Posts Tagged ‘religion’

Why Islam, cannot be Liberalized?

September 1, 2017
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Why Islam, cannot be Liberalized?

From the earliest time of Islam; even during the period of the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH); attempts had started being made, by various groups such as Jews, Christians, and Pagans, to change/reshape Islam. God, therefore, guided Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) to guard against t he temptations of such offers. Saying: “They wish that you would soften [in your position], so they would soften [in return, their position toward you], and do not obey every worthless habitual swearer, [And] scorner, going about with malicious gossip – A preventer of good, transgressing and sinful, Cruel, and an illegitimate pretender” (Surah Al Qalam 68, V 9-13) God also guided the prophet (PBUH) saying: “O Prophet, strive against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and be harsh upon them. And their refuge is Hell, and wretched is the destination” (Qura’an 66:98)

“Many of the People of the Scripture (including liberals and reformists) wish they could turn you back to disbelief after you have believed, out of envy on their own account [even] after the truth has become clear to them. So pardon and overlook until Allah delivers His command. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent” (Qura’an 2:109). On the other hand, God took upon Himself to protect the main source of injunctions—The Holy Qura’an— declaring–”Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qura’n and indeed, We will be its guardian” (Qura’an, 15:9). And warned (interpolator, reformists) saying: God revealed the book (Qura’an) with the truth, and those who disagree about the book (its essence or injunctions) are far out in the schism. (Qura’an 2:176) Consequently, every single word, every single consonant, every single vowel has remained intact till this day and will remain so until the end of the world. Currently, there are lots of so-called– reformists, Muslim and Non-Muslim alike, keen to reform Islam to suit their Westaphalic whims and liberal values. They perhaps liken its intended reformation to the reformation movement in Christianity. Such reformers normally are bereft of the knowledge of Islam and even if they have some, it is scanty and facile. They, however, sure have the fervor and zealotry of an extremist— defined by a great American Political theorist–Michael Walzer.

An interesting characteristic of these so-called reformers is that they want to swim along the—propaganda inflicted– liberal-mindset, by distorting Islam to conform to its modern liberal values. In Qura’an, it is stated that when it is said to them (reformers)“Do not cause corruption on the earth,” they say, “We are but (Musleh) reformers”, “Unquestionably, it is they who are the corrupters, but they perceive [it] not” (2:11-12)

This genre of reformist may also be traced in the cross-pollination of Martin Luther King and Rousseau.

God issued an absolute command not to accept the offer of the Jews and Christians (with their corrupted/abrogated ideas–which, by implication, also applies to so-called reformers, liberals, and modernists) in the following words. “Never will the Jews or the Christians be satisfied with you unless you follow their form of religion. Say:–Guidance of Allah is the only guidance. Were you to follow their desires after the knowledge which has reached you, then would you find neither protector nor helper against Allah” (Qura’an, 2:120). Here is yet another verse in Qura’an which forbids Muslims from wavering or taking an impermissible liberty in any field of life.”Those who believe, enter Islam completely, do not tow the lines of the Satan, who is your clear enemy” (Q 2:208) Supplemented by– “Life of this world is attractive (enticing) to nonbelievers; who ridicule those who believe—but—those who fear God(following all commands without deviation, distortion)will be successful (above disbelievers) in the hereafter” (Q 2:212)

After these absolute ordinances, no God fearing, sensible Muslim would dare accept their attenuating ideas. Recent chronology of the efforts to liberalize Islam Since the middle of the 19th century; due to the Protestant theological proliferation; a host of self-styled modernist, reformist, revivalist et al have sprouted in almost all Muslim-majority countries and in the western countries; with some concentration of Muslims. They pretend to have understood “The Real Islam” for the first time; adopting either an extremist or a liberal position, although both are untenable and in contravention of Islamic teachings of moderation. Sometimes they employ alien terms, to sound elitist and convincing, such as “religion is a matter of heart”, emotions or, a borrowed term from William James “religious experience” These pretenders, sometimes go as far as divesting Islam of its ritualistic performances; either absolutely or to a relegated level; consigning them to social exigencies or personal preferences, described as—a personal matter between man and God—-giving this deviation a flavor of Hobbesian individualism.

It is heart-wrenching to know that, Islam is being misconstrued and misrepresented in the West for a very long time, even by a leading publication such as Economist (London). “In persuading the Muslim majority countries to look upon themselves as the Eastern most part of the West, Economist argues, that Islam also implies one to one relationship between believer and the God he believes in, a direct contact without an intermediary and in this relationship, in which a single God speaks directly to the core of a single man, is the basis of individualism. The Protestant ethic is grounded on precisely the same concept” (Economist-Published on May 17-23, 1975 pg 80 Special Survey).

Tertiary guidance system in Islam The very concept of direct guidance (without an intermediary) in Islam is limited only to the first degree of guidance. (It is for every creature regardless of faith or level of comprehension) It is, however, not available, in the case of the second degree; where the intermediation of a prophet and scripture in inevitable, for it is specific to the believers to be imbued with the religious knowledge. Here is a Qura’anic verse which categorically excludes the nonbelievers (including doubters/agnostics) from the guidance of second degree; specific to Islam and a Muslims, for earlier Divine religions stand abrogated. “Whosoever believes in God, He guides his heart” (Q 64:11) also (Q47:11) & (Q 29:69) Third degree is reserved for the chosen ones such as:-“To whom God has blessed, namely, the prophets, the truthful, the martyrs and the righteous” (Q 4:69) further accentuated by “not the way of those who have earned your (God’s) wrath, nor of those who have gone astray” (Q 1:6 ){nonbelievers or apostates} (Note: – In the case of a gradual progress of some from 2nd to 3rd grade, an intermediation of 2nd level may, however, be involved. Very select few, such as the prophets and the men of God, would become entitled to special guidance absolutely directly—Example being the Prophet Muhammad, PBUH). For those, interested in further details on the subject of guidance, here is the link:- https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2016/10/03/psychological-dimension-of-quraan/

In Qura’an an emphasis is placed on the word “Musleh” which the reformers use to disguise their activities by, using colorful phrases—as mentioned above— and the ideas of social amelioration. Allah sternly warned such people by declaring: “And Allah knows the one who makes mischief distinct from him who promotes good” & “Do you think you will be left alone, as it is? God knows what you do (Q 2:220) & (9:16) Diehard reformist; who persist in their reformation agenda; mostly to appease their western impulse of modernity or to emulate western liberal values; while still claiming to their nostrum Islamic Identity, are in fact discreetly challenging the will of God as was done by the people of the old. “Evil is that for which they have sold out their selves: that they should deny what Allah has revealed, so they came out wrath upon wrath” Q 2:90 (Jews held a grudge against God as to why an Arab, (Muhammad-PBUH), instead of a Jew was awarded prophethood—for they wanted God to have acceded to their wish/desire).

