdict of reason. Well, perhaps there is above reason another judge who; if appeared, would convict reason of falsity and if such a third arbiter is not yet apparent it does not follow that he does not exist.”

When Imam Ghazali could not reconcile the philosophical dispensations with the Divine wisdom, (Obviously there is no comparison between the two; one represents the mundaneness, while the other, word of the Divine) he turned to Sufism.

In quantum physics (Double-Slit) experiment, our act of observing something seems to change what’s observed – we are ourselves part of the experiment. Is this the ultimate problem of self-reference, one that suggests a limit to how much we can ever reason about—our surroundings—the universe?

 Role of the religion, therefore, becomes inevitable; for it presents us with flawless and absolute truth; which is perceptually-authoritative and practically valid, engendering “Taqwa”. [Innate reverential-fear (Awe) of Allah (SWT). Distinct from the usual fear of other (agencies)]

An incisive consideration and pondering, on just two of the aspects of the divine religion: 1) Belief in the hereafter. 2) The contentment would vouch for and warrant religion’s inevitability.

Belief in the hereafter is often considered a conceptual absurdity and theological fallacy hence rejected by the non-believers. Belief in the hereafter, however, is the source of immitigable hope and equity, which no atheistic belief/doctrine/philosophy may even, conceives to offer. Unbelief in the hereafter renders one scuttled of many realities. Such as; ultimate-reality; ultimate-hope; ultimate-triumph, and ultimate-Justice. One, without the belief in the hereafter, is like, latching onto the event-horizon of a black hole of hopelessness and despair. The statistics, available on depression/hopelessness resulting in suicide and homicide, is a vindication of this fact. Conversely, in the overwhelmingly religious affluent Middle East, there are hardly any such issues, hence NO mental hospitals needed.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2015/08/22/scuttling-the-mental-capacity/

Contentment is a huge blessing for a rational being. When someone (even a non-believer) is suffering; no relief in sight; distressed/desperate, resorts back to God, is blessed with His mercy. (Q, 27:62) Overwhelmed with gratitude, he takes a sigh of relief and the most joyous sense of contentment sets in. (One’s resorting back to God while distressed, means un-recalcitrant-submission; invigorating the innate impulses; meeting the pre-requisites; of belief in Him, His injunctions, including the belief in the hereafter).

Is He [not best] who responds to the distressed/desperate one when he calls upon Him and removes evil and makes you inheritors of the earth?” (Q, 27:62)

Fasting in the month of Ramadan from dawn to dusk is a fine practical example of it; whereby one is patiently content (nafs-al-mutmai’nna) all day long, hoping the accrual of the temporal and divinely rewards at the end of the day.

Faculties of thinking and the exercise of Free-will (choice) are also signs of deficiency on the part of the creation. Allah does not think but intends; for He is omnipotent; causer of both, the cause and the effect. Nothing wrong/bad may emanate from His essence (Q, 48:23); but from His schematic creational activities, such as the creation of rational beings inseminated with good and bad. Indeed, Our word to a thing when We intend it is but that We say to it, “Be,” and it is” (Q, 16:40)   On the other hand; when rational beings would exercise the option of intention; in the similar fashion; (without thinking and deliberations) it is bound to be fraught with pitfalls, for rational beings are created with an existential amiss.

Imagination is of non-local (metaphysical/spiritual) origin; for it traverses both, the local and non-local domain. Therefore, those who accuse believers of worshipping an “imaginary God” are, unwittingly, admitting this reality. God inculcated, in the constitution of the rational beings, two-pronged sense of imagination (topical and non-topical); a schematic molding, hence the relevance and necessity of Divine and Divine religion becomes inevitable. God does not think but “Wills” whereas man’s will (choice) subsists in God’s will whereby He equilibrates it with the elements of hope and fear, (existential amiss) rendering it rationally operative. (Q, 17:57)

People need religion because it is the blueprint for the functioning of the “Soul” in the temporal realm. Voltaire, an archpriest of rationalism, alludes to this inevitability in a mundanely best possible way: “Man would have to invent God, even if He does not exist”

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/?s=inevitable+God

Religious Truth is multifaceted. It is comprised of science, logic, philosophy, history, ethics, and experience all mixed together. It is, in a sense, a different kind of knowing, not ignorant of the other kinds of truths (known and yet to be known), asserting the inevitability of the religion.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2018/02/03/scientific-elaboration-of-surah-at-tin-fig-95-verse-4/

 (Hadith) Every child is born on Nature— (his natural disposition/course. Resorting back to/linking with the Creator)

“It is asserted here that fitrah is the essential condition and state of existence in which God fashioned mankind; with innate impulses/urges including the sense of good and bad; fear and safety; pain and relief; cognition of God; submission, transgression and arrogance etc. (existential amiss–Imperfection, tendency/choice to swerve). It is present in the very essence of the creation and is inextricably kneaded into the very substance of the “rational beings” (Q) which is acutely elicited in the following verse.