This kind of strain of thought is often exhibited in complaints, atheist hurl at God’s retributive system.

Islam, in the Qura’an, Has been specifically designated as a moderate religion. In verse 143 of Surah Baqara, it is said: “We made you a moderate Ummah” (nation/community). Here is the exegetical account of this verse. God has bestowed upon the Islamic Ummah an unparalleled distinction of being moderate, balance, central and just. Exegetists also used a synonym “Mu’tadil” to fully explain the veracity of the word “Wast” (middle, central), which means moderate, temperate just, equal. For, it is of utmost importance for the health and vibrancy of any community/body to maintain its equilibrium and temperateness, else a deterioration or illness would ensue. This concept/doctrine of Moderation has been further elaborated in another verse (Q 57: 25) by pointing towards its objective, saying: “We sent Book and the Balance, so that men might uphold justice & We sent the iron in which there is great strength—it is of many uses for men” Book here signifies the source of guidance and Balance denotes justice, equilibrium, moderation and temperateness in man’s behavior with firmness and strength of the iron. The characteristics of the “TRUTH” & “JUSTICE” are further stressed in the verse (Q 7:181) “ We have created an Ummah (Of Muslims) which guides by the truth and by doing justice with it”(dispenses the justice guided by the truth).

EXCEPTIONALISM OF ISLAM Let us be clear about Islam that; it is distinctive in its relationship to politics and public life. Islam is different from any other Divine or even Major religions. It, therefore, entails profound ramifications for the world, we all live in. We may like it or not. We may accept it or not. Despite extreme Anti-Islam, Anti-Muslim sentiments, it is an enduring reality. The world has to understand it, respect it and live with its EXCEPTIONALISM.

Another fact to be borne in mind is that; Islam’s political dimension is also distinct from the West’s politico-religious experience of Protestant Reformation; followed by Enlightenment, culminated at modern-liberalism. That was in response to the Catholic Church’s Clerical stranglehold over the Christian doctrine and practices. Islamic doctrine and Practices, fortunately, face no such stranglehold, mainly due to its exceptionalism. Islam could not and would not be pushed into the private realm as was Christianity. This fact should be imprinted upon the minds of so–called Liberals and Reformists. Islamists from 1928 to date, despite their arduous gradualistic/continual approach, are reeling from their failures. Reformists, Liberals, therefore have no choice but to come to terms with Islam’s Exceptionalism. In mainstream Islam, clerics (unlike Catholic Clerics or Shia’a Clerics in Iran) do not wield power as such but rather provide a crucial check on the ruling class against excesses.Western cultural-essentialism however, prevents these liberals, reformists, from appreciating the role Islam is playing in the Muslim world and beyond.

These so-called reformists not only advocate a “progressive” (actually confuted) interpretation of the Islamic Laws but also its basic irrelevance to the public life—on the pattern of separation of religion from the politics in the west—the foundation of a pluralistic post-enlightenment, modern liberal society. Given the Islamic historical imperatives, it is not only difficult but almost impossible. Here is an interesting and enlightening quote, from late Harvard Scholar (a reformist) Shahab Ahmed: “of the capaciousness, complexity, and often outright contradiction contained within the historical phenomenon* of what we call Islam”. He further says: “But each faith tradition is also defined by boundaries expectations, and the accumulated weight of history. What religious scholars and lay believers alike have committed themselves to for centuries” –in the case of Islam, since its very founding— its (reformation) is irrelevant, for the simple reason that if something has never been done before, then it is least likely that it will start being done all of a sudden, fourteen centuries later.

It is continuously propagandized by the antagonists of Islam that it is a retrograde, medieval, backward, fundamentalist and anti-modernity religion of antiquity. Whereas Islam is the most modern, most sophisticated religion of any major religions. This presents us with a paradox: It is precisely the Islam and Islamic Law’s modern bent that makes Islam all the more relevant and resonant in today’s politics. Within Islam’s vast legal traditions, there are a number of ideas and precedents that lend themselves to modern notions of social justice, rule of law, egalitarianism, guaranteed women’s rights to own property, make their own living, compulsory redistribution of the wealth (Zakat—a mandatory year-end deduction/payment from the wealth held by a Muslim) and social security (Baitul-Mal—a state-managed public trust-fund) for older or handicapped people.

Freedom of Choice and rule of law Lacking, church-like (or Vatican like) dominant an institution, a Pope like head-clergy, availability of several schools of thought and the instrument of Ijtihad: there is ample scope of choice and adaptability. In Islam, due to its overarching corpus juris (Shari’a), both the caliph (head of state) and the subjects are treated equally. A caliph cannot claim unlimited or absolute (king-like) authority because the sovereignty belongs to God. All these instrumentalities ensure the freedom of choice and rule of law. (under the Islamic{ shaia’a}law, as the law of the land). In nutshell, there is no logical reason for Muslims to choose either Modernity or Liberal ReformationL over already most modern Islam. One could be fully modern and yet a fully-fledged good Muslim. Muslims, therefore, had never been in need of choosing between, their own traditions and those of others. Shura (Consultation) and Ijma’a (Consensus); the precursors of modern Democracy; are in fact, updated and repackaged products, borrowed from the Islamic heritage.

Failures of liberalization experiments At the time of religious and cultural encroachment through colonial rule, the assertion of Islam became distinctly political rather than just, or primarily, theological. Given its uniqueness, those (colonial) forces could not strip Islam of its better status, vibrancy and exceptionality: reducing it to just another religion. (Like Christianity) To the extreme surprise of many, Islam happened to be the most modern of Abrahamic religions. Islamic Corpus Juris (Sharia’a) proved to be more secular than the Christian conceptions of Law and Politics. It is a kind of the point of departure, since it is, kind of, the secularity of Sharia’a, which makes it more relevant and resonant in present political landscape. Islam already embraces the concepts of pluralism, politics, consultative and consensual processes (precursors of democracy) whereas, Christianity came into conflict and lost.

Egypt, Turkey, and Tunisia have a long history of reformation/liberalization of Islam as well as the Forced secularization (Westernization) experiments and their eventual failures. This trend, in the modern times, started in the 19th Century by Heavyweights such as Sayyed Qutub, Mohd Abduh, Jamal-Ud-din Afghani, Rashid Rida and Hassan Al Banna etc. This effort, despite miserable failures, is still underway owing to the current Islamists/reformers such as Ikhwan ul Muslemeen (Egypt), Erdogan (AKP), and Rached Ghannouchi (Ennahda). Ghannouchi of Tunisia tried to change Islamism and perhaps even Islam, assuming that the two are interrelated. He thought that the ideological divides somehow could be transcended by neutralizing them. The greatest failure of such Islamists/reformers is owed to their politicizing Islam; Polarization is inevitable when Islam seizes to be, as it once was, (unadulterated) the source of unity, solidarity, and consensus. The underlying reason for any such attempt’s failure is that Muslims by definition; as per the revised assessment of an Islamist Abdul Moneim Abul Futou; are Salafi, in the sense that they emulate the most pious earlier Aslaf (Prophet-PBUH, Companions, and two succeeding generations) and support the Sharia’a. Surprisingly, in most of the Muslim-majority countries and across the board, Muslims, despite all these reformation efforts, are becoming more devoutly observant.

He also confessed that the titles of liberal or Islamist/reformist are just for political exigency.
CONCLUSION Liberalism (a precursor of Atheism) and Islam cannot go together as the former fails to provide much except general disdain of religion and letting the men loose; to choose their own way of life (doing away even with the distinction between virtuousness and sinfulness); whereas later provides an affirmative vision for leading a benevolent and virtuous life in this world, as well as a blissful life in the next. (For a Muslim, it is the very foundation of his creed and purpose of being).

This is the main reason why liberals, reformists fall back on virulent anti-Islam attacks.

Islam for various cultural, historical and theological reasons is distinctive in how it relates to politics. Often recurring themes in the west such as “Islam is the Problem” and “Islam needs a reformation” are the result of liberals/reformists unwillingness and inability to understand, as to how and why Islam, in its original form, matters to so many all around the world? It is simply a modus Vivendi and raison d’etre for a Muslim.

Nation state & Islam Wael Hallaq, an Islamic Law scholar, charges Islamists being obsessed with the Modern-State. US foreign policy stalwarts such as Henry Kissinger and Dennis Ross charge them for being incompatible with the Westphalian order. It simply exposes the inherent weakness of the skewed thinking of Islamists/reformist. Nation state and Islam, despite their tenuousness, co-exist anyway!

Caliphate The concept of Caliphate, after the demise of Ottoman Empire in 1924, never died but rendered near-impossible. The emergence of Islamic State, despite its unwarranted violent behavior, colossal failures and possible annihilation, has nevertheless, resuscitated and strengthened the potential for a Pan-Islamic Caliphate on the Salafi Model (opposite to Islamic-State’s extremist model). For the West, The only long term solution (keeping up with its centuries-old traditions of inclusiveness and tolerance) is to let the Islam find its place in the western societies on the model of consensual democracy in the Western Europe. Islam for Muslims is as –non-negotiable—as the human rights are in the American Constitution and in those of many other countries. The operation of (Shari’a) courts should be allowed on the pattern of Canon Law Courts and Jewish Law Courts. West has to work around the ideological and foundational divides; which, most likely, will remain constant.

Statistical facts, validating the inexorability of Islam According to “The Almanac Book of Facts”, the population increased 137% within the past decade and the Christianity increased 46%, while Islam increased 235%. 100,000 people per year converting to Islam, only in America. For every 1 male convert to Islam 4 females convert to Islam.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/ https://www.facebook.com/shakir.mumtaz https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Shakirmwp https://shakir2.wordpress.com/20…/…/10/disjunctive-sequel-2/

Source Material: Various Books, Qura’an, Tafseer and Shadi Hamid’s Islamic Exceptionalism.

*Much of the early Islamic history (not the religion) available today is based on the Ahadith and is challenged for lack of basis in primary source material and contradictions based on secondary material available. (History should not be confused with the actual Islam—primary source for which is, the Holy Qura’an and only authentic Ahadith as the secondary source). Italic text

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Interpersonal relationship between Muslim and Non-Muslim

August 31, 2017

“Let not the believers take those who deny the truth for their allies in preference to the believers since he who does this cuts himself off from God in everything – unless it is to protect one against them in this way. But God warns you to beware of Him: for with God is all journeys’ end.” (Q, 3:28) 

 

Muslim seem oblivious to or Ignorant of this important aspect of Islamic teachings. Befriending Non-Muslim has become cursorial; Muslim are dealing and even living with them (in a relationship) like with their fellow Muslim. {Muslim women marrying Non-Muslim men is strictly forbidden and Haram) Read: – https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2015/06/22/muslim-women-marrying-non-muslim-men/

 

Although, it can be easily understood from the Qura’anic text that dealing with the Non-Muslims, despite the requisite cordiality, compassion and empathy, ought to be within defined limitations. Non-Muslim should be helped and dealt with on purely humanitarian/empathetic grounds, but without, any emotional attachment. Such attachment is permissible only with fellow Muslim. The obviating reason is that they do not subscribe to Islamic faith/religion and are rather against it. Disbelievers (in Islam) are described in Qura’an as the enemies of Allah (SWT)(Q, 8: 59,60) {Despite the fact that, they may express nothing of the sort, or may even offer a favorable opinion—which would tantamount to a lip service in the face of their disbelief}.

Note:- From the Psychological point of view, such contents of words may be fallacious, due to their (Non-Muslim) long ingrained and sustained experiences otherwise, for their body language would be sending a (true but) contrary messages.  

A formal friendship at the level of mutual dealing is, no doubt, permissible; but, that too is not favored if Unnecessary.

In Qura’an it has been declared repeatedly that– they would like to see you adopting their faith and way of life. (Psychological truth)  From everyday experiences; it is clearly evident that most often; Muslims who befriend with Non-Muslims; imitate and emulate them, compromising their distinct identity and religion. So called liberal/secularist/modernist Muslim even talk in their language, temerariously criticizing Islam, Qura’an and the Prophet (PBUH). It has therefore been sternly warned that such people cut off any bond with Allah (SWT), for they become one of them (disbelievers)          (Q, 3:28).

Allah (SWT) in Qura’an, used the word “Zalimun” instead of “Kafiroon”; Likely widening the scope, to include such people.  Allah therefore clearly forbids a true Muslim from keeping the company of not only the Non-Muslims but also of those, acting like them. It has been said in (Q, 6:70) that “unbelievers; are the people, who have been detained in the punishment of their evil deeds”. Which is further articulated in verse (Q, 47:15) by declaring that “their entrails will be shattered apart” (due to drinking boiling water as the punishment for their denial and disbelief). This verse also informs that their disbelief is harmful to those who like to sit in their company hence would be caught up in the same punishment as the disbelievers. (Ma’araful Qura’an Pg. 393, vol 3). As the wrong environment affects its surrounding so does the bad company by pushing human beings into the abyss of sinfulness. “This is how Allah (SWT) brings disgrace, damnation upon those who do not believe, for their hearts are not open for the truth but dash for the evil”. (Q, 6:125).

 

 

Several verses, with varying shades of meanings, against the FRIENDSHIP WITH NON-MUSLIMS are presented in the Holy Qura’an. Some of which are:-

IMPORTANT NOTICE

 One should not pick and choose a verse to present his/her own (skewed) point of view instead a collective outcome, of all the verses on the topic, should be the one guiding and binding. (Q, 2: 85 & 4: 150)

 

Allah’s enemy is your enemy.