 

إِنَّا عَرَضْنَا الاٌّمَانَةَ عَلَى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَالْجِبَالِ فَأبَيْنَ أَن يَحْمِلْنَهَا وَأَشْفَقْنَ مِنْهَا وَحَمَلَهَا الإِنْسَـنُ إِنَّهُ كَانَ
نَظَلُوماً جَهُولاً –

 “We did indeed offer the Trust to the Heavens and the Earth and the Mountains; but they refused to undertake it, being afraid thereof: but man undertook it;- He was indeed ignorant  and foolish” (Q, 33:72)

 

Ordinary beings, given their basic knowledge of the religious fundamentals, are tested for their weaknesses (existential amiss). The window of forgiveness is wide open for them; even if they have a mountain of mistakes/sins on their back; as long as they keep seeking forgiveness with utmost sincerity and a commitment not to repeat the same. (There is no numerical or time limitation)  This is an esoteric expression of the unbounded mercy of the Creator; for the people of knowledge and intellect who understand.

Men of knowledge (Aalim/Scholar), given the higher degree of knowledge, are tested for the equitable dissemination of the knowledge while acting upon it themselves as is due. Their test becomes harder and their failure attracts equally harsher punishment, for they are given the knowledge as the inheritors of the Prophet (PBUH).

Prophets; given the highest degree of knowledge and the duty of disseminating the message entrusted to them, often face the hardest of the tests for their perseverance, firmness, devotion and endurance instead. They are immunized of the mundanity (existential amiss) to a large extent due to their highest station/status. (Protected from major sins—Asmah/Masoom); which keeps them even from minor sins but some rare slips. (Q, 4:31)

“If you avoid the major sins which you are forbidden, We will remove from you your lesser sins and admit you to a noble entrance [into Paradise]” [Q, 4:31]

Hadith: when a companion asked the Prophet, despite being a Prophet of Allah why do you always keep asking for His forgiveness? He replied; “for any moment passed without His remembrance” This emphasizes the point that one, regardless of his station, should never be oblivious of the innate existential amiss and always keep asking for His forgiveness.

“Cause and effect” is a phenomenon of the sequential morphing of things/ideas in the space-time spectrum. It, however, can’t continue ad-infinitum. It also cannot fully transcend back into the metaphysical/spiritual realm. Therefore, becomes unhitched, regressive, and even ineffective. ‘Ex Nahilo’ is an outright negation of temporal phenomenon of “causality”. God (SWT); the very first (primal) cause, therefore, is the sole cause/causer of the Universe. (Creational activity in the space-time realm is known as “Khulq/Takhleeq” )

“When He decrees a matter, He only says to it, “Be,” and it is” (Q, 2:117)

In the absence of space-time spectrum, there is but an intention/will (ordinance {Amar}), of the primal cause, for the matter/idea to come into being. In the metaphysical/spiritual realm, contrary to the physical realm, no material/tangible cause has to exist to produce a material/tangible effect. Divine causality, therefore, is inimitable by the rational beings in the space-time spectrum. (Creational activity in the absence of space-time spectrum is known as “Takween”)

 Temporal causality vs. Divine causality

Here are vivid differences.

In temporal causality, a causer may activate the cause but may not have the capability to determine the effect. He would also not have the capability to alter the effect (outcome) of a cause. A rational being may be dealing with a clear cause or INUS (insufficient but non-redundant parts of conditions; which in itself unnecessary, but sufficient for the occurrence of the effects). This distinction would not exist in the Divine causality.

In Divine causality, The Causer of the cause and effect is the same. The Causer is omnipotent to alter/determine the effect(s) as He wills. The Causer is also competent to produce an effect without cause (Ex-Nahilo). The Causer may pre-determine effects or causes in multiple, and then afford the medium (sentient beings) the application of Free-will (Choice) to commensurate effect(s).

“And when We would intend to destroy a township We had sent a commandment (warning) to its people of authority leading easy lives; who yet disobeyed and transgressed; so as a result of our Judgment passed, We annihilated it with complete annihilation” (Q, 17:16)

Note:- (Ghazali’s views on causality, read: http://www.ghazali.org/articles/gz-aylon2.pdf)

Morality, mortified by the psychology of innate fear, sprouts from the Divine religious injunctions. Although it lays the ground-rules for this word, the effects also transcend to the next.

Morality, based on reward and punishment, (retribution) works wonderfully due to the psychology of “innate-fear” of being monitored unimpeded and continuously by the “Invisible”. Religion (Islam) “submission” was enacted simultaneous to the Creation (forbidding Adam and Eve from eating the fruit) and the punishment for its violation was established by the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Heavens. Satan (Lucifer) was also expelled for his disobedience due to his avarice and pride. They were not simply expelled but with specifically (and schematically) mandated rights, roles, and responsibilities; which, in specifically Islamic parlance could be called “Sharia’a” and in everyday parlance “Morality”.

Ethicality is developed by the rational beings, in the light of their past collective experiences. It regulates the immediate, contemporary cultural, societal or communal behavior. It is limited to temporality in scope, optional in its practicality; often floutingly by-passed without compunction. Needless to say that, the resourcefulness of Morality is unsurpassable by the man-made ethicality.

Ethics (Laws) are devised by the people for a community, society or culture; monitoring whereof is also done by people (an agency) employed for the purpose. The compliance would simply depend on either one’s call of the conscience or the fear of being caught by the monitoring agent. The physical absence of the monitoring agency would offer all kind of inducements to flout, as it cannot be established and no penalty would ensue.  This is the weakest aspect of the man-made ethicality.

A distinct difference between Divine law and the man-made law is that Divine Law compassionately seeks avenues to forgive while the man-made law is hell-bent on seeking evidence to punish.

Those who envisage morality, without religion, in fact, misconstrue ethics as morality.

After all, man is created with an existential amiss.

 Innate Fear, Psychology of fear is employed by the Divine to elicit the compliance of the religious injunctions without the presence of a physical watchdog.

  • An infant, when made to hold a bar, would continue clinging to it due to the innate fear of fall and hurt until made to feel safe to let it go.
  • In a situation of distress, “heightened state of fear/anxiety” (even in the case of a non-believer) all boundaries and impediments are dismantled; a connection between the Lord and the distressed-servant is immediately activated, and the call of the distressed is heard by the Almighty. (Q, 27:62)

Innate-fear, therefore, is not just a predicate of punishment, as often complained, but also that of an “SOS” signal, in the situation of distress.   

shakir2.wordpress.com

Topics covered:- Logic, reason, pristine reason, common sense, causality, Temporal/Divine causality, revelation, Divine wisdom, Inevitability of religion, Non Human Messenger, Gazali’s falsity of reason, imagination, Imaginary God, belief in the hereafter, Contentment, Voltaire’s rationalism, Fitrah, khulq/takween, Ordinary,/ scholar/ prophet, Psychology of Innate fear, Morality, Ethics and  The-Distressed.

Advertisements

Reminiscing the Past, Aspiring the Future, Neglecting the Present.

June 12, 2018

Image may contain: tree, flower, plant, outdoor and nature

Reminiscing and relishing the past has always been at the heart of all the present generations. This seems to be an intuitive, ongoing thought-process; overcasting the present, morphing into platitudinous future. It is, but, the way of the vulgar; who overlook the present thence, ruin the future. Past, despite its lingering reminiscence, is nothing but inaccessible permafrost of memories/history. Selects ones live in the present only, their acute attention to the demands of the present endows them with a blissful future. God Almighty, always in the present, is watching the traversing Creation from the present to the illusory future while by-producing an inaccessible past. It ought to infuse a contemplative mind to ponder on the imperfection and insignificance of the “Best of the Creations” who is but a quarreling-arrogant. A Man, in reality, has access only to the present. “Man is but ungrateful”(Q,100:6) Vulgar whine when inflicted with hardship, ignoring the bestowal of good. Select, on the other hand, knowing fear and hope; relish the present oblivious of its ostensibility, earn deliverance. Vulgar ought to remain ungrateful regardless.

Blogshakir.shalimarinsurance.com
https://www.facebook.com/shakir.mumtaz
https://plus.google.com/100769830879257255101/posts
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Shakirmwp
https://shakir2.wordpress.com/20…/…/10/disjunctive-sequel-2/

Behavior—Martyr/Damned-Sinner!

May 1, 2018

 

Image result for pic of a flame

A candle flame is a source of light and Charm. Its charm (light) continues spreading oblivious to the presence or absence of the lover—a moth. A moth under the spell of charm embraces it and gets annihilated; providing a momentary ecstasy (flare-up) to the beloved—flame, but fails to impress upon a change in its innate character. A moth, in the absence of the charm, however, gets relegated to the level of an ordinary insect. The one, who shows respect and reverence from a distance; without being burnt, unfortunately, would never attain the esteemed martyrish status of the moth.

This “Martyrish” status of a moth, however, would transform into that of a “sinner” when his behavior is replicated by a human being. “The one who; embraces the Hell-fire; releasing the grip of the Prophet’s (PBUH) hand on his belt, would be a damned sinner”(Hadith).

shakir2.wordpress.com

Love!

January 17, 2018
love

Temporal Love

Love (Psycho-sophically speaking–Temporal)

It is twitching of the brain, impulsive vibrations translating into emotive feelings yearning for the satisfaction of lust or instinct. It has beginning and end, it is ephemeral. It may, however, be fractional constituent of the true whole, which we were inculcated with before being descended into temporality. Buried in sub-conscience, it is clamoring to reach its Zenith in perpetuity. True love with fellow human beings is improbable, but an instinctual bonding; which cannot be classed as love. Love could only exist between God and (Creation) human. This love, if true, would require human to lose his “self” or else it would simply be reverence. Temporally speaking, it is delusional attachment entailing unwholesomeness—self centeredness.