“O those who believe do not take my enemy and your enemy as friends having love for them and whosoever from among you do that have gone astray” (Q, 60:1)

 A friend with them is one of them.

“O those who believe do not take Jews or Christian as friends, for they are friends among themselves. And whosoever has friendship with them is one of them” (Q, 5:51)

 Believers shouldn’t befriend with unbelievers, even if kinfolk.

“You shall not find those who believe in Allah and in the hereafter having friendship with those who have enmity with Allah and His Messenger, even though they may be their fathers or sons or brothers or members of their tribes” (Q, 58:22)

 

Feeling honored/proud by having Non-believers as friend

Those, who take disbelievers as their allies instead of the believers, Do they seek with them honor {through power}? But indeed, honor belongs to Allah (SWT) entirely. (Q, 4:139)

 

Sitting in the company of Non-believers

And it has already come down to you in the Book that when you hear the verses of Allah (SWT) (recited), they are denied (by them) and ridiculed; so do not sit with them until they enter into another conversation. Indeed you would then be like them. Indeed Allah (SWT) will gather the hypocrites and disbelievers in Hell all together, (Q, 4:140)

 

The only friends

Your friends can only be Allah (SWT), His Prophet (PBUH) and those who believe” (Q, 5:55)

 

Social interaction with Non-Muslims, for clear understanding and exercising due restraint, has been described, under four (4) categories.

Mawalat. (Affairs of the Heart) –For Allah knows what is in your hearts–(3:29) (Relations involving Love or Emotional attachment).

This is specifically What all these verses vehemently prevent a Muslim from.

 

Psychological reasoning

 Need to belong

According to the hierarchy of needs, humans need to feel love (sexual/non-sexual) and acceptance from others. In fact, the need to belong is so innately ingrained that it may be strong enough to overcome physiological, safety needs, as well as religious restraints, such as children’s attachment to abusive parents or staying in abusive romantic relationships or a Muslim woman marrying a Non-Muslim man. Such examples illustrate the extent to which the psychobiological drive to belong is entrenched hence harmful (one may, therefore, appreciate the rationale and vehemence with which Islam prohibits such a bond between the two with clashing/contradicting religious beliefs.

 

 Attachment Theory

Social acts that reinforce feelings of attachment also stimulate the release of neurotransmitters such as oxytocin and endorphin, which alleviate stress and create feelings of contentment. Such contentment, however, may prove to be fleeting due to ingrained religious disparity and even if it is fictitiously presumed to be there, in the beginning, may evade soon.

 

Prophetic injunctions

Apart from the above cited psychological reasons, there is a logically reasoned Injunction issued by the Prophet (PBUH) which lays the ground rules for an association (particularly the marriage as any other type of association is out of the question in Islam).

 

In Islam, there is a concept of “Kuf” which means —equal, alike or matching. Under this Principal, there are two sub clauses which need to be considered when accepting/rejecting the marriage proposals. (or contemplating an association for that matter).

 

These are “Lineal Homogeneity” & “Familial Homogeneity” Prophet has instructed that girls should be married in their”Kuf” which means—equality(compatibility)—rather than equalness. The likeness of spouses in their religion is incumbent and necessary for the validity of the marriage. The marriage of a Muslim girl with a disbeliever is not valid; even if the girl agrees to it. (So is not the interpersonal relationship). (religio-legal verdict—hukme-tashriee).

 The rationale here is that it is not simply the matter of “right of woman”; which may be dropped at her pleasure, Instead, it is the “right of God” –a Divine- injunction, under the clause of Familial Homogeneity. 

 A question or doubt may be raised about the whole religio-legal-verdict stated above. The validity of it has very eloquently and in unequivocal terms been stated in Qur’an as– “Prophet has more right to men and women of his (Ummah) community than their own selves” and also that “And it becomes not a believing man or woman, when Allah and His prophet have decided an affair (for them) that they should claim any “say” in that matter”      Surah Al Ahzab 33, V 6 & 36

 Finally, Allah forbade such relationship in categorical terms in Surah “Mumtahinah”–(She who is examined) #60, V – 10–in the following words “Neither these (Muslim women) are lawful for them, Nor are those (unbelievers) lawful for these (believing) women” All such relationships which existed at the time of revelation of this verse were ipso-facto severed.

 Muwasat. (Concern)

Non-Muslims ought to be dealt with favor, generosity, compassion, sympathy, and concern. It also includes charitable help and support, condolence, consolation or any other well-intentioned attitude of wishing them well.  Confirmed in the following verse:

“Allah does not forbid you from treating those, who have not fought with you because of your faith, nor have they driven you out of your homes, with benevolence and equity” (Q, 60:8)

 Mudarat. (Cordiality)

This category of dealings involves customary cordiality, adequacy in courtesy, pleasant and mannerly politeness.

Muamalat. (Dealings)

This category involves things such as employment, wages, industry, technology, business dealings, benevolence, and human-interests.  

Note: Most of the permissible interactions, however, would become impermissible if it becomes harmful to the interest of the general body of Muslims such as arms sales to a group fighting against Muslims.(war situation exemptions to older folks, Non belligerent folks, children, religious folks(priests/monks etc), places of worship, livestock and crops/orchards etc nevertheless, would apply).

Exception

An exception; under the category of MAWALAT; where there is a severe threat to one’ life or overarching-interest, is allowed. “Unless you guard yourselves against an apprehension from them” in such a case an (outwardly) expression of affection and love is permissible (Q, 3:28). This position is also supported by the Hadith, “Allah (SWT) has forgiven my people from, mistakes, forgetfulness, and acts done under compulsion/duress” (*1)

 Concealment of feelings of affection and love for Non-believers                           (Do not incline towards unjust, lest Hell fire catches you) (Q, 11:113)

At times it happens that people emotionally attached to Non-Muslims verbally deny it in the presence of fellow Muslims. Such people have been warned by Allah in the following words, “whether you conceal what is in your heart or disclose it, Allah knows it” (Q, 3:29)

 A superficial look at the inhibitive verses might generate an intolerant view of Islam which is dispelled in various verses of the Holy Qura’an, Ahadith, Sunnah and the dealings of the revered Companions.

 How Prophet (PBUH), Sahabah & Khulafa’a dealt with Non-Muslims?

Examples

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), at the time of famine in Mecca, personally went out to help his enemies who drove him out of Mecca earlier.

Then after the conquest of Mecca, he gave general amnesty to all those who fought against him.

Caliph Umer Farooq allowed stipends and allowance to needy Non-Muslims living under his rule.

 An Obvious question, however, may arise here, why Allah (SWT) has warned against the friendship with Non-Muslims so sternly?