Image result for pic of the parts of the brain affected by spiritual experienceLOVE (Theosophically Speaking–Spiritual)

Most of us observe servitude, whereas love is a gift endowed only to far and few between like, Yazid Bastami and Rabia Basri. Even Prophets do not seem to be the recipient of the gift of love, since they are entrusted with the obligations and responsibilities of Prophet-hood. They cannot afford the ecstasy of endowment of love by neglecting their primal obligation towards their people/Ummah. They are however accorded with the highest echelon of spiritual rank, immunity from all evils, and guidance through direct and indirect means.

shakir2.wordpress.com

Interpersonal relationship between Muslim and Non-Muslim

August 31, 2017

“Let not the believers take those who deny the truth for their allies in preference to the believers since he who does this cuts himself off from God in everything – unless it is to protect one against them in this way. But God warns you to beware of Him: for with God is all journeys’ end.” (Q, 3:28) 

 

Muslim seem oblivious to or Ignorant of this important aspect of Islamic teachings. Befriending Non-Muslim has become cursorial; Muslim are dealing and even living with them (in a relationship) like with their fellow Muslim. {Muslim women marrying Non-Muslim men is strictly forbidden and Haram) Read: – https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2015/06/22/muslim-women-marrying-non-muslim-men/

 

Although, it can be easily understood from the Qura’anic text that dealing with the Non-Muslims, despite the requisite cordiality, compassion and empathy, ought to be within defined limitations. Non-Muslim should be helped and dealt with on purely humanitarian/empathetic grounds, but without, any emotional attachment. Such attachment is permissible only with fellow Muslim. The obviating reason is that they do not subscribe to Islamic faith/religion and are rather against it. Disbelievers (in Islam) are described in Qura’an as the enemies of Allah (SWT)(Q, 8: 59,60) {Despite the fact that, they may express nothing of the sort, or may even offer a favorable opinion—which would tantamount to a lip service in the face of their disbelief}.

Note:- From the Psychological point of view, such contents of words may be fallacious, due to their (Non-Muslim) long ingrained and sustained experiences otherwise, for their body language would be sending a (true but) contrary messages.  

A formal friendship at the level of mutual dealing is, no doubt, permissible; but, that too is not favored if Unnecessary.

In Qura’an it has been declared repeatedly that– they would like to see you adopting their faith and way of life. (Psychological truth)  From everyday experiences; it is clearly evident that most often; Muslims who befriend with Non-Muslims; imitate and emulate them, compromising their distinct identity and religion. So called liberal/secularist/modernist Muslim even talk in their language, temerariously criticizing Islam, Qura’an and the Prophet (PBUH). It has therefore been sternly warned that such people cut off any bond with Allah (SWT), for they become one of them (disbelievers)          (Q, 3:28).

Allah (SWT) in Qura’an, used the word “Zalimun” instead of “Kafiroon”; Likely widening the scope, to include such people.  Allah therefore clearly forbids a true Muslim from keeping the company of not only the Non-Muslims but also of those, acting like them. It has been said in (Q, 6:70) that “unbelievers; are the people, who have been detained in the punishment of their evil deeds”. Which is further articulated in verse (Q, 47:15) by declaring that “their entrails will be shattered apart” (due to drinking boiling water as the punishment for their denial and disbelief). This verse also informs that their disbelief is harmful to those who like to sit in their company hence would be caught up in the same punishment as the disbelievers. (Ma’araful Qura’an Pg. 393, vol 3). As the wrong environment affects its surrounding so does the bad company by pushing human beings into the abyss of sinfulness. “This is how Allah (SWT) brings disgrace, damnation upon those who do not believe, for their hearts are not open for the truth but dash for the evil”. (Q, 6:125).

 

 

Several verses, with varying shades of meanings, against the FRIENDSHIP WITH NON-MUSLIMS are presented in the Holy Qura’an. Some of which are:-

IMPORTANT NOTICE

 One should not pick and choose a verse to present his/her own (skewed) point of view instead a collective outcome, of all the verses on the topic, should be the one guiding and binding. (Q, 2: 85 & 4: 150)

 

Allah’s enemy is your enemy.

“O those who believe do not take my enemy and your enemy as friends having love for them and whosoever from among you do that have gone astray” (Q, 60:1)

 A friend with them is one of them.

“O those who believe do not take Jews or Christian as friends, for they are friends among themselves. And whosoever has friendship with them is one of them” (Q, 5:51)

 Believers shouldn’t befriend with unbelievers, even if kinfolk.

“You shall not find those who believe in Allah and in the hereafter having friendship with those who have enmity with Allah and His Messenger, even though they may be their fathers or sons or brothers or members of their tribes” (Q, 58:22)

 

Feeling honored/proud by having Non-believers as friend

Those, who take disbelievers as their allies instead of the believers, Do they seek with them honor {through power}? But indeed, honor belongs to Allah (SWT) entirely. (Q, 4:139)

 

Sitting in the company of Non-believers

And it has already come down to you in the Book that when you hear the verses of Allah (SWT) (recited), they are denied (by them) and ridiculed; so do not sit with them until they enter into another conversation. Indeed you would then be like them. Indeed Allah (SWT) will gather the hypocrites and disbelievers in Hell all together, (Q, 4:140)

 

The only friends

Your friends can only be Allah (SWT), His Prophet (PBUH) and those who believe” (Q, 5:55)

 

Social interaction with Non-Muslims, for clear understanding and exercising due restraint, has been described, under four (4) categories.

Mawalat. (Affairs of the Heart) –For Allah knows what is in your hearts–(3:29) (Relations involving Love or Emotional attachment).

This is specifically What all these verses vehemently prevent a Muslim from.