The answer is given through a Qura’anic verse and a Hadith (Bukhari and Muslim).  “My Prayer, my sacrifice, my life, my death all are for Allah, the Lord of the worlds” (Q. 6:162) Prophet (PBUH) has been reported to have said “Whoever loves for the sake of Allah (SWT) and whoever hates for the sake of Allah (SWT), has perfected his faith”(*2) It means that Iman/Faith remains incomplete unless a Muslim’s love, friendship, hate and enmity all are subordinated to Allah Almighty. That is why at the end of verse 3:28, for the ones who defy this injunction, it is said that “you are one of them”.

The premise on which the edifice of—“No-intimate relationship with Non-Believers”— is based is the primal purport of the temporal life of a Muslim.

The primal-purport of a Muslim’s life is to remember and serve Allah (SWT). Everything else including all affairs of life, politics, business, Government and social relationships ought to be subservient to this primal purport.

Conclusion

(Allah (SWT) therefore has strongly forbidden an intimate friendship/relationship with any Nonbelievers under any circumstances).

*1–An-Nawawi’s Hadith No.39 (On the authority of Ibn Abbas). A  Hasan (fair)  Hadith related by Ibn Majah, Al-Baihaqi and others.

*2–Sunan Abu Dawud 4681, Grade: Sahih (authentic) according to Al-Albani.

 

AUTHOR’S PRAYER.

It is hoped that this treatise would help men and women of understanding in tackling the endemic of the entrenched interpersonal relationship between Muslims and Non-Muslims with Divine guidance; provided through Qura’an and Hadith, while applying human logic and reasoning as well rather than succumbing to the reflexes of sentimentality.

Note:        An abridged form of this topic.

https://shakir2.wordpress.com/2017/05/07/can-muslims-be-friends-with-non-muslims-especially-jews-and-christians/

 

Does Islam support pantheism?

July 16, 2017

 

Does chapter (Q, 57:3) prove that Islam supports pantheism? It is said by the proponents of Pantheism, that everything that exists is Allah (in the image of Allah) and will eventually return to Allah. Is it the correct interpretation of the verse? 

There are a variety of definitions of pantheism. Some consider it a theological and philosophical position concerning Allah (SWT).

As a religious position, some describe pantheism as the polar opposite of atheism. From this standpoint, pantheism is the view that everything is part of an all-encompassing, Immanent God. All forms of reality may then be considered either mode of God, or identical with Him.

Some hold that pantheism is a non-religious philosophical position. To them, pantheism is the view that the Universe (in the sense of the totality of all existence) and God are identical (implying a denial of the personality and transcendence of God).

Here are various translations of the verse quoted above.

Asad: He is the First and the Last, 1 and the Outward as well as the Inward: 2 and He have full knowledge of everything.

Malik: He is the First and the Last, the Evident and the Immanent, and He has the knowledge of all things.

Pickthall: He is the First and the Last, and the Outward and the Inward, and He is Knower of all things.

Yusuf Ali: He is the First and the Last the Evident and the Immanent: and He has full knowledge of all things. 5276

Explanation of # 5276—-Allah is Evident in so far as there is ample evidence of His existence and providence all around us. On the other hand, Allah is hidden in so far as intellect cannot grasp His essence nor can He be seen in the present world. The following tradition in Sahih Muslim is also significant for an understanding of this verse. The Prophet (PBUH) said: (H) “Thou art the First, so that there was nothing before Thee; and Thou art the Last, so that there is nothing after Thee; and Thou art Evident, (or Ascendant) so that there is nothing above Thee, and Thou art the Hidden, the Knower of hidden things, so that there is nothing hidden from Thee.”

Here is something to be noticed that in any of the translation of the Qura’anic text there is nothing even faintly hinting that “Anything (created) is part of an all-encompassing, immanent God” Which has categorically been declared in (Q, 112:4) “There is nothing like Him”

The negation of Pantheism could best be presented by quoting none other than–Abu ‘l Hasan Ali b. Uthman b. Ali Al-Ghaznawi Al Jullabi  Al Hujwiri–{Lahore Fame, Data Gunj Baksh}.

Although he was Sunni/Hanifite, Al Hujwiri reconciled his theology with an advanced type of Sufiism; in which the notion of “annihilation–FANA” holds a dominant place, he scarcely went to such an extreme length which would have justified he being called a pantheist. He strenuously resisted the doctrine that human personality can be merged and extinguished in the being of God. He rather denounced it as heretical.

He compared the annihilation to that of burning by fire; which transmutes the quality of all things burnt to its own quality but leaves their essence unchanged.

He also concurred with his Spiritual-director, Al-Khuttali that the term “sobriety” should be adopted instead of intoxication in the Sufi parlance.

He also emphatically warned his followers/readers that no Sufi, not even those who have attained the highest degrees of Holiness, are exempt from the obligations of obeying the religious law (Sharia’a).

He defended Al Hallaj’s utterances by saying that they are pantheistic only in appearance yet condemning his docrine as unsound.

He was clearly anxious to present Sufism as the true representation of Islam by paying homage to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).                                                                   [Excerpts are reproduced, with slight editing, from his book Kashf Al-Mahjub]

CONCLUSION

This verse quoted above, however, does not in any form or shape subscribe to the man-made, philosophical or theosophical, construct.

Purely Philosophical position; denial of the existence of God, is simply beyond the realm of any rational argument.

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How Scholars view Sharia’a?

June 11, 2017
 (First published on FB).

Although It is an anathema mainly for most Non-Muslims and few modernist, secularist Muslims but ironically they forget that it is not Muslims exclusive. Moses had his Shari’a and so did many other Prophets. Successful Propaganda, labeling it antiquated, draconian and too Harsh is the reason.
Here is, however, how the Muslim scholars see and categorize it.
“God made this Blessed righteous Shari’a accommodating and convenient and thus won the hearts of human beings and invoked in them love and respect for the law. Had they had to act against convenience they could not have honestly fulfilled their obligations”
ABU ISHAQ AL-SHITABI (A Muslim religious Scholar)
“The Shari’a is all Justice, Kindness, Common Good and Wisdom. Any rule that departs from Justice to injustice…..or departs from common good (maslaha) to harm (mafsada) ….is not part of Shari’a even if it is arrived at by literal interpretation”
IBN QAYYIM.(A Muslim religious Scholar)
“Take to forbearance, and bid the Fair and ignore the ignorant”
Qura’an (7:199)
Prophet was asked by God to “accept what people can do easily” not demanding a high standard of deeds.
Holy Prophet (PBUH) has referred to this aspect of sharia’a saying:-
“Ad Dino Yusrun”…..I am leaving among them an easy and practicable law; which is neither cumbersome nor susceptible to going astray

Disavowing or Disowning a Wrong

December 2, 2015

can-stock-photo_csp12773812

In an individual’s life come several occasions where one hears or sees something untrue, repugnant or altogether false. Most often, a person despite cognitive consonance may get perturbed for his inability to correct, address, refute such a situation due to some, religious, social, familial or political correctness constraints. Such a situation was faced by Prophet Abraham (Ibrahim A.S) when he saw his father, relatives and people of his tribe worshiping false gods. He, despite having explained to them; that they are worshiping wrong god, did not feel satisfied therefore, vehemently and openly declared in their presence that “I free myself (absolve) from what you are worshipping” (Surah Zukhruf 43 V26).

 

The lesson to be learnt here is; that when someone is living in the company of disbelievers, or those who are habituated of doing wrongful acts, or those who out of sheer ignorance, misconstrue the religious injunctions, or altogether distort to justify their own lapses or that of someone else’s  should not be allowed to get a free-pass. In such a situation any person not raising the voice of concern may inevitably become part of that distortion and resultant sinfulness. In the light of this Qura’anic verse; uttered by Prophet Abraham (Ibrahim A.S) it could be inferred that keeping quiet, ignoring such an injustice/distortion or just being concerned with one’s own good deeds only is not enough.

 

It is not enough, that one should keep his own deeds and faith on the right track but also declare his disapproval, disavowal in suitable yet distinctly categorical terms.

 

This view could be corroborated by the Hadith whereby prophet (pbuh) instructed to “stop the one doing wrong with HANDS, TONGUE or the least, THINK of his act as bad act (this being the weakest degree of faith)”  Disapproval, disavowal of bad deeds categorically (even if verbally) would have twofold effect. 1) He would not become part of the sin simply by association or acquiescence. 2) Wrongdoer might heed and change his way—-which would entail immense blessings. This Qura’anic Ayah also corroborates the contemporary saying—–Be part of the solution and not of the problem”

 

NOTE–(Disapproval, disavowal does not mean, in any form or shape, to resorting to violence or Foisting of one’s opinion on others)

 

 

 

Scuttling the Mental Capacity

August 22, 2015

brain-spinal-cord_851_600x450

Surah Sad 38, V26, 27
And it was said unto him; O David, Lo! We have set thee as a viceroy in the earth; therefore judge aright between mankind, and follow not desire that beguile thee from the way of God. Lo! Those who wander from the way of Allah have an awful Doom, forasmuch as they forgot the day or reckoning (26). We created not the heaven and the earth and all that is in between them in vain. That is the opinion of those who disbelieve. Andwoe unto those who disbelieve in the hell fire! (In the hereafter)

Surah Al Mumin 40, V-10
It was announced by the clearest of the proclamation that our abhorrence—-for those who were invited to believe but refused—-is more terrible, than the abhorrence you have for one and another.

Human-beings use about 2 to3% of the brain potential; which is roughly about 2000 images/frames per second.
Eintstein—-a genius—-reportedly used up to 5 to 7 %

In fact human brain is capable of
400——million——-billion per second Impressions/movements/frames.

Positivism is the philosophy of science that positive facts, information derived from sensory experience, including spirituality, interpreted through rational or logical and mathematical treatments, form the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge;[1] and that there is valid knowledge (certitude of faith or truth) only in this derived knowledge.[2] Verified data (positive facts) received from the senses are known as empirical evidence, thus is positivism based on empiricism.

When Atheist/Deniers/Deviants refuse to contemplate about God, Faith, Religion & Hereafter they scuttle brain use even further hence the mental illnesses set in. Life consists of two parts, Physical and Spiritual (in another way mind and matter) Non-Believers live only in the physical realm of Materiality and Science but due to sheer ignorance and induced hatred refuse to entertain the idea of the THE REAL REALM–Spirituality; hence deprive themselves of the Subtle Mother Realm; under which the laws of the physical realm operate. Material world is synonym of Physical world and Phy—stands for reverting to origin—–which is the inevitable end of all that which has ever been or would be created. Return to the Creator. There is NO escape. This is what Non-Believers fail to envision. An integral, undeniable, unavoidable Realm of life–Spirituality. Spirituality is the gift only from the Creator. Spirit can not be cultured or cultivated in any Physical/Material laboratory. Which Non-Believers abhor !!!!
How come then they would not be scuttling the function of their Brains, by just living half the life. Should it not be called—MISFIT SYNDROME ?????

Atheists embarrassed: study proves atheism uses less brain function

This has to be embarrassing . . . if you’re an atheist. A new study performed at the University of York used targeted magnetism to shut down part of the brain. The result: belief in God disappeared among more than 30 percent of participants.

That in itself may not seem so embarrassing, but consider that the specific part of the brain they frazzled was the posterior medial frontal cortex—the part associated with detecting and solving problems, i.e., reasoning and logic.

In other words, when you shut down the part of the brain most associated with logic and reasoning, greater levels of atheism result.

God-Guarded sanctity of Qura’an

July 29, 2015

Qura'an

“Lo! Those who distort our revelations are not hid from us. Is he who is hurled into the fire better, or he who comes out secure on the day of resurrection? Do what you will. Lo! He is seer of what you do.     Say to them—for those who believe it is guidance and healing—-and for those who disbelieve, there is deafness in their ear and it is blindness for them. Such are (those who are) called to from afar” (customarily unable to comprehend)                                      (Surah Sajda 41, V 40 & 44)

In Qura’an and Hadith terminology the Arabic word used—ILHAD—means to deviate from the verse (meaning) of the Qura’an.  Lexically this word means –deviation, open denial, misinterpretation distortion in essence. (Particularly when apparently there exists an impression of belief–expressed or implied—but attributing self assumed misleading meaning—or the use of the meaning in irrelevant places; just to prove one’s point. (In contravention of the recognized and accepted meanings and use of the verse) It falls in the category of hypocritical Kufr. (infidelity)

Further is it declared that Qura’an is protected by God hence, is unassailable, God holds this book very dear and no falsehood can enter it. (V-41)     In Surah Hijr # 9 it is said “It is We, even We, who revealed the Qura’an and it is We, who will protect it”

A Reminder for the Deniers/disbelievers

July 23, 2015
“Kun Fayakun”
 
God is the one who created you from dust, then from a drop of semen, then from a clot, then He brings you out as an infant, then makes you grow to maturity, then you become old—(though) some of you die early—and reach an appointed term. So you may understand. He is the one who gives life and death, and when He decides to do something He says “Be” and it comes to “Be”
 
God is the one who made for you the earth a place to live, and the sky a roof, and fashioned you and perfected your shape and provided you with good things. Such is God, your Lord, So Glorious/Blessed, the Lord of the worlds.
 
God is the one who made for you the nights so that you may rest therein, and the day to let you see. Lo! God is Lord of Bounty for mankind, yet most of the mankind give no thanks.
 
Your Lord has said “Call me, I will respond to you. Those who scorn worshipping me, they will enter Hell, disgraced.
 
This is said unto them “This is because you exulted in the earth without right and because you were petulant (irritable).  —Enter the Gates of Hell to live there forever. So how evil is the abode of the arrogant!!   (Surah Mumin # 40, & V – 67, 64, 61, 60,
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NATURE

June 3, 2015

Forest

This word is frequently and invariably used by all of us. Its origin stems from Latin word-“Natura”–derived from Greek word—“physis”— meaning, essential qualities, innate disposition—in earlier times it also meant “birth”.  The concept of Nature as Physical universe was developed from Greek word –“physis”—by pre Socratic philosophers. Although everyone harbors one’s own interpretation and understanding the broadest possible definition however, would encompass physical, material and natural world. Nature also represents the processes of the physical world and life in general. Its domain ranges from sub atomic particles to cosmic universe. Although Human beings comprise a miniscule of total biomass on, comparatively insignificant, planet earth yet their influence on Nature is disproportionately large and Nature seems to be revolving around them. Natural wonders were celebrated in “Psalm” and” Book of Job” Later Qura’an sacralized “nature” with reference to Creator, Faith and creation–Human beings showcased as natural embodiment of its vivid exposition and expression.

 

Human beings are essential part of Nature (for which Qura’an uses the Arabic word –FITRAH) but their activities somehow are considered of a different category as an outcome of some other natural phenomenon. In this essay a conscious endeavor, to look at it from an unconventional angle, has been made; which, I am sure many would find, not only enlightening but also emphatically consenting. Word-Nature- has so much variety and currency that it is equally useful for theists, agnostics, atheists,   naturalist, secularists and many others. If observed diligently, one would notice a conscious trend, particularly in the west, of avoiding the use of word “GOD” –for fear of annoying or infringing upon the beliefs or rights of others (those with a different persuasion or school of thought etc), or flouting the doctrine of political correctness. The use of word—Nature—therefore, guards against all such possible hazards. Nature on the other hand is the bedrock of creation—accommodating both theistic and secular-scientific perspectives. Allah says in Qura’an—(20:50) “He gave shape (form) to everything, then guidance”—means– Nature—Operating manual—whereby everything functions.

In Surah Rome V-30 Allah says—“It is Allah’s Nature on which Human beings have been created—there is no change in His creation—that is how faith has been established”—To put it in lay man’s terms —Human kind has been created on the Nature of GOD and that Nature (rule of creation) does not change for (any other) creation as well, Faith too has been established on this rule–Nature. (A flow chart—Allah to Human to Faith—all connected with Allah’s Nature). Most difficult part of Surah to interpret correctly is “There is no change in His creation”.  From this Surah a specific rejection of evolutionary process of Human species could be deduced (because this notion is furthered immediately after the mention of Human creation on His nature). Science so far, apart from Darwin’s evolutionary theory, has not been able to prove human evolution-as patterned in other species-conclusively. Another deduction, which seems even more logical and pliable, is that the nature on which human beings have been modeled is unchangeable. It carries weight as the Nature of God does not need to change as well. It is in conformity with the notion that—“this is how the Faithmonotheism— has been established”. In essence right from the day of Adam (R.A) till now it has not changed“(here the first part of the injunction is of generic/universal nature whereas the later two parts are of assertive nature/character).

Qura’an exegetes offered several interpretations of Surah Rome, V-30.  Two of which are formally presented here. The first one—which is offered within the theistic constricts–“All human beings are borne Muslims by their Nature and instinct”. But then it is the surrounding and environment which change them into what they exhibit to be. Logical explanation is derived from the textual meaning of the word—“Muslim”—means –submitter. Upon contemplating it would be noticed that there is nothing in the created realm, which does not submit to the will of the— Nature—Creator.  This interpretation is severally asserted in Qura’an and by a hadith of sahihain (doubly authentic). In Surah Isra’a, V-44, in Surah Al Noor V-41, in Surah Al Ra’ad, V-15 and in Surah Al Nahl, V- 48 & 49 It is exhorted that– “whatever is in the heavens and earth is bound to (prostrate) submit, willingly or unwillingly, even their shadows incline to the right and to the left prostrating unto Allah, in the evening and morning hours-without any pride”

The second interpretation is of generic and universal character—“Allah (Creator) has bestowed upon all human beings the capability to discern and believe in the true God”. The scope could be expanded by generalizing the capability to discern good from bad. There is however, a conditionality attached to this capability and that is the bestowal of Divine Grace (His will); without which, despite “nature” being embedded, exercise of discernment would not be possible. This conditionality (in the wider scope of Faith) has been confirmed in Qura’an in surah Younus V-100, where Allah declared that “It is not for any soul to believe save by the permission of Allah” Then there is Specific affirmation in Surah Anfal, V-29—–“Allah gives capacity to discern, to those who fear Him” (Sharpness of skill of using logic and reason)-Also known as “Furqan”

In Surah Rome, V-30—it has also been said that—“There is no change in Allah’s creation”. (Again there are several interpretations of this verse too, but the opted one is comparatively more logical and supported by ahadith). It means that the rules of creation of Allah (Creator) would not change–as the basic instinctive capacity of discernment from good to bad would stay intact, despite the fact that one may deviate due to attending environ or the circumstances. The natural (instinctive) character of other creations would also stay intact— worshiping the Creator with their specific prayers in their specific ways. (Surah  Al Noor, V-41).  Imam Torapushti has also preferred the 2nd interpretation. This interpretation is further confirmed in Surah Taha V-50, Where Allah says “He gave everything its shape then guidance”. It is like pre-programming of a product. Validation of the notion of being borne on—Nature—can also be  derived from the experiences of daily life where human being, regardless of persuasions, invariably calls upon the Creator in the face of any hardship or calamity. This guidance is of generic, universal character and every being is embedded with. Here is however another Surah Al Qasas, V-56 saying “Allah gives guidance to whomsoever He wills” This injunction is of specific character (to tread the right path determined by the Creator). Guidance of this kind is a special feature which everybody does not pursue unless specifically willed by God. Here in this passage the first injunction is of generic nature with which everything is embedded, whereas the second injunction/command is of specific nature and is given only to the chosen ones– as is the capacity to discern.                                                                                                                   

(These classifications must be borne in mind throughout the essay for clear understanding)

Qura’an exegetes restrict their interpretations—rightly–to Islam; since Qura’an descended on prophet Mohammad (PBUH) in which Allah chose the name for His religion as “Islam”. It is categorically declared in Surah Aale-Imran V-19—“Lo, religion with Allah (is) the surrender” (unto His will & guidance) also in Surah Maida -5, V-3 it was declared that “today I have completed your religion for you and bestowed my blessings upon you and chose “Islam” as religion for you”   (Surrender = submitter = Muslim).

Note:- It is like a computer which though fully programmed but certain functions need activation to perform—-Similarly Allah’s will is needed as an activation command for certain functions to be activated of  human computer .

It is “you”—a miniscule biomass– only on an insignificant small planet earth— but an integral part of the infinite cosmic “NATURE”—made subservient—anxious to serve & facilitate—- “you”—- A declared crown of the creation——- Isn’t it marvelous!