 

Psychological reasoning

 Need to belong

According to the hierarchy of needs, humans need to feel love (sexual/non-sexual) and acceptance from others. In fact, the need to belong is so innately ingrained that it may be strong enough to overcome physiological, safety needs, as well as religious restraints, such as children’s attachment to abusive parents or staying in abusive romantic relationships or a Muslim woman marrying a Non-Muslim man. Such examples illustrate the extent to which the psychobiological drive to belong is entrenched hence harmful (one may, therefore, appreciate the rationale and vehemence with which Islam prohibits such a bond between the two with clashing/contradicting religious beliefs.

 

 Attachment Theory

Social acts that reinforce feelings of attachment also stimulate the release of neurotransmitters such as oxytocin and endorphin, which alleviate stress and create feelings of contentment. Such contentment, however, may prove to be fleeting due to ingrained religious disparity and even if it is fictitiously presumed to be there, in the beginning, may evade soon.

 

Prophetic injunctions

Apart from the above cited psychological reasons, there is a logically reasoned Injunction issued by the Prophet (PBUH) which lays the ground rules for an association (particularly the marriage as any other type of association is out of the question in Islam).

 

In Islam, there is a concept of “Kuf” which means —equal, alike or matching. Under this Principal, there are two sub clauses which need to be considered when accepting/rejecting the marriage proposals. (or contemplating an association for that matter).

 

These are “Lineal Homogeneity” & “Familial Homogeneity” Prophet has instructed that girls should be married in their”Kuf” which means—equality(compatibility)—rather than equalness. The likeness of spouses in their religion is incumbent and necessary for the validity of the marriage. The marriage of a Muslim girl with a disbeliever is not valid; even if the girl agrees to it. (So is not the interpersonal relationship). (religio-legal verdict—hukme-tashriee).

 The rationale here is that it is not simply the matter of “right of woman”; which may be dropped at her pleasure, Instead, it is the “right of God” –a Divine- injunction, under the clause of Familial Homogeneity. 

 A question or doubt may be raised about the whole religio-legal-verdict stated above. The validity of it has very eloquently and in unequivocal terms been stated in Qur’an as– “Prophet has more right to men and women of his (Ummah) community than their own selves” and also that “And it becomes not a believing man or woman, when Allah and His prophet have decided an affair (for them) that they should claim any “say” in that matter”      Surah Al Ahzab 33, V 6 & 36

 Finally, Allah forbade such relationship in categorical terms in Surah “Mumtahinah”–(She who is examined) #60, V – 10–in the following words “Neither these (Muslim women) are lawful for them, Nor are those (unbelievers) lawful for these (believing) women” All such relationships which existed at the time of revelation of this verse were ipso-facto severed.

 Muwasat. (Concern)

Non-Muslims ought to be dealt with favor, generosity, compassion, sympathy, and concern. It also includes charitable help and support, condolence, consolation or any other well-intentioned attitude of wishing them well.  Confirmed in the following verse:

“Allah does not forbid you from treating those, who have not fought with you because of your faith, nor have they driven you out of your homes, with benevolence and equity” (Q, 60:8)

 Mudarat. (Cordiality)

This category of dealings involves customary cordiality, adequacy in courtesy, pleasant and mannerly politeness.

Muamalat. (Dealings)

This category involves things such as employment, wages, industry, technology, business dealings, benevolence, and human-interests.  

Note: Most of the permissible interactions, however, would become impermissible if it becomes harmful to the interest of the general body of Muslims such as arms sales to a group fighting against Muslims.(war situation exemptions to older folks, Non belligerent folks, children, religious folks(priests/monks etc), places of worship, livestock and crops/orchards etc nevertheless, would apply).

Exception

An exception; under the category of MAWALAT; where there is a severe threat to one’ life or overarching-interest, is allowed. “Unless you guard yourselves against an apprehension from them” in such a case an (outwardly) expression of affection and love is permissible (Q, 3:28). This position is also supported by the Hadith, “Allah (SWT) has forgiven my people from, mistakes, forgetfulness, and acts done under compulsion/duress” (*1)

 Concealment of feelings of affection and love for Non-believers                           (Do not incline towards unjust, lest Hell fire catches you) (Q, 11:113)

At times it happens that people emotionally attached to Non-Muslims verbally deny it in the presence of fellow Muslims. Such people have been warned by Allah in the following words, “whether you conceal what is in your heart or disclose it, Allah knows it” (Q, 3:29)

 A superficial look at the inhibitive verses might generate an intolerant view of Islam which is dispelled in various verses of the Holy Qura’an, Ahadith, Sunnah and the dealings of the revered Companions.

 How Prophet (PBUH), Sahabah & Khulafa’a dealt with Non-Muslims?

Examples

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), at the time of famine in Mecca, personally went out to help his enemies who drove him out of Mecca earlier.

Then after the conquest of Mecca, he gave general amnesty to all those who fought against him.

Caliph Umer Farooq allowed stipends and allowance to needy Non-Muslims living under his rule.

 An Obvious question, however, may arise here, why Allah (SWT) has warned against the friendship with Non-Muslims so sternly?

The answer is given through a Qura’anic verse and a Hadith (Bukhari and Muslim).  “My Prayer, my sacrifice, my life, my death all are for Allah, the Lord of the worlds” (Q. 6:162) Prophet (PBUH) has been reported to have said “Whoever loves for the sake of Allah (SWT) and whoever hates for the sake of Allah (SWT), has perfected his faith”(*2) It means that Iman/Faith remains incomplete unless a Muslim’s love, friendship, hate and enmity all are subordinated to Allah Almighty. That is why at the end of verse 3:28, for the ones who defy this injunction, it is said that “you are one of them”.

The premise on which the edifice of—“No-intimate relationship with Non-Believers”— is based is the primal purport of the temporal life of a Muslim.

The primal-purport of a Muslim’s life is to remember and serve Allah (SWT). Everything else including all affairs of life, politics, business, Government and social relationships ought to be subservient to this primal purport.

Conclusion

(Allah (SWT) therefore has strongly forbidden an intimate friendship/relationship with any Nonbelievers under any circumstances).

*1–An-Nawawi’s Hadith No.39 (On the authority of Ibn Abbas). A  Hasan (fair)  Hadith related by Ibn Majah, Al-Baihaqi and others.

*2–Sunan Abu Dawud 4681, Grade: Sahih (authentic) according to Al-Albani.

 

AUTHOR’S PRAYER.

It is hoped that this treatise would help men and women of understanding in tackling the endemic of the entrenched interpersonal relationship between Muslims and Non-Muslims with Divine guidance; provided through Qura’an and Hadith, while applying human logic and reasoning as well rather than succumbing to the reflexes of sentimentality.

Note:        An abridged form of this topic.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2017/05/07/can-muslims-be-friends-with-non-muslims-especially-jews-and-christians/

 

NATURE

June 3, 2015

Forest

This word is frequently and invariably used by all of us. Its origin stems from Latin word-“Natura”–derived from Greek word—“physis”— meaning, essential qualities, innate disposition—in earlier times it also meant “birth”.  The concept of Nature as Physical universe was developed from Greek word –“physis”—by pre Socratic philosophers. Although everyone harbors one’s own interpretation and understanding the broadest possible definition however, would encompass physical, material and natural world. Nature also represents the processes of the physical world and life in general. Its domain ranges from sub atomic particles to cosmic universe. Although Human beings comprise a miniscule of total biomass on, comparatively insignificant, planet earth yet their influence on Nature is disproportionately large and Nature seems to be revolving around them. Natural wonders were celebrated in “Psalm” and” Book of Job” Later Qura’an sacralized “nature” with reference to Creator, Faith and creation–Human beings showcased as natural embodiment of its vivid exposition and expression.

 

Human beings are essential part of Nature (for which Qura’an uses the Arabic word –FITRAH) but their activities somehow are considered of a different category as an outcome of some other natural phenomenon. In this essay a conscious endeavor, to look at it from an unconventional angle, has been made; which, I am sure many would find, not only enlightening but also emphatically consenting. Word-Nature- has so much variety and currency that it is equally useful for theists, agnostics, atheists,   naturalist, secularists and many others. If observed diligently, one would notice a conscious trend, particularly in the west, of avoiding the use of word “GOD” –for fear of annoying or infringing upon the beliefs or rights of others (those with a different persuasion or school of thought etc), or flouting the doctrine of political correctness. The use of word—Nature—therefore, guards against all such possible hazards. Nature on the other hand is the bedrock of creation—accommodating both theistic and secular-scientific perspectives. Allah says in Qura’an—(20:50) “He gave shape (form) to everything, then guidance”—means– Nature—Operating manual—whereby everything functions.

In Surah Rome V-30 Allah says—“It is Allah’s Nature on which Human beings have been created—there is no change in His creation—that is how faith has been established”—To put it in lay man’s terms —Human kind has been created on the Nature of GOD and that Nature (rule of creation) does not change for (any other) creation as well, Faith too has been established on this rule–Nature. (A flow chart—Allah to Human to Faith—all connected with Allah’s Nature). Most difficult part of Surah to interpret correctly is “There is no change in His creation”.  From this Surah a specific rejection of evolutionary process of Human species could be deduced (because this notion is furthered immediately after the mention of Human creation on His nature). Science so far, apart from Darwin’s evolutionary theory, has not been able to prove human evolution-as patterned in other species-conclusively. Another deduction, which seems even more logical and pliable, is that the nature on which human beings have been modeled is unchangeable. It carries weight as the Nature of God does not need to change as well. It is in conformity with the notion that—“this is how the Faithmonotheism— has been established”. In essence right from the day of Adam (R.A) till now it has not changed“(here the first part of the injunction is of generic/universal nature whereas the later two parts are of assertive nature/character).