NATURE

June 2, 2015

This word is frequently and invariably used by all of us. Its origin stems from Latin word-“Natura”–derived from Greek word—“physis”— meaning, essential qualities, innate disposition—in earlier times it also meant “birth”.  The concept of Nature as Physical universe was developed from Greek word –“physis”—by pre Socratic philosophers. Although everyone harbors one’s own interpretation and understanding the broadest possible definition however, would encompass physical, material and natural world. Nature also represents the processes of the physical world and life in general. Its domain ranges from sub atomic particles to cosmic universe. Although Human beings comprise a miniscule of total biomass on, comparatively insignificant, planet earth yet their influence on Nature is disproportionately large and Nature seems to be revolving around them. Natural wonders were celebrated in “Psalm” and” Book of Job” Later Qura’an sacralized “nature” with reference to Creator, Faith and creation–Human beings showcased as natural embodiment of its vivid exposition and expression.

 

Human beings are essential part of Nature (for which Qura’an uses the Arabic word –FITRAH) but their activities somehow are considered of a different category as an outcome of some other natural phenomenon. In this essay a conscious endeavor, to look at it from an unconventional angle, has been made; which, I am sure many would find, not only enlightening but also emphatically consenting. Word-Nature- has so much variety and currency that it is equally useful for theists, agnostics, atheists,   naturalist, secularists and many others. If observed diligently, one would notice a conscious trend, particularly in the west, of avoiding the use of word “GOD” –for fear of annoying or infringing upon the beliefs or rights of others (those with a different persuasion or school of thought etc), or flouting the doctrine of political correctness. The use of word—Nature—therefore, guards against all such possible hazards. Nature on the other hand is the bedrock of creation—accommodating both theistic and secular-scientific perspectives. Allah says in Qura’an—(20:50) “He gave shape (form) to everything, then guidance”—means– Nature—Operating manual—whereby everything functions.

In Surah Rome V-30 Allah says—“It is Allah’s Nature on which Human beings have been created—there is no change in His creation—that is how faith has been established”—To put it in lay man’s terms —Human kind has been created on the Nature of GOD and that Nature (rule of creation) does not change for (any other) creation as well, Faith too has been established on this rule–Nature. (A flow chart—Allah to Human to Faith—all connected with Allah’s Nature). Most difficult part of Surah to interpret correctly is “There is no change in His creation”.  From this Surah a specific rejection of evolutionary process of Human species could be deduced (because this notion is furthered immediately after the mention of Human creation on His nature). Science so far, apart from Darwin’s evolutionary theory, has not been able to prove human evolution-as patterned in other species-conclusively. Another deduction, which seems even more logical and pliable, is that the nature on which human beings have been modeled is unchangeable. It carries weight as the Nature of God does not need to change as well. It is in conformity with the notion that—“this is how the Faithmonotheism— has been established”. In essence right from the day of Adam (R.A) till now it has not changed“(here the first part of the injunction is of generic/universal nature whereas the later two parts are of assertive nature/character).

Qura’an exegetes offered several interpretations of Surah Rome, V-30.  Two of which are formally presented here. The first one—which is offered within the theistic constricts–“All human beings are borne Muslims by their Nature and instinct”. But then it is the surrounding and environment which change them into what they exhibit to be. Logical explanation is derived from the textual meaning of the word—“Muslim”—means –submitter. Upon contemplating it would be noticed that there is nothing in the created realm, which does not submit to the will of the— Nature—Creator.  This interpretation is severally asserted in Qura’an and by a hadith of sahihain (doubly authentic). In Surah Isra’a, V-44, in Surah Al Noor V-41, in Surah Al Ra’ad, V-15 and in Surah Al Nahl, V- 48 & 49 It is exhorted that– “whatever is in the heavens and earth is bound to (prostrate) submit, willingly or unwillingly, even their shadows incline to the right and to the left prostrating unto Allah, in the evening and morning hours-without any pride”

The second interpretation is of generic and universal character—“Allah (Creator) has bestowed upon all human beings the capability to discern and believe in the true God”. The scope could be expanded by generalizing the capability to discern good from bad. There is however, a conditionality attached to this capability and that is the bestowal of Divine Grace (His will); without which, despite “nature” being embedded, exercise of discernment would not be possible. This conditionality (in the wider scope of Faith) has been confirmed in Qura’an in surah Younus V-100, where Allah declared that “It is not for any soul to believe save by the permission of Allah” Then there is Specific affirmation in Surah Anfal, V-29—–“Allah gives capacity to discern, to those who fear Him” (Sharpness of skill of using logic and reason)-Also known as “Furqan”

In Surah Rome, V-30—it has also been said that—“There is no change in Allah’s creation”. (Again there are several interpretations of this verse too, but the opted one is comparatively more logical and supported by ahadith). It means that the rules of creation of Allah (Creator) would not change–as the basic instinctive capacity of discernment from good to bad would stay intact, despite the fact that one may deviate due to attending environ or the circumstances. The natural (instinctive) character of other creations would also stay intact— worshiping the Creator with their specific prayers in their specific ways. (Surah  Al Noor, V-41).  Imam Torapushti has also preferred the 2nd interpretation. This interpretation is further confirmed in Surah Taha V-50, Where Allah says “He gave everything its shape then guidance”. It is like pre-programming of a product. Validation of the notion of being borne on—Nature—can also be  derived from the experiences of daily life where human being, regardless of persuasions, invariably calls upon the Creator in the face of any hardship or calamity. This guidance is of generic, universal character and every being is embedded with. Here is however another Surah Al Qasas, V-56 saying “Allah gives guidance to whomsoever He wills” This injunction is of specific character (to tread the right path determined by the Creator). Guidance of this kind is a special feature which everybody does not pursue unless specifically willed by God. Here in this passage the first injunction is of generic nature with which everything is embedded, whereas the second injunction/command is of specific nature and is given only to the chosen ones– as is the capacity to discern.                                                                                                                 (These classifications must be borne in mind throughout the essay for clear understanding)

Qura’an exegetes restrict their interpretations—rightly–to Islam; since Qura’an descended on prophet Mohammad (PBUH) in which Allah chose the name for His religion as “Islam”. It is categorically declared in Surah Aale-Imran V-19—“Lo, religion with Allah (is) the surrender” (unto His will & guidance) also in Surah Maida -5, V-3 it was declared that “today I have completed your religion for you and bestowed my blessings upon you and chose “Islam” as religion for you”   (Surrender = submitter = Muslim).

Note:- It is like a computer which though fully programmed but certain functions need activation to perform—-Similarly Allah’s will is needed as an activation command for certain functions to be activated of  human computer .

It is “you”—a miniscule biomass– only on an insignificant small planet earth— but an integral part of the infinite cosmic “NATURE”—made subservient—anxious to serve & facilitate—- “you”—- A declared crown of the creation——- Isn’t it marvelous!


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