Qura’an exegetes offered several interpretations of Surah Rome, V-30.  Two of which are formally presented here. The first one—which is offered within the theistic constricts–“All human beings are borne Muslims by their Nature and instinct”. But then it is the surrounding and environment which change them into what they exhibit to be. Logical explanation is derived from the textual meaning of the word—“Muslim”—means –submitter. Upon contemplating it would be noticed that there is nothing in the created realm, which does not submit to the will of the— Nature—Creator.  This interpretation is severally asserted in Qura’an and by a hadith of sahihain (doubly authentic). In Surah Isra’a, V-44, in Surah Al Noor V-41, in Surah Al Ra’ad, V-15 and in Surah Al Nahl, V- 48 & 49 It is exhorted that– “whatever is in the heavens and earth is bound to (prostrate) submit, willingly or unwillingly, even their shadows incline to the right and to the left prostrating unto Allah, in the evening and morning hours-without any pride”

The second interpretation is of generic and universal character—“Allah (Creator) has bestowed upon all human beings the capability to discern and believe in the true God”. The scope could be expanded by generalizing the capability to discern good from bad. There is however, a conditionality attached to this capability and that is the bestowal of Divine Grace (His will); without which, despite “nature” being embedded, exercise of discernment would not be possible. This conditionality (in the wider scope of Faith) has been confirmed in Qura’an in surah Younus V-100, where Allah declared that “It is not for any soul to believe save by the permission of Allah” Then there is Specific affirmation in Surah Anfal, V-29—–“Allah gives capacity to discern, to those who fear Him” (Sharpness of skill of using logic and reason)-Also known as “Furqan”

In Surah Rome, V-30—it has also been said that—“There is no change in Allah’s creation”. (Again there are several interpretations of this verse too, but the opted one is comparatively more logical and supported by ahadith). It means that the rules of creation of Allah (Creator) would not change–as the basic instinctive capacity of discernment from good to bad would stay intact, despite the fact that one may deviate due to attending environ or the circumstances. The natural (instinctive) character of other creations would also stay intact— worshiping the Creator with their specific prayers in their specific ways. (Surah  Al Noor, V-41).  Imam Torapushti has also preferred the 2nd interpretation. This interpretation is further confirmed in Surah Taha V-50, Where Allah says “He gave everything its shape then guidance”. It is like pre-programming of a product. Validation of the notion of being borne on—Nature—can also be  derived from the experiences of daily life where human being, regardless of persuasions, invariably calls upon the Creator in the face of any hardship or calamity. This guidance is of generic, universal character and every being is embedded with. Here is however another Surah Al Qasas, V-56 saying “Allah gives guidance to whomsoever He wills” This injunction is of specific character (to tread the right path determined by the Creator). Guidance of this kind is a special feature which everybody does not pursue unless specifically willed by God. Here in this passage the first injunction is of generic nature with which everything is embedded, whereas the second injunction/command is of specific nature and is given only to the chosen ones– as is the capacity to discern.                                                                                                                   

(These classifications must be borne in mind throughout the essay for clear understanding)

Qura’an exegetes restrict their interpretations—rightly–to Islam; since Qura’an descended on prophet Mohammad (PBUH) in which Allah chose the name for His religion as “Islam”. It is categorically declared in Surah Aale-Imran V-19—“Lo, religion with Allah (is) the surrender” (unto His will & guidance) also in Surah Maida -5, V-3 it was declared that “today I have completed your religion for you and bestowed my blessings upon you and chose “Islam” as religion for you”   (Surrender = submitter = Muslim).

Note:- It is like a computer which though fully programmed but certain functions need activation to perform—-Similarly Allah’s will is needed as an activation command for certain functions to be activated of  human computer .

It is “you”—a miniscule biomass– only on an insignificant small planet earth— but an integral part of the infinite cosmic “NATURE”—made subservient—anxious to serve & facilitate—- “you”—- A declared crown of the creation——- Isn’t it marvelous!

NATURE

June 2, 2015

This word is frequently and invariably used by all of us. Its origin stems from Latin word-“Natura”–derived from Greek word—“physis”— meaning, essential qualities, innate disposition—in earlier times it also meant “birth”.  The concept of Nature as Physical universe was developed from Greek word –“physis”—by pre Socratic philosophers. Although everyone harbors one’s own interpretation and understanding the broadest possible definition however, would encompass physical, material and natural world. Nature also represents the processes of the physical world and life in general. Its domain ranges from sub atomic particles to cosmic universe. Although Human beings comprise a miniscule of total biomass on, comparatively insignificant, planet earth yet their influence on Nature is disproportionately large and Nature seems to be revolving around them. Natural wonders were celebrated in “Psalm” and” Book of Job” Later Qura’an sacralized “nature” with reference to Creator, Faith and creation–Human beings showcased as natural embodiment of its vivid exposition and expression.

 

Human beings are essential part of Nature (for which Qura’an uses the Arabic word –FITRAH) but their activities somehow are considered of a different category as an outcome of some other natural phenomenon. In this essay a conscious endeavor, to look at it from an unconventional angle, has been made; which, I am sure many would find, not only enlightening but also emphatically consenting. Word-Nature- has so much variety and currency that it is equally useful for theists, agnostics, atheists,   naturalist, secularists and many others. If observed diligently, one would notice a conscious trend, particularly in the west, of avoiding the use of word “GOD” –for fear of annoying or infringing upon the beliefs or rights of others (those with a different persuasion or school of thought etc), or flouting the doctrine of political correctness. The use of word—Nature—therefore, guards against all such possible hazards. Nature on the other hand is the bedrock of creation—accommodating both theistic and secular-scientific perspectives. Allah says in Qura’an—(20:50) “He gave shape (form) to everything, then guidance”—means– Nature—Operating manual—whereby everything functions.

In Surah Rome V-30 Allah says—“It is Allah’s Nature on which Human beings have been created—there is no change in His creation—that is how faith has been established”—To put it in lay man’s terms —Human kind has been created on the Nature of GOD and that Nature (rule of creation) does not change for (any other) creation as well, Faith too has been established on this rule–Nature. (A flow chart—Allah to Human to Faith—all connected with Allah’s Nature). Most difficult part of Surah to interpret correctly is “There is no change in His creation”.  From this Surah a specific rejection of evolutionary process of Human species could be deduced (because this notion is furthered immediately after the mention of Human creation on His nature). Science so far, apart from Darwin’s evolutionary theory, has not been able to prove human evolution-as patterned in other species-conclusively. Another deduction, which seems even more logical and pliable, is that the nature on which human beings have been modeled is unchangeable. It carries weight as the Nature of God does not need to change as well. It is in conformity with the notion that—“this is how the Faithmonotheism— has been established”. In essence right from the day of Adam (R.A) till now it has not changed“(here the first part of the injunction is of generic/universal nature whereas the later two parts are of assertive nature/character).

Qura’an exegetes offered several interpretations of Surah Rome, V-30.  Two of which are formally presented here. The first one—which is offered within the theistic constricts–“All human beings are borne Muslims by their Nature and instinct”. But then it is the surrounding and environment which change them into what they exhibit to be. Logical explanation is derived from the textual meaning of the word—“Muslim”—means –submitter. Upon contemplating it would be noticed that there is nothing in the created realm, which does not submit to the will of the— Nature—Creator.  This interpretation is severally asserted in Qura’an and by a hadith of sahihain (doubly authentic). In Surah Isra’a, V-44, in Surah Al Noor V-41, in Surah Al Ra’ad, V-15 and in Surah Al Nahl, V- 48 & 49 It is exhorted that– “whatever is in the heavens and earth is bound to (prostrate) submit, willingly or unwillingly, even their shadows incline to the right and to the left prostrating unto Allah, in the evening and morning hours-without any pride”

The second interpretation is of generic and universal character—“Allah (Creator) has bestowed upon all human beings the capability to discern and believe in the true God”. The scope could be expanded by generalizing the capability to discern good from bad. There is however, a conditionality attached to this capability and that is the bestowal of Divine Grace (His will); without which, despite “nature” being embedded, exercise of discernment would not be possible. This conditionality (in the wider scope of Faith) has been confirmed in Qura’an in surah Younus V-100, where Allah declared that “It is not for any soul to believe save by the permission of Allah” Then there is Specific affirmation in Surah Anfal, V-29—–“Allah gives capacity to discern, to those who fear Him” (Sharpness of skill of using logic and reason)-Also known as “Furqan”

In Surah Rome, V-30—it has also been said that—“There is no change in Allah’s creation”. (Again there are several interpretations of this verse too, but the opted one is comparatively more logical and supported by ahadith). It means that the rules of creation of Allah (Creator) would not change–as the basic instinctive capacity of discernment from good to bad would stay intact, despite the fact that one may deviate due to attending environ or the circumstances. The natural (instinctive) character of other creations would also stay intact— worshiping the Creator with their specific prayers in their specific ways. (Surah  Al Noor, V-41).  Imam Torapushti has also preferred the 2nd interpretation. This interpretation is further confirmed in Surah Taha V-50, Where Allah says “He gave everything its shape then guidance”. It is like pre-programming of a product. Validation of the notion of being borne on—Nature—can also be  derived from the experiences of daily life where human being, regardless of persuasions, invariably calls upon the Creator in the face of any hardship or calamity. This guidance is of generic, universal character and every being is embedded with. Here is however another Surah Al Qasas, V-56 saying “Allah gives guidance to whomsoever He wills” This injunction is of specific character (to tread the right path determined by the Creator). Guidance of this kind is a special feature which everybody does not pursue unless specifically willed by God. Here in this passage the first injunction is of generic nature with which everything is embedded, whereas the second injunction/command is of specific nature and is given only to the chosen ones– as is the capacity to discern.                                                                                                                 (These classifications must be borne in mind throughout the essay for clear understanding)

Qura’an exegetes restrict their interpretations—rightly–to Islam; since Qura’an descended on prophet Mohammad (PBUH) in which Allah chose the name for His religion as “Islam”. It is categorically declared in Surah Aale-Imran V-19—“Lo, religion with Allah (is) the surrender” (unto His will & guidance) also in Surah Maida -5, V-3 it was declared that “today I have completed your religion for you and bestowed my blessings upon you and chose “Islam” as religion for you”   (Surrender = submitter = Muslim).

Note:- It is like a computer which though fully programmed but certain functions need activation to perform—-Similarly Allah’s will is needed as an activation command for certain functions to be activated of  human computer .

It is “you”—a miniscule biomass– only on an insignificant small planet earth— but an integral part of the infinite cosmic “NATURE”—made subservient—anxious to serve & facilitate—- “you”—- A declared crown of the creation——- Isn’t it marvelous!


%d bloggers like this